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flouroquinolone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686119/changing-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-children-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mumbai
#1
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563753/simple-isocratic-hplc-method-for-determination-of-enantiomeric-impurity-in-besifloxacin-hydrochloride
#2
G Pradeep Kumar, Vishal Srivastava, Kiran Khandelwal, Rajesh Kumar, S G Hiriyanna, Ajay Kumar, Pramod Kumar
Besifloxacin is a unique chiral broad-spectrum flouroquinolone used in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. R-form of besifloxacin hydrochloride shows higher antibacterial activity as compared to the S-isomer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish chiral purity. To establish chiral purity a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of R-besifloxacin and S-besifloxacin (BES impurity A) was developed and validated for in-process quality control and stability studies. The analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), and lower limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined according to International Council for Harmonization ICH Q2(R1) guidelines...
September 2016: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464862/the-prevalence-of-urinary-tract-infection-or-urosepsis-following-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-in-a-subset-of-the-saudi-population-and-patterns-of-susceptibility-to-flouroquinolones
#3
Sultan S AlKhateeb, Nayf A AlShammari, Mohand A AlZughaibi, Yahya G Ghazwani, Khalid A Alrabeeah, Nasser M Albqami
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI), or sepsis secondary to trans-rectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy of the prostate, the pathogens involved, and patterns of antibiotic resistance in a cohort of patients. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent elective TRUS biopsy at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2012 and December 2014. All patients who underwent the TRUS guided prostate biopsy were prescribed the standard prophylactic antibiotics...
August 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413691/disseminated-tuberculosis-with-prostatic-abscesses-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Upasana Joneja, William R Short, Amity L Roberts
We describe a case of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) with prostatic abscess in a newly diagnosed HIV patient in the United States. The patient is a 34 year-old male who presented with respiratory symptoms and was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS complicated by disseminated mTB infection of the lungs, liver, and prostate. His prostate showed abscess formation on imaging that required drainage however he did not present with any genitourinary complaints. Our literature review revealed that prostatic involvement in mTB in the form of granulomatous prostatitis is uncommon; however, abscess formation is extremely rare and only few such cases have been published...
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240646/cytogenetic-alterations-in-human-lymphocyte-cultures-following-exposure-to-ofloxacin
#5
Vedat Şekeroğlu, Muhammet Aksoy, Zülal Atlı Şekeroğlu
Ofloxacin (OFX), a second-generation of quinolones, is a broad-spectrum flouroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial infections. In this article, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of OFX in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of OFX on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Cultures were treated with 30, 60 and 120 μg/ml of OFX for 48 h...
May 31, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005666/ciprofloxacin-induced-antibacterial-activity-is-atteneuated-by-pretreatment-with-antioxidant-agents
#6
Majed M Masadeh, Karem H Alzoubi, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Omar F Khabour, Ahlam M Al-Buhairan
Ciprofloxacin works through interfering with replication and transcription of bacterial DNA, which leads to increased oxidative stress, and death of bacterial cells. Drugs with strong antioxidant such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline might interfere with the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. In the current study, the effect of these drugs on the cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was investigated against several reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains included Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923)...
2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26033791/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-emergency-department-challenges-opportunities-and-a-call-to-action-for-pharmacists
#7
Bryan M Bishop
Antimicrobial resistance is a national public health concern. Misuse of antimicrobials for conditions such as upper respiratory infection, urinary tract infections, and cellulitis has led to increased resistance to antimicrobials commonly utilized to treat those infections, such as sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and flouroquinolones. The emergency department (ED) is a site where these infections are commonly encountered both in ambulatory patients and in patients requiring admission to a hospital. The ED is uniquely positioned to affect the antimicrobial use and resistance patterns in both ambulatory settings and inpatient settings...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26000002/assessment-on-the-adverse-effects-of-aminoglycosides-and-flouroquinolone-on-sperm-parameters-and-male-reproductive-tissue-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Arash Khaki
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapies used in treatment of many diseases have adverse effects on fertility. This review analyzes previous comparative studies that surveyed the effects of two common groups of antibiotics on male fertility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate histo-pathological effects of fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides on sperm parameters and male reproductive tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles about the effects of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones on male infertility, sperm parameters, male reproductive tissue, and spermatogenesis in English and Persian languages published on Google Scholar and PubMed databases from January 2000 to December 2013 were assessed...
March 2015: Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25912288/antimicrobial-resistance-and-management-of-invasive-salmonella-disease
#9
REVIEW
Samuel Kariuki, Melita A Gordon, Nicholas Feasey, Christopher M Parry
Invasive Salmonella infections (typhoidal and non-typhoidal) cause a huge burden of illness estimated at nearly 3.4 million cases and over 600,000 deaths annually especially in resource-limited settings. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are particularly important in immunosuppressed populations especially in sub-Saharan Africa, causing a mortality of 20-30% in vulnerable children below 5 years of age. In these settings, where routine surveillance for antimicrobial resistance is rare or non-existent, reports of 50-75% multidrug resistance (MDR) in NTS are common, including strains of NTS also resistant to flouroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins...
June 19, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819304/review-article-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-bacteriology-diagnosis-treatment-risk-factors-and-prevention
#10
REVIEW
J B Dever, M Y Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe and often fatal infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. AIM: To review the known and changing bacteriology, risk factors, ascitic fluid interpretation, steps in performing paracentesis, treatment, prophylaxis and evolving perspectives related to SBP. METHODS: Information was obtained from reviewing medical literature accessible on PubMed Central. The search term 'spontaneous bacterial peritonitis' was cross-referenced with 'bacteria', 'risk factors', 'ascites', 'paracentesis', 'ascitic fluid analysis', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', 'antibiotics', 'prophylaxis', 'liver transplantation' and 'nutrition'...
June 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25733779/asymptomatic-urinary-tract-infection-among-pregnant-women-receiving-ante-natal-care-in-a-traditional-birth-home-in-benin-city-nigeria
#11
Bankole H Oladeinde, Richard Omoregie, Oladapo B Oladeinde
BACKGROUND: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. METHODS: Clean-catch urine was collected from 220 pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Urine samples were processed, and microbial isolates identified using standard bacteriological procedures...
January 2015: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25719196/whole-genome-sequencing-based-characterization-of-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-pakistan
#12
Asho Ali, Zahra Hasan, Ruth McNerney, Kim Mallard, Grant Hill-Cawthorne, Francesc Coll, Mridul Nair, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Rumina Hasan
Improved molecular diagnostic methods for detection drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains are required. Resistance to first- and second- line anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, these SNPs can vary between MTB lineages therefore local data is required to describe different strain populations. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated 40 genes associated with drug resistance...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25653948/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#13
Kiran Chawla, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Ashu Gupta
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is gaining importance as an important cause of nosocomial pneumonia due to its characteristic inherent resistance to many broad- spectrum antibiotics. In this study we evaluated the demographic, clinical and microbiological profile of patients with lower respiratory tract infection due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 33 patients diagnosed with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia lower respiratory tract infections during a period of two years from 2012 - 2013 was done...
December 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25630553/the-incidence-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-e-coli-infections-after-prostate-biopsy-under-fluoroquinolone-prophylaxis-a-single-centre-experience-with-2215-patients
#14
Özlem Kandemir, Murat Bozlu, Ozan Efesoy, Onur Güntekin, Mesut Tek, Erdem Akbay
We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp...
August 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25574496/design-synthesis-molecular-docking-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-some-novel-flouroquinolone-derivatives-as-potent-antibacterial-agent
#15
Mehul M Patel, Laxman J Patel
OBJECTIVE: Quinolone moiety is an important class of nitrogen containing heterocycles widely used as key building blocks for medicinal agents. It exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacophores and has bactericidal, antiviral, antimalarial, and anticancer activities. In view of the reported antimicrobial activity of various fluoroquinolones, the importance of the C-7 substituents is that they exhibit potent antimicrobial activities. Our objective was to synthesize newer quinolone analogues with increasing bulk at C-7 position of the main 6-fluoroquinolone scaffold to produce the target compounds which have potent antimicrobial activity...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25477909/detection-of-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-major-hospitals-in-kano-north-west-nigeria
#16
I Yusuf, A H Arzai, M Haruna, A A Sharif, M I Getso
Two major hospitals in Kano, North West Nigeria have recorded increasing resistance of clinical pathogens to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) and non ESBLs. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC βL and carbapenemase in addition to already known ESBL due to increasing resistance of pathogens from the two hospitals to carbapenems, cephamycins and flouroquinolones. Antibiogram tests and ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase production tests were performed on all the isolates...
2014: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24235935/a-5-year-surveillance-of-wound-infections-at-a-rural-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#17
B H Oladeinde, R Omoregie, M Olley, J A Anunibe, A A Onifade
BACKGROUND: Wound infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, aetiology and susceptibility profile of bacterial agents of wound infection among in- and- out patients at a rural tertiary hospital in Nigeria, within a 5 year period. METHODS: Wound swabs collected from 156 out-patients and 353 in-patients were, cultured and microbial isolates identified using standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done on bacterial isolates...
June 2013: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23998097/ofloxacin-induced-hypomania
#18
Siddharth Sarkar, Sudhir Kumar Khandelwal
Flouroquinolones are widely used antibiotics with side effects that involve the central nervous system. Here, we are presenting the case of a patient who developed hypomania after taking ofloxacin. The clinical features included an elevated mood, increased talkativeness, a decreased need for sleep, and drawing up big plans. The episode was circumscribed and resolved after the discontinuation of the antibiotic.
July 2013: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23855096/effects-of-ciprofloxacin-and-zinc-chloride-in-adult-albino-rat-and-pre-natal-conceptus
#19
Muhammad Aslam Channa, Muhammad Ashfaq, Abdul Lateef Jokhio, Muhammad Zaheer Khan, Mir Muhammad Sahito
BACKGROUND: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl2 on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl2 using Wastar albino rats...
January 2012: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23373761/ocular-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-efficacy-of-intracameral-moxifloxacin-0-5-solution-in-a-rabbit-model
#20
Leyla Asena, Yonca A Akova, Mustafa T Goktaş, Atilla Bozkurt, Umit Yaşar, Gülten Karabay, Ebru Demiralay
PURPOSE: This study was carried out to determine the ocular pharmacokinetics, efficacy and potential endothelial toxicity of moxifloxacin (MF) after a single intracameral bolus injection of 500 µg/0.1 ml in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight eyes of 24 New Zealand White Rabbits were separated into six groups, each including four rabbits. 0.1 ml of 0.5% intracameral moxifloxacin (500 µg) injection was injected to the right eyes and 0.1 ml of balanced salt solution to the left eyes (control)...
April 2013: Current Eye Research
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