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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566122/necrotizing-enterocolitis-classification-and-two-initial-steps-towards-prevention
#1
Sandra Meinich Juhl
The premature infant suffers from immaturity of all organ systems, one of them being the gastrointestinal tract. When the infant is born, the immature gastrointestinal tract is exposed to milk and simultaneously colonized by high densities of bacteria. The combination of milk, microbiota and an immature gut, leaves the infant vulnerable to developing the dreaded intestinal emergency necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is often very aggressive and no cure exists, which means that prevention is an utmost important topic to researchers, physicians, parents - and infants...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545589/gastrointestinal-tolerance-of-low-fodmap-oral-nutrition-supplements-in-healthy-human-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Jennifer Erickson, Renee Korczak, Qi Wang, Joanne Slavin
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in utilizing a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disease. While studies have indicated that this diet can be effective at symptom reduction, it is a restrictive diet and patients may find it challenging to find low FODMAP products to meet their nutrient needs. The primary objective of this study was to assess the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of three low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements (ONS) in healthy adults...
May 25, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379925/medically-graded-honey-supplementation-formula-to-preterm-infants-as-a-prebiotic-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Hany Aly, Reem N Said, Iman E Wali, Amany Elwakkad, Yssra Soliman, Alaa R Awad, Mahmoud A Shawky, Mohamed S Abu Alam, Mohamed A Mohamed
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of medically graded enteral honey supplementation on the intestinal microbiota, immune response, and somatic growth of preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted on preterm infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks and postnatal age >3 days. After reaching 1/2 goal enteral feeds, medically graded bee honey was added to milk at a dose of 5, 10, 15, and 0 g/day for 2 weeks in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355198/effects-of-osteopontin-enriched-formula-on-lymphocyte-subsets-in-the-first-six-months-of-life-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Christina E West, Anne Staudt Kvistgaard, Janet M Peerson, Sharon M Donovan, Yong-Mei Peng, Bo Lönnerdal
BACKGROUND: Human milk is rich in osteopontin (OPN) with immune-modulatory functions. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, standard formula (SF); the same formula with 65 mg OPN/L (F65) or 130 mg OPN/L (F130), representing ~50% and 100% of the OPN concentration in human milk, were compared. We examined frequencies and composition of peripheral blood immune cells by four-color immunoflow cytometry of formula-fed infants at ages 1, 4, and 6 months, and in comparison with a breast-fed (BF) reference group...
March 29, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298277/supplementation-of-infant-formula-with-bovine-milk-fat-globule-membranes
#5
REVIEW
Niklas Timby, Magnus Domellöf, Bo Lönnerdal, Olle Hernell
Studies have shown that supplementation of infant formula with bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGMs) may substantially narrow the gap in health outcomes between formula-fed and breastfed infants. In one study, consumption of a formula supplemented with a lipid-rich MFGM concentrate between 2 and 6 mo of age improved cognitive performance at 24 wk of age. In another study, a formula supplemented with a protein-rich MFGM concentrate given between 2 and 6 mo of age improved cognitive performance at 12 mo of age, decreased infectious morbidity until 6 mo of age, and yielded serum cholesterol concentrations closer to those of breastfed infants...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099499/oral-microbiota-in-infants-fed-a-formula-supplemented-with-bovine-milk-fat-globule-membranes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Niklas Timby, Magnus Domellöf, Pernilla Lif Holgerson, Christina E West, Bo Lönnerdal, Olle Hernell, Ingegerd Johansson
BACKGROUND: In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants <6 months of age. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to characterize the oral microbiota in infants fed MFGM-supplemented formula and compare it to that of infants fed standard formula or breast milk. METHODS: In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, exclusively formula-fed infants <2 months of age were randomized to be fed experimental formula (EF, n = 80) with reduced energy and protein and supplemented with a bovine MFGM concentrate, or standard formula (SF, n = 80) until 6 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060791/effects-of-infant-formula-supplemented-with-prebiotics-compared-with-synbiotics-on-growth-up-to-the-age-of-12-mo-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Hania Szajewska, Marek Ruszczyński, Henryk Szymański, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko, Anna Piwowarczyk, Preben Bødstrup Rasmussen, Mette Bach Kristensen, Christina E West, Olle Hernell
BACKGROUND: Growth is an essential outcome measure for evaluating the safety of infant formulas (IF). We investigated the effects of consumption of IF supplemented with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, and galactooligosaccharides, GOS) compared with synbiotics (FOS/GOS and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19) on the growth of healthy infants. METHODS: 182 full-term infants who were weaned completely from breast milk to IF at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive prebiotic- or synbiotic-supplemented, otherwise identical, IF until 6 mo of age (intervention period)...
May 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043872/extensively-hydrolyzed-casein-formula-containing-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-reduces-the-occurrence-of-other-allergic-manifestations-in-children-with-cow-s-milk-allergy-3-year-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo, Giorgio Bedogni, Antonio Amoroso, Linda Cosenza, Carmen Di Scala, Viviana Granata, Rita Nocerino
BACKGROUND: Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) have an increased risk of other allergic manifestations (AMs). OBJECTIVE: We performed a parallel-arm randomized controlled trial to test whether administration of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) can reduce the occurrence of other AMs in children with CMA. METHODS: Children with IgE-mediated CMA were randomly allocated to the EHCF or EHCF+LGG groups and followed for 36 months...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914519/growth-and-tolerance-of-infants-fed-formula-with-a-new-algal-source-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Michael Yeiser, Cheryl L Harris, Ashlee L Kirchoff, Ashley C Patterson, Jennifer L Wampler, Edward N Zissman, Carol Lynn Berseth
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formula at concentrations based on worldwide human milk has resulted in circulating red blood cell (RBC) lipids related to visual and cognitive development. In this study, infants received study formula (17mg DHA/100kcal) with a commercially-available (Control: n=140; DHASCO®) or alternative (DHASCO®-B: n=127) DHA single cell oil from 14 to 120 days of age. No significant group differences were detected for growth rates by gender through 120 days of age. Blood fatty acids at 120 days of age were assessed by capillary column gas chromatography in a participant subset (Control: n=34; DHASCO-B: n=27)...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824638/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder
#10
Jennifer Lucarelli, Demetra Pappas, Leah Welchons, Marilyn Augustyn
Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker...
January 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798337/similar-to-those-who-are-breastfed-infants-fed-a-formula-containing-2-fucosyllactose-have-lower-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karen C Goehring, Barbara J Marriage, Jeffery S Oliver, Julie A Wilder, Edward G Barrett, Rachael H Buck
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778088/association-between-full-breastfeeding-timing-of-complementary-food-introduction-and-iron-status-in-infancy-in-germany-results-of-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-trial
#12
Lars Libuda, Annett Hilbig, Seda Berber-Al-Tawil, Hermann Kalhoff, Mathilde Kersting
PURPOSE: Considering the low content in breast milk breastfed infants might be at particular risk for depleted iron stores after the first months of life. This study evaluates the association of the mode of milk feeding and the timing of complementary food (CF) introduction with parameters of iron status in term healthy infants in Germany. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, parents recorded all foods consumed by their infants from the age of 8 weeks onwards...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604774/growth-of-infants-consuming-whey-predominant-term-infant-formulas-with-a-protein-content-of-1-8-g-100-kcal-a-multicenter-pooled-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dominik D Alexander, Jian Yan, Lauren C Bylsma, Robert S Northington, Dominik Grathwohl, Philippe Steenhout, Peter Erdmann, Evelyn Spivey-Krobath, Ferdinand Haschke
BACKGROUND: High protein intake during infancy may contribute to obesity later in life in infants who are not exclusively breastfed. Lowering the protein content of infant formula so it is closer to that of mature breast milk may reduce long-term risk of overweight or obesity in formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of whey-predominant formulas with a protein content of 1.8 g/100 kcal (lower than that in most current formulas and closer to breast milk) on infant growth by comparing against WHO growth standards and breastfed infants...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483319/probiotics-and-time-to-achieve-full-enteral-feeding-in-human-milk-fed-and-formula-fed-preterm-infants-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Arianna Aceti, Davide Gori, Giovanni Barone, Maria Luisa Callegari, Maria Pia Fantini, Flavia Indrio, Luca Maggio, Fabio Meneghin, Lorenzo Morelli, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Luigi Corvaglia
Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs...
July 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437928/amino-acid-based-formula-in-cow-s-milk-allergy-long-term-effects-on-body-growth-and-protein-metabolism
#15
Roberto Berni Canani, Rita Nocerino, Tullio Frediani, Sandra Lucarelli, Carmen Di Scala, Elena Varin, Ludovica Leone, Antonella Muraro, Carlo Agostoni
OBJECTIVES: The long-term effects of amino acid-based formula (AAF) in the treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA) are largely unexplored. The present study comparatively evaluates body growth and protein metabolism in CMA children treated with AAF or with extensively hydrolyzed whey formula (eHWF), and healthy controls. METHODS: A 12-month multicenter randomized control trial was conducted in outpatients with CMA (age 5-12 m) randomized in 2 groups, treated with AAF (group 1) and eHWF (group 2), and compared with healthy controls (group 3) fed with follow-on (if age <12 months) or growing-up formula (if age >12 months)...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318249/the-effect-of-supplementation-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-lactation-on-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-infant-from-infancy-to-school-age-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Qian Wang, Qiliang Cui, Caiman Yan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, have been suggested as a nutrition factor affecting visual and neurobehavioral development of preterm infants. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the effect of supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on preterm infants. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula or breast milk on the neurodevelopment outcomes of preterm infants...
June 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302980/breast-milk-consumption-in-preterm-neonates-and-cardiac-shape-in-adulthood
#17
Adam J Lewandowski, Pablo Lamata, Jane M Francis, Stefan K Piechnik, Vanessa M Ferreira, Henry Boardman, Stefan Neubauer, Atul Singhal, Paul Leeson, Alan Lucas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth relates to long-term alterations in cardiac morphology and function. Understanding whether preterm postnatal life is a tractable period of cardiovascular development that can be positively altered by nutrition is relevant to long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that being fed human breast milk during early postnatal life is beneficial to long-term cardiac structure and function in preterm-born individuals compared with infant formulas. METHODS: A total of 926 preterm-born infants originally took part in a randomized controlled trial of postnatal milk-feeding regimens between 1982 and 1985 across 5 different UK centers...
July 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234413/clinical-benefits-of-milk-fat-globule-membranes-for-infants-and-children
#18
REVIEW
Olle Hernell, Niklas Timby, Magnus Domellöf, Bo Lönnerdal
The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in breast milk contains many bioactive components. Infant formulas traditionally have been devoid of the MFGM fraction, but dairy technology now has made the addition of bovine MFGM technically feasible. We identified 6 double-blinded randomized controlled trials exploring the effects of MFGM supplementation on the diets of infants or children. Results suggest that supplementation is safe and indicate positive effects on both neurodevelopment and defense against infections...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111273/prebiotic-supplemented-partially-hydrolysed-cow-s-milk-formula-for-the-prevention-of-eczema-in-high-risk-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
R J Boyle, M L-K Tang, W C Chiang, M C Chua, I Ismail, A Nauta, J O'B Hourihane, P Smith, M Gold, J Ziegler, J Peake, P Quinn, R Rao, N Brown, A Rijnierse, J Garssen, J O Warner
BACKGROUND: Prevention guidelines for infants at high risk of allergic disease recommend hydrolysed formula if formula is introduced before 6 months, but evidence is mixed. Adding specific oligosaccharides may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether partially hydrolysed whey formula containing oligosaccharides (0.8 g/100 ml) (pHF-OS) can prevent eczema in high-risk infants [ISRCTN65195597]. METHODS: We conducted a parallel-group, multicentre, randomized double-blind controlled trial of pHF-OS vs standard cow's milk formula...
May 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088335/endocrine-and-metabolic-biomarkers-predicting-early-childhood-obesity-risk
#20
REVIEW
Piotr Socha, Christian Hellmuth, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Hans Demmelmair, Peter Rzehak, Veit Grote, Martina Weber, Joaquin Escribano, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Elena Dain, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Enrica Riva, Elvira Verduci, Berthold Koletzko
There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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