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Metformin and anti aging

Olga Montvida, Jonathan Shaw, Lawrence Blonde, Sanjoy K Paul
AIMS: To inform patients and their carers about the probability of reducing HbA1c to clinically desirable levels and sustainability of such control over 2 years with major second-line anti-diabetic therapies under individual risk scenario, with and without third-line intensification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From US Centricity Electronic Medical Records, 163,081 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 18-80 years, who initiated metformin; intensified with DPP-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i), GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), sulfonylurea, insulin, or thiazolidinedione; and continued second-line ≥ 6 month, were selected...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Iman Fatemi, Sara Heydari, Ayat Kaeidi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Elham Hakimizadeh, Amin Khaluoi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Metformin (Met) has been shown to have pleiotropic effects such as neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties making that a potential candidate for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of Met on the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging in ovariectomized mice. The female mice underwent bilateral ovariectomy. D-gal was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg and Met was administrated orally at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg for six weeks...
March 7, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Tugba Soydas, Elif Yaprak Sarac, Suzan Cinar, Sibel Dogan, Seyhun Solakoglu, Matem Tuncdemir, Gonul Kanigur Sultuybek
Metformin is the most widely used anti-diabetic drug in the world. It reduces advanced glycation end product (AGEs)-induced ROS generation in high glucose condition. Protein glycation contributes to skin aging as it deteriorates the existing collagen by crosslinking. The progressive increase of AGE during aging not only causes oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules but also modulates the activation of transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-kB). However, it is still unclear whether metformin can change collagen production and NF-kB activity induced by high glucose conditions in 3T3 fibroblast...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Hyun-Jin Na, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Ho-Jun Jeon, Joung-Sun Park, Hae-Young Chung, Mi-Ae Yoo
Age-related changes of adult stem cell are crucial for tissue aging and age-related diseases. Thus, clarifying mechanisms to prevent adult stem cell aging is indispensable for healthy aging. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been highlighted for its anti-aging and anti-cancer effect. In Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC), we previously reported the inhibitory effect of metformin on age-related phenotypes of ISC. Here, we showed that knockdown of Atg6, a crucial autophagy-related factor, in ISC induces age-related phenotypes of ISC such as hyperproliferation, centrosome amplification, and DNA damage accumulation...
February 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Swapnil Hiremath, Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda, Benjamin J W Chow, Dean Fergusson, Greg A Knoll, Wael Shabana, Brianna Lahey, Olivia McBride, Alexandra Davis, Ayub Akbari
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is defined as worsening of renal function after the administration of iodinated contrast material. In patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and/or diabetes, renin-angiotensin system blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and metformin can increase the risk of CI-AKI when undergoing contrast imaging. Despite CI-AKI being the leading iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury, there is a lack of sufficient scientific evidence supporting which drugs should be stopped, when they should be stopped, and when they should be resumed...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Yao Xu, Yong Li, Limei Ma, Guang Xin, Zeliang Wei, Zhi Zeng, Zhihua Xing, Shiyi Li, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness with an estimated 16 million people affected worldwide. d-Galactose (d-gal) is a reducing sugar that widely distributed in foodstuffs, and studies show that d-gal could promote cataract formation by damaging nature lens epithelial cells (LECs). However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In our present study, d-gal resulted in premature senescence of LECs, which was confirmed by determining the β-galactosidase activity, cell proliferative potential and cell cycle distribution, though apoptosis of LECs was not observed...
February 6, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jialiang Yang, Yufang Qin, Tiantian Zhang, Fayou Wang, Lihong Peng, Lijuan Zhu, Dawei Yuan, Pan Gao, Jujuan Zhuang, Zhongyang Zhang, Jun Wang, Yun Fang
Aging is a major risk factor for age-related diseases such as certain cancers. In this study, we developed Age Associated Gene Co-expression Identifier (AAGCI), a liquid association based method to infer age-associated gene co-expressions at thousands of biological processes and pathways across 9 human tissues. Several hundred to thousands of gene pairs were inferred to be age co-expressed across different tissues, the genes involved in which are significantly enriched in functions like immunity, ATP binding, DNA damage, and many cancer pathways...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Yasutaka Murai, Takeshi Ohta, Hironobu Tadaki, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Masami Shinohara, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Takahisa Yamada
Introduction: The number of diabetic patients has recently been increasing worldwide, and numerous anti-diabetic drugs have been developed to induce good glycemic control. In particular, metformin, which exhibits glucose-lowering effects by suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver, is widely used as a first line oral anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: In this study, the pharmacological effects of metformin were investigated using female and male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats, a new obese type 2 diabetic model...
December 2017: Medical Archives
Iman Fatemi, Amin Khaluoi, Ayat Kaeidi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Sara Heydari, Mohammad Aa Allahtavakoli
Objectives: Metformin (Met), an antidiabetic biguanide, reduces hyperglycemia via improving glucose utilization and reducing the gluconeogenesis. Met has been shown to exert neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the possible effect of Met on the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging in mice. Materials and Methods: Met (1 and 10 mg/kg/p.o.), was administrated daily in D-gal-received (500 mg/kg/p.o.) mice model of aging for six weeks...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Cheng-Wei Chan, Chu-Leng Yu, Jiunn-Cherng Lin, Yu-Cheng Hsieh, Che-Chen Lin, Chen-Ying Hung, Cheng-Hung Li, Ying-Chieh Liao, Chu-Pin Lo, Jin-Long Huang, Ching-Heng Lin, Tsu-Juey Wu
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is the standard first-line drug for patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the optimal second-line oral anti-diabetic agent (ADA) remains unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular risk of various ADAs used as add-on medication to metformin in T2DM patients from a nationwide cohort. METHODS: T2DM patients using different add-on oral ADAs after an initial metformin therapy of > 90 days were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database...
January 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Genia F Burchall, Terrence J Piva, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Helena J Teede
Background  Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects up to 18% of reproductive-aged women with increased risks of cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolic disease, related to metabolic and hormonal features, obesity and an apparent hypofibrinolytic state, possibly exacerbated by current PCOS treatments. Objective  To investigate and compare haemostatic impacts of common pharmacological treatments and explore relationships with hormonal and metabolic variables in PCOS. Patients/Methods  This mechanistic sub-study using biobanked samples from a 6-month randomized comparative trial of pharmacological treatments assessed pro- and anti-thrombotic markers and overall haemostatic activity...
November 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Blanka Klimova, Michal Novotny, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: Aging is a natural part of human life. However, recent discoveries indicate that pharmacological approaches used for the improvement and possibly, for the delay of the aging process, might shed a new light on this topic. This might obviously contribute to the extension of the active life of older people and maintenance of their quality of life, which could consequently reduce both social and economic burden of each country, especially the developed ones. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore pharmacological discoveries which may help to the delay or improvement of the aging process...
November 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Alexander Aliper, Leslie Jellen, Franco Cortese, Artem Artemov, Darla Karpinsky-Semper, Alexey Moskalev, Andrew G Swick, Alex Zhavoronkov
Aging is now at the forefront of major challenges faced globally, creating an immediate need for safe, widescale interventions to reduce the burden of chronic disease and extend human healthspan. Metformin and rapamycin are two FDA-approved mTOR inhibitors proposed for this purpose, exhibiting significant anti-cancer and anti-aging properties beyond their current clinical applications. However, each faces issues with approval for off-label, prophylactic use due to adverse effects. Here, we initiate an effort to identify nutraceuticals-safer, naturally-occurring compounds-that mimic the anti-aging effects of metformin and rapamycin without adverse effects...
November 15, 2017: Aging
Takuya Komura, Hajime Ohta, Takuya Seike, Yoshiaki Shimizu, Ryotaro Nakai, Hitoshi Omura, Takashi Kagaya, Satomi Kasashima, Atsuhiro Kawashima, Sakae Oba, Kennichi Harada, Shuichi Kaneko, Masashi Unoura
The overlap of multiple liver diseases can cause the disease activity and severity to worsen rapidly in some cases. We rarely see patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with overlapping autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). A 64-year-old woman who had been prescribed oral drugs to treat diabetes and hypertension (metformin 500 mg/day and voglibose 0.9 mg/day, and termisartan 40 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day, respectively) was diagnosed with NASH with histological confirmation. At 68 years of age, her liver injury worsened with an IgG of 2,871 mg/dL and a high serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) level of 2,560...
November 20, 2017: Internal Medicine
Hung-Jen Shih, Chun-Jen Huang, Jui-An Lin, Ming-Chang Kao, Yen-Chun Fan, Pei-Shan Tsai
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet is associated with risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, whether hyperlipidemia is associated with BPH remains unclear. This population-based cohort study elucidated whether hyperlipidemia is associated with an increased risk of BPH. METHODS: We used a new-exposure design and analyzed data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013. The cohort of men with newly diagnosed hyperlipidemia and the age- and index-date-matched (1:3) nonhyperlipidemia cohort were tracked for incidence of BPH during a 1- to 14-year follow-up...
February 2018: Prostate
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jiansong Fang, Li Gao, Huili Ma, Qihui Wu, Tian Wu, Jun Wu, Qi Wang, Feixiong Cheng
Aging that refers the accumulation of genetic and physiology changes in cells and tissues over a lifetime has been shown a high risk of developing various complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Over the past several decades, natural products have been demonstrated as anti-aging interveners via extending lifespan and preventing aging-associated disorders. In this study, we developed an integrated systems pharmacology infrastructure to uncover new indications for aging-associated disorders by natural products...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Suresh Basnet, Andrzej Kozikowski, Haiyan Sun, Melissa Troup, Luis E Urrutia, Renee Pekmezaris
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) commonly occurs in cardiac surgery patients. Studies suggest inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to postoperative AF development in this patient population. Metformin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces oxidative stress and thus may play a role in preventing postoperative AF. METHODS: We conducted a matched, retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients' age ≥18 undergoing a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or cardiac valve surgery from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2014...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
Joanna Tieu, Suzette Coat, William Hague, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: While most guidance recommends the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral anti-diabetic agents may be more acceptable to women. The effects of these oral anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes need to be established in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus preconceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. This review is an update of a review that was first published in 2010...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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