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Septic cholestasis

Mark V Guido, Warit Jithpratuck, Graham E Parks, Guha Krishnaswamy
A 71-year-old female with no history of liver disease or antibiotic allergy developed jaundice with elevated liver enzymes and eosinophilia following treatment with nafcillin for septic arthritis. Further workup demonstrated hepatocellular dysfunction and liver biopsy showed expansion of portal tracts by lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with a hypersensitivity reaction. Nafcillin and related antibiotics were withdrawn, and her symptoms resolved 3 months later. We searched PubMed using terms of "nafcillin cholestasis" and "nafcillin hepatitis", and a review of the literature showed other reports of nafcillin-induced hepatitis and cholestasis...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Paola de Andrade Mello, Vanessa R Figliuolo, Thiago F de Avelar Almeida, Patrícia T Santana, Suellen D S Oliveira, Claudia L M Silva, Linda Feldbrügge, Eva Csizmadia, Richard D Minshall, Maria Serena Longhi, Yan Wu, Simon C Robson, Robson Coutinho-Silva
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of sepsis can be linked to excessive inflammatory responses resulting in hepatic injury. P2X7 receptor activation by extracellular ATP (eATP) exacerbates inflammation by augmenting cytokine production; while CD39 (ENTPD1) scavenges eATP to generate adenosine, thereby limiting P2X7 activation and resulting in A2A receptor stimulation. We aim to determine how the functional interaction of P2X7 receptor and CD39 control the macrophage response, and consequently impact on sepsis and liver injury...
October 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Thomas Horvatits, Andreas Drolz, Karoline Rutter, Kevin Roedl, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe, Günter Fauler, Brigitte Meyer, Martin Hülsmann, Gottfried Heinz, Michael Trauner, Valentin Fuhrmann
BACKGROUND: Jaundice and cholestatic hepatic dysfunction are frequent findings in critically ill patients associated with increased mortality. Cholestasis in critically ill patients is closely associated with stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in impaired bile secretion and subsequent accumulation of bile acids. Aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical role of circulating bile acids in critically ill patients. METHODS: Total and individual serum bile acids were assessed via high-performance liquid chromatography in 320 critically ill patients and 19 controls...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
Pavel Strnad, Frank Tacke, Alexander Koch, Christian Trautwein
Sepsis and septic shock are characterized by life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The liver has a central role during sepsis, and is essential to the regulation of immune defence during systemic infections by mechanisms such as bacterial clearance, acute-phase protein or cytokine production and metabolic adaptation to inflammation. However, the liver is also a target for sepsis-related injury, including hypoxic hepatitis due to ischaemia and shock, cholestasis due to altered bile metabolism, hepatocellular injury due to drug toxicity or overwhelming inflammation, as well as distinct pathologies such as secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Weiwei Jiang, Jie Zhang, Qiming Geng, Xiaoqun Xu, Xiaofeng Lv, Yongwei Chen, Xiang Liu, Weibing Tang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), enteral nutrition is more suitable for patients post-operatively. Our aim was to determine the safety and feasibility of early enteral nutrition (EEN) using a jejunum feeding tube in neonates after undergoing a partial gastrectomy. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent partial gastrectomies for gastric perforation in our hospital. These patients were categorized into two groups (EEN group [n=24 patients], a jejunal feeding tube was inserted during surgery; and a control group [n=22 patients], a jejunal feeding tube was not placed)...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
V Wagner, R R Plentz, C Schraml, N P Malek, M Goetz
Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis (RPC) or Primary Hepatolithiasis is a common disease of the biliary tract in Asia, whereas it is usually not seen in Europeans. With increasing global mobility, the disease will be encountered in Europe more frequently, too. It should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients from endemic countries with recurrent symptoms of cholestasis/cholangitis and bile duct dilations, strictures and hepatolithiasis. In this case report, we present the history of a 37-year old patient from Sri Lanka and describe typical aspects of RPC...
September 2015: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Mei-Yin Lai, Ming-Horng Tsai, Chiang-Wen Lee, Ming-Chou Chiang, Reyin Lien, Ren-Huei Fu, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Shih-Ming Chu, Jen-Fu Hsu
BACKGROUND: Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level is widely used in clinical practice as a marker to distinguish between neonates with or without sepsis. However, some neonates with bacteremia have a CRP level within the normal range and they are not well characterized. METHODS: All episodes of neonatal culture-proven bloodstream infections (BSIs) between July 2004 and June 2012 were enrolled. Patients characteristics were compared for three CRP groups (low, ≤ 10 mg/L; intermediate, 11-100 mg/L; and high, > 100 mg/L) using the Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA...
August 11, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
F Graur, H Neagos, A Cavasi, N Al Hajjar
We report a rare cause of biliary cast secondary to cholangitis and pancreatitis, in a 60 year old female patient with pancreas divisum. She was admitted in our hospital with an acute pancreatitis (alcoholic etiology was excluded) complicated with pancreatic abscess and obstructive jaundice. The patient had undergone a complex surgical intervention: cholecystectomy,choledocotomy with extraction of the biliary thrombus,external biliary drainage through a T tube, evacuation of the pancreatic abscess, sequestrectomy, peritoneal lavage and multipledrainages...
September 2014: Chirurgia
A Drolz, T Horvatits, K Roedl, V Fuhrmann
Liver dysfunction is frequently observed in critically ill patients. Its occurrence is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most frequent entities of hepatic dysfunction in the intensive care unit are shock liver and cholestatic liver dysfunction with incidence rates up to 10 and 30 %, respectively.Both conditions are frequently triggered by hypoxic and/or ischemic events, most commonly cardiogenic shock and sepsis/septic shock. However, several other potential contributors have been identified especially for cholestatic liver dysfunction...
May 2014: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Maitreyi Bandyopadhyay, Simit Kumar, Abhijit Bhakta, Parthajit Banerjee, Sougata Ghosh
Biliary obstruction due to pancreaticobiliary malignancy is often accompanied by bactibilia and cholangitis; which are associated with postoperative septic complications and may adversely affect the clinical course. The enterococcus species is most responsible for postoperative complications in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Here a case of bactibilia in a 60-year-old male patient, admitted with peri-ampullary carcinoma is reported. The bile sent for Gram-stain showed the presence of pus cells and Gram-positive cocci in pairs and the bacteriological culture revealed the growth of Enterococcus faecium...
October 2012: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Jennifer D Stanger, Carol Oliveira, Christopher Blackmore, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
BACKGROUND: Pediatric intestinal failure (IF) is a complex clinical problem requiring coordinated multi-disciplinary care. Our objective was to review the evidence for the benefit of intestinal rehabilitation programs (IRP) in pediatric IF patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on Medline (1950-2012), Pubmed (1966-2012), and Embase (1980-2012) conference proceedings and trial registries. The terms short bowel syndrome, intestinal rehabilitation, intestinal failure, patient care teams, and multi-disciplinary teams were used...
May 2013: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Victor Torres, Nicholas Martinez, Gabriel Lee, Jose Almeda, Glenn Gross, Sandeep Patel, Laura Rosenkranz
AIM: To address endoscopic outcomes of post-Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients diagnosed with a "redundant bile duct" (RBD). METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent OLT at the Liver Transplant Center, University Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Texas were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with suspected biliary tract complications (BTC) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All ERCP were performed by experienced biliary endoscopist...
April 28, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Falk A Gonnert, Peter Recknagel, Ingrid Hilger, Ralf A Claus, Michael Bauer, Andreas Kortgen
INTRODUCTION: Hepatobiliary elimination of endo- and xenobiotics is affected by different variables including hepatic perfusion, hepatocellular energy state and functional integrity of transporter proteins, all of which are altered during sepsis. A particular impairment of hepatocellular transport at the canalicular pole resulting in an accumulation of potentially hepatotoxic compounds would have major implications for critical care pharmacology and diagnostics. METHODS: Hepatic transcellular transport, that is, uptake and hepatobiliary excretion, was studied in a rodent model of severe polymicrobial sepsis by two different biophotonic techniques to obtain insights into the handling of potentially toxic endo- and xenobiotics in sepsis...
2013: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Vanessa Suárez, Andrés Puerta, Luisa Fernanda Santos, Juan Manuel Pérez, Adriana Varón, Rafael Claudino Botero
Portal hypertensive biliopathy (PHB) is characterized by anatomical and functional abnormalities of the intrahepatic, extrahepatic and pancreatic ducts, in patients with portal hypertension associated to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and less frequently to cirrhosis. These morphological changes, consisting in dilatation and stenosis of the biliary tree, are due to extensive venous collaterals occurring in an attempt to decompress the portal venous blockage. It is usually asymptomatic until it progresses to more advanced stages with cholestasis, jaundice, biliary sludge, gallstones, cholangitis and finally biliary cirrhosis...
March 27, 2013: World Journal of Hepatology
Annika Mutanen, Jouko Lohi, Päivi Heikkilä, Antti I Koivusalo, Risto J Rintala, Mikko P Pakarinen
UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of pediatric intestinal failure (IF) on liver histology. Altogether, 38 IF patients (median age: 7.2 years; range, 0.2-27) underwent liver biopsy, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Sixteen patients were on parenteral nutrition (PN) after 74 PN months (range, 2.5-204). Twenty-two had weaned off PN 8.8 years (range, 0.3-27) earlier, after 35 PN months (range, 0.7-250). Fifteen transplant donor livers served as controls...
August 2013: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Hanifah Oswari, Ruth Karisma Widjaja, Rinawati Rohsiswatmo, Geoffrey Cleghorn
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for predicting outcome in sepsis-associated cholestasis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort review of the hospital records was performed in 181 neonates admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit. A comparison was performed between subjects with low and high liver values based on cut-off values from ROC analysis...
January 2013: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Monica B Pagano, William Hobbs, Michael Linenberger, Meghan Delaney
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare and usually autosomal dominant disorder characterized by ferrochelatase deficiency and accumulation of protoporphyrin in red blood cells (RBCs), skin, and liver. A small minority of patients develop severe liver dysfunction for which optimum treatment is lacking. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and RBC exchange (RCE) have been anecdotally reported to benefit patients with EPP and liver failure. A 50-year-old female with EPP developed severe liver dysfunction after knee replacement surgery and high-dose acetaminophen use...
2012: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
V Penndorf, F Saner, G Gerken, A Canbay
Elevated liver function tests in ICU-bound patients are associated with a greater risk of mor-tality. Chronic liver diseases as well as acute events and complications of therapy are among the causes. The disorder could further be investigated by assessment of liver cell integrity markers (AST, ALT and GLDH), cholestasis parameters -(bilirubin, GGT, ALP) and liver synthethic function (albumin, coagulation profile). Ultrasound and elastography are cheap and mobile options to evaluate chronic liver disease, cholestasis or perfusion of the liver...
December 2013: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Abdel Motaal Mohamed Ahmed, Mohamed B Galib
BACKGROUND: Aside from acute viral hepatitides intracellular cholestasis is seen less often with the use of certain drugs, contrast media, leptospirosis and congenital hyperbilirubinaemias. Types of liver injuries complicating malaria usually take the form of acute hepatitis or haemolytic anaemias rather than cholestasis. We report here a rare presentation where a typical intracellular cholestatic picture complicated malaria falciparum in a patient residing in an endemic area. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 55 year old bank manager presented with malaria fever and deep jaundice for investigations...
March 2012: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Nunzia Paudice, Silvia Farsetti, Leonardo Caroti, Sandro Bandini, Gabriele Ciuti, Alessio Tempestini, Federico Perfetto, Simone Galli, Letizia Giabbani, Anna Lucia Caldini, Franco Bergesio
We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital for acute abdominal pain with nephrotic proteinuria, rapidly progressive renal failure, and moderate anemia. Laboratory tests showed mild Bence Jones (λ) proteinuria with negative serum immunofixation and a mild increase in λ free light chains. A bone marrow biopsy and a fat tissue aspirate showed multiple myeloma and amyloidosis. Because of the end-stage renal disease, the patient began regular dialysis treatment and was started on bortezomib 1...
January 2012: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
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