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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427365/association-between-fc%C3%AE-receptor-iia-iiia-and-iiib-genetic-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-severe-malaria-anemia-in-children-in-western-kenya
#1
Elly O Munde, Winnie A Okeyo, Evans Raballah, Samuel B Anyona, Tom Were, John M Ong'echa, Douglas J Perkins, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Naturally-acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria develops after several episodes of infection. Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) bind to immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and mediate phagocytosis of opsonized microbes, thereby, linking humoral and cellular immunity. FcγR polymorphisms influence binding affinity to IgGs and consequently, can influence clinical malaria outcomes. Specifically, variations in FcγRIIA -131Arg/His, FcγRIIIA-176F/V and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 modulate immune responses through altered binding preferences to IgGs and immune complexes...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427357/haplotype-of-non-synonymous-mutations-within-il-23r-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-severe-malaria-anemia-in-a-p-falciparum-holoendemic-transmission-area-of-kenya
#2
Elly O Munde, Evans Raballah, Winnie A Okeyo, John M Ong'echa, Douglas J Perkins, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pediatric severe malarial anemia (SMA) pathogenesis is a crucial step in the design of novel therapeutics. Identification of host genetic susceptibility factors in immune regulatory genes offers an important tool for deciphering malaria pathogenesis. The IL-23/IL-17 immune pathway is important for both immunity and erythropoiesis via its effects through IL-23 receptors (IL-23R). However, the impact of IL-23R variants on SMA has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426727/cd4-t-cell-expression-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-17-in-pediatric-malarial-anemia
#3
Evans Raballah, Prakasha Kempaiah, Zachary Karim, George O Orinda, Michael F Otieno, Douglas J Perkins, John Michael Ong'echa
In Plasmodium falciparum holoendemic transmission regions of western Kenya, life-threatening pediatric malaria manifests primarily as severe malarial anemia (SMA, Hb≤6.0 g/dL with any density parasitemia). To determine the role that CD4+ T-cell-driven inflammatory responses have in the pathogenesis of SMA, peripheral CD4+ T-cell populations and their intracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) were characterized in children aged 12-36 months of age stratified into two groups: non-severe malarial anemia (non-SMA, Hb≥6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417646/cerebral-hemodynamic-assessment-and-neuroimaging-across-the-lifespan-in-sickle-cell-disease
#4
Lori C Jordan, Michael R DeBaun
Children and adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a higher risk of strokes compared to age- and race-matched peers. Velocity in the middle cerebral or distal internal carotid artery as measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a recognized method to identify children but not adults with SCA at high-risk for first stroke. For both children and adults with SCA that have had a stroke, no methods clearly identify individuals at highest risk of recurrent strokes or an initial silent stroke, the most common neurological injury...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417547/a-long-term-follow-up-study-of-subtotal-splenectomy-in-children-with-hereditary-spherocytosis
#5
C W K Rosman, P M A Broens, M Trzpis, R Y J Tamminga
BACKGROUND: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a heterogeneous hemolytic anemia treated with splenectomy in patients suffering from severe or moderate disease. Total splenectomy, however, renders patients vulnerable to overwhelming postsplenectomy infection despite preventive measures. Although subtotal splenectomy has been advocated as an alternative to total splenectomy, long-term follow-up data are scarce. We investigated how often hematologic recurrences requiring secondary total splenectomy occurred...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#6
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411485/cerebral-and-muscle-microvascular-oxygenation-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-influence-of-hematology-hemorheology-and-vasomotion
#7
Keyne Charlot, Sophie Antoine-Jonville, Berenike Moeckesch, Stéphane Jumet, Marc Romana, Xavier Waltz, Lydia Divialle-Doumdo, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Marie Petras, Benoît Tressières, Vanessa Tarer, Olivier Hue, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Philippe Connes
The present study investigated cerebral and muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation (tissue oxygen index, TOI) in children with sickle cell anemia (SS), sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SC) and healthy children (AA). TOI was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and spectral analysis of the TOI variability was used to assess flowmotion and vasomotion. Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), hemorheological and hematological parameters were also measured in SS and SC children. Both TOI were lower in SS compared to both AA and SC children, with SC exhibiting lower values than AA children...
April 4, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383506/low-level-toxic-metal-exposure-in-healthy-weaning-age-infants-association-with-growth-dietary-intake-and-iron-deficiency
#8
Jungil Choi, Ju Young Chang, Jeana Hong, Sue Shin, Jeong Su Park, Sohee Oh
Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369934/recurrent-donath-landsteiner-hemolytic-anemia-a-pediatric-case-report
#9
Sara D Prince, Lena E Winestone, Sandra J Nance, David F Friedman
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by the Donath-Landsteiner antibody (D-L antibody). In children, this is typically a transient immune-mediated hemolysis that follows a viral illness and does not recur. Recurrent acute or chronic PCH due to D-L antibody is very rare. CASE REPORT: We have reported a unique case of recurrent PCH in a 5-year-old boy with two acute episodes of hemolysis separated by 21 months of hematologic remission...
March 31, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368266/growth-failure-in-hereditary-spherocytosis-and-the-effect-of-splenectomy
#10
Anirban Das, Deepak Bansal, Amita Trehan, Reena Das
OBJECTIVE: To analyze growth-failureand improvement, if any, following splenectomy in children with hereditary spherocytosis. METHODS: Data collection from case-records (n=82) over 27-years(1985-2011). RESULTS: Prevalence of stunting was 26%; 32% were underweight. Stunted children were older in age (P=0.006) and presented late (P=0.003). Splenectomy (n=26) improved anemia (P<0.001). However, height-for-age did not improve at 1-year, or 4...
March 29, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362411/continuous-manual-exchange-transfusion-for-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-an-efficient-method-to-avoid-iron-overload
#11
Bérengère Koehl, Florence Missud, Laurent Holvoet, Ghislaine Ithier, Oliver Sakalian-Black, Zinedine Haouari, Emmanuelle Lesprit, André Baruchel, Malika Benkerrou
Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may be at risk of cerebral vasculopathy and strokes, which can be prevented by chronic transfusion programs. Repeated transfusions of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is currently the simplest and most used technique for chronic transfusion programs. However, iron overload is one of the major side effects of this therapy. More developed methods exist, notably the apheresis of RBC (erythrapheresis), which is currently the safest and most efficient method. However, it is costly, complicated, and cannot be implemented everywhere, nor is it suitable for all patients...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353273/clinical-characteristics-of-children-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-hangzhou-china
#12
Shui-Ai Zhao, Bo-Tao Ning, Jian-Hua Mao
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a main cause of acute renal failure in children. This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of HUS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 46 children with sporadic HUS. RESULTS: Of the 46 HUS patients, 20 (43.5%) were diarrhea-related HUS, and 26 (56.5%) were atypical HUS. Anemia, edema, oliguria, hemoglobinuria and hypertension were the most common manifestations. Thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, increased fibrinogen and hypocomplementemia were found in most patients...
April 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348599/a-rare-case-of-stroke-secondary-to-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-a-young-female-patient
#13
Kavitha Gopalratnam, Kevin Andrew Woodson, Jigarkumar Rangunwala, Kanaga Sena, Manisha Gupta
Ischemic strokes occur when there is a sudden obstruction of an artery supplying blood flow to an area of the brain, leading to a focal neurological deficit. Strokes can be thrombotic or embolic in etiology and are associated with underlying conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Possible etiologies of strokes include cardioembolic disease, hematologic disorders, connective tissue disorders, and substance abuse or can be cryptogenic. Most stroke cases are seen in patients over 65 years of age...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347295/factors-associated-with-anemia-among-sri-lankan-primary-school-children-in-rural-north-central-province
#14
Gayani Shashikala Amarasinghe, Naotunna Palliya Guruge Chamidri Randika Naottunna, Thilini Chanchala Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika Agampodi
BACKGROUND: Despite interventions, childhood anemia is still a major public health problem in low and middle income countries. Purpose of the present study is to determine factors associated with anemia among rural primary school children in Sri Lanka, a country undergoing rapid socioeconomic changes. METHODS: Multi stage cluster sampling was used to select 100 rural schools in NCP and a maximum of 50 children aged 60-131 months were enrolled from each school. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents...
March 27, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339598/high-postdischarge-morbidity-in-ugandan-children-with-severe-malarial-anemia-or-cerebral-malaria
#15
Robert O Opoka, Karen E S Hamre, Nathan Brand, Paul Bangirana, Richard Idro, Chandy C John
Summary: Postdischarge readmission and outpatient illnesses are frequent in children with severe malarial anemia or cerebral malaria. Trials of postdischarge malaria prophylaxis in children with severe malaria should be considered. Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia (SMA) account for a substantial proportion of malaria-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. However, postdischarge morbidity in children with CM or SMA has not been well established...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338217/fasting-up-regulates-ferroportin-1-expression-via-a-ghrelin-ghsr-mapk-signaling-pathway
#16
Qian-Qian Lou, Yu-Fu Zhou, Mesona Yung-Jin Chen, Li Liu, Juan Ma, Meng-Wan Zhang, Fa-Li Zhang, Ya Ke, Zhong-Ming Qian
The significant positive correlation between ghrelin and iron and hepcidin levels in the plasma of children with iron deficiency anemia prompted us to hypothesize that ghrelin may affect iron metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of fasting or ghrelin on the expression of hepcidin, ferroportin 1 (Fpn1), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), ferritin light chain (Ft-L) proteins and ghrelin, and also hormone secretagogue receptor 1 alpha (GHSR1α) and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) mRNAs in the spleen and/or macrophage...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333130/age-of-complementary-foods-introduction-and-risk-of-anemia-in-children-aged-4-6-years-a-prospective-birth-cohort-in-china
#17
Fenglei Wang, Huijuan Liu, Yi Wan, Jing Li, Yu Chen, Jusheng Zheng, Tao Huang, Duo Li
Age of complementary foods introduction is associated with childhood anemia, but the ideal age for the introduction of complementary foods to infants is a continuing topic of debate. We examined the longitudinal association between complementary foods introduction age and risk of anemia in 18,446 children from the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, who had detailed complementary feeding records at 3 and 6 months of age and had hemoglobin concentrations measured at 4-6 years. Early introduction of complementary foods at 3-6 months of age was significantly associated with a higher risk of anemia (odds ratio = 1...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#18
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283722/fanconi-anemia-correlating-central-nervous-system-malformations-and-genetic-complementation-groups
#19
Benjamin A Johnson-Tesch, Rakhee S Gawande, Lei Zhang, Margaret L MacMillan, David R Nascene
BACKGROUND: Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273084/vitamin-d-deficiency-predicts-infections-in-young-north-indian-children-a-secondary-data-analysis
#20
Ranadip Chowdhury, Sunita Taneja, Nita Bhandari, Bireshwar Sinha, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Maharaj Kishan Bhan, Tor A Strand
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between poor vitamin D status and respiratory infections and diarrhea among young children. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and diarrhea are among the two most important causes of death in under-5 children. In this paper, we examined the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) predicts ALRI, clinical pneumonia and diarrhea among 6 to 30 months old children. METHODS: We used data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in 6 to 30 months old children conducted in Delhi, India...
2017: PloS One
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