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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645126/-adhd-in-adults-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorder-prevalence-clinical-diagnostics-and-integrated-therapy
#1
Henrike Dirks, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Substance use disorders (SUD) are one of the most frequent mental disorders among adults. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health issues in childhood and adolescence, often persisting in adulthood. ADHD in childhood and adolescence is a robust predictor of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in adulthood. Prevalence of comorbid ADHD in SUD patients is high. Nearly one quarter of these patients fulfill the DSM IV criteria for ADHD. Integrated concepts for treatment of SUD and ADHD are needed, but rare up to now...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645071/television-viewing-and-risk-of-mortality-exploring-the-biological-plausibility
#2
Mark Hamer, Thomas Yates, Panayotes Demakakos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Television (TV) viewing is a major component of leisure sedentary time, and has been consistently associated with cardiovascular disease. We examined the extent to which metabolic biomarkers explain the association between TV viewing and mortality. METHODS: Participants (N = 8,451, aged 64.8 ± 9.9 yrs) were drawn from The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a national prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men and women living in England...
June 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645025/decreased-functional-connectivity-and-disrupted-neural-network-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-affective-disorders-a-resting-state-fnirs-study
#3
Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Jiangxue Li, Hongjun Peng, Tingting Cai, Xinge Li, Shijing Wu, Wei Cao, Sailing He
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. METHODS: 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644978/immune-activation-in-prolonged-cart-suppressed-hiv-patients-is-comparable-to-that-of-healthy-controls
#4
Lennert van den Dries, Mark A A Claassen, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Eric van Gorp, Andre Boonstra
Sustained immune activation during chronic HIV infection is considered to augment co-morbidity and mortality. Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has shown to dampen immune activation especially during the first year cART, but the effects of long-term cART in patients without major comorbidities remains under-investigated. We performed a comprehensive analysis including cellular, intracellular and plasma biomarkers to study the effect of cART on immune parameters in 5 groups of 10 HIV patients...
June 20, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644946/effectiveness-of-corticosteroid-injections-for-treatment-of-de-quervain-s-tenosynovitis
#5
Jinhee K Oh, Susan Messing, Ollivier Hyrien, Warren C Hammert
BACKGROUND: Although surgery can provide definitive treatment for de Quervain's tenosynovitis, nonoperative treatment could be preferable if symptoms are predictably relieved. We sought to determine the effectiveness of corticosteroid injections as treatment for de Quervain's tenosynovitis and to evaluate patient characteristics as predictors of treatment outcome. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using our institutional database International Classification of Disease, version 9 (ICD-9) code list for de Quervain's tenosynovitis...
July 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644851/comorbidities-in-the-diseasome-are-more-apparent-than-real-what-bayesian-filtering-reveals-about-the-comorbidities-of-depression
#6
Peter Marx, Peter Antal, Bence Bolgar, Gyorgy Bagdy, Bill Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz
Comorbidity patterns have become a major source of information to explore shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between disorders. In hypothesis-free exploration of comorbid conditions, disease-disease networks are usually identified by pairwise methods. However, interpretation of the results is hindered by several confounders. In particular a very large number of pairwise associations can arise indirectly through other comorbidity associations and they increase exponentially with the increasing breadth of the investigated diseases...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644698/sleep-disturbance-after-hospitalization-and-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#7
Marcus T Altman, Melissa P Knauert, Margaret A Pisani
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance during intensive care unit (ICU) admission is common and severe. Sleep disturbance has been observed in survivors of critical illness even after transfer out of the ICU. Not only is sleep important to overall health and well-being, but patients after critical illness are also in a physiologically vulnerable state. Understanding how sleep disturbance impacts recovery from critical illness after hospital discharge is therefore clinically meaningful. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to summarize studies that identify the prevalence of and risk factors for sleep disturbance after hospital discharge for critical illness survivors...
June 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644530/long-term-outcome-of-anorexia-nervosa-results-from-a-large-clinical-longitudinal-study
#8
Manfred Maximilian Fichter, Norbert Quadflieg, Ross D Crosby, Sonja Koch
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a very large sample of inpatients (N = 1,693) and identification of predictors for poor outcome. METHOD: Over 25 years (mean 10 years), consecutively admitted inpatients of a specialized hospital were followed. A subsample of 112 patients with 20-year follow-up was defined. Bivariate comparisons and logistic regression analysis identified risk factors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) increased during the follow-up period...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644353/extraintestinal-manifestations-of-celiac-disease-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#9
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet (GFD) on extraintestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the University of Chicago Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extraintestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and >24 months were recorded...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644313/unique-clinical-features-of-los-angeles-grade-d-esophagitis-suggest-that-factors-other-than-gastroesophageal-reflux-contribute-to-its-pathogenesis
#10
Anh D Nguyen, Stuart J Spechler, Monique N Shuler, Rhonda F Souza, Kerry B Dunbar
BACKGROUND: The Los Angeles (LA) grade of reflux esophagitis (A to D) is assumed to reflect severity of the underlying gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Thus, LA-D esophagitis patients might be expected to have the most conditions predisposing to GERD (eg, obesity, hiatal hernia), and the highest frequency of GERD symptoms. GOALS: The main goal of this study is to compare clinical features of patients with the most severe (LA-D) and mildest (LA-A) grades of esophagitis...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644220/completion-lymph-node-dissection-in-patients-with-melanoma-and-positive-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy
#11
Jacqueline Link
Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer that represents a significant disease burden, making diagnosis and appropriate control of disease vital for improving morbidity and mortality. The most recent guidelines for melanoma treatment advise performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy for intermediate thickness melanomas, with subsequent completion lymph node dissection (CLND) if sentinel nodes are positive. This guideline is controversial due to the limited availability of data on this topic. CLND is an extensive surgery with known risks and complications and a small survival benefit...
July 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644210/frequency-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-plaque-morphology-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-sex-differences
#12
Luca Mariani, Francesco Burzotta, Cristina Aurigemma, Andrea Romano, Giampaolo Niccoli, Antonio M Leone, Italo Porto, Carlo Trani, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: The cause for discrepancy in the clinical presentation and outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD) between men and women is not established. Different prevalences of risk factors or specific sex-related atherosclerotic aspects have been advocated as possible explanations. We investigated coronary plaque morphology looking at possible differences in plaque vulnerability between men and women with stable CAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data and coronary plaque morphology by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in men and women with stable CAD...
June 21, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644179/improving-heart-failure-patient-outcomes-utilizing-guideline-directed-therapy
#13
Beth Towery Davidson, Terri Lynn Allison
Heart failure (HF) prevalence continues to rise and remains a significant burden to patients, caregivers, providers, and the healthcare system. Guideline-directed medical therapy with standard neurohormonal blockade has been the cornerstone of medical management for many years. Despite aggressive utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, HF hospitalizations and readmissions are common and residual mortality remains high...
July 21, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644097/thirty-day-postoperative-morbidity-and-mortality-after-temporal-lobectomy-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#14
Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Brandon McCutcheon, Meghan E Murphy, Kenan R Rajjoub, Daniel Ubl, Elizabeth B Habermann, Gregory Worrell, Mohamad Bydon, Jamie J Van Gompel
OBJECTIVE Temporal lobectomy is a well-established treatment modality for the management of medically refractory epilepsy in appropriately selected patients. The aim of this study was to assess 30-day morbidity and mortality after temporal lobectomy in cases registered in a national database. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using a multiinstitutional surgical registry compiled between 2006 and 2014. The authors identified patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and/or amygdalohippocampectomy for a primary diagnosis of intractable epilepsy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644095/impact-of-adherence-to-antidepressants-on-healthcare-outcomes-and-costs-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-comorbid-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Charles Vega, Russell V Becker, Lisa Mucha, Betty H Lorenz, Michael T Eaddy, Augustina O Ogbonnaya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adherence to antidepressants and an effect on clinical outcomes and healthcare costs in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This retrospective study used MarketScan claims data from January 2012 to March 2014. Study entry was the first claim for an antidepressant and a diagnosis code for MDD and T2D in the prior 6 months. Adherence and persistence to antidepressant therapy in the first 180 days were defined as medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥80% and length of therapy (LOT), with no treatment gap of >15 days, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643980/-hiatal-hernia-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management
#16
Pierre Allemann, Valentine Guarnero, Alain Schoepfer, Nicolas Demartines, Markus Schäfer
Hiatal hernia is a frequent pathology. Two types have been described : sliding hernia and paraesophageal hernia (PEH). The first one is the most frequent and is associated with reflux disease. Patients with PEH have a large variety of symptoms, such as chest pain, dyspnea, regurgitation, iterative pneumonia and iron-deficiency anemia. Operative management is necessary for sliding hernia with reflux disease and for symptomatic PEH, respectively. In patients with asymptomatic PEH, operative risk must be balanced with the risk of postoperative complications...
June 14, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643948/investigating-the-separate-and-interactive-associations-of-trauma-and-depression-on-brain-structure-implications-for-cognition-and-aging
#17
Aimee J Karstens, Olusola Ajilore, Leah H Rubin, Shaolin Yang, Aifeng Zhang, Alex Leow, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Trauma and depression are associated with brain structural alterations; their combined effects on these outcomes are unclear. We previously reported a negative effect of trauma, independent of depression, on verbal learning and memory; less is known about underlying structural associates. We investigated separate and interactive associations of trauma and depression on brain structure. METHODS: Adults aged 30-89 (N = 203) evaluated for depression (D+) and trauma history (T+) using structured clinical interviews were divided into 53 D+T+, 42 D+T-, 50 D-T+, and 58 D-T-...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643811/-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-what-is-the-role-of-public-health
#18
Nicola Vanacore, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Flavia Mayer, Giulia Grande, Matteo Cesari, Marco Canevelli
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed by Petersen in 1999 with the objective of identifying an early stage of dementia. The new diagnostic criteria for dementia, both those promoted by the International Working Group (IWG) and those defined by the National Institute of Aging (NIA), subsequently introduced a new model that starts with a preclinical phase, then proceeds with a prodromal phase, and ends with a phase of dementia. The condition known as subjective cognitive disorder (SCD) is included between the preclinic and the prodromal phases...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643459/construction-of-competitive-endogenous-rna-network-reveals-regulatory-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Zijing Lin, Xinyu Li, Xiaorong Zhan, Lijie Sun, Jie Gao, Yan Cao, Hui Qiu
Increasing epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its comorbidities makes it urgent to understand the pathogenesis and regulatory mechanism. However, little is known about the regulatory role of lncRNAs in diabetes. Here, we constructed a T2DM-related competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network (DMCN) to explore biological function of lncRNAs during the development of diabetes mellitus. This network contained 351 nodes including 98 mRNAs, 86 microRNAs and 167 lncRNAs. Functional analysis showed that the mRNAs in DMCN were annotated into some diabetes-related pathways...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643289/recovery-from-eating-disorder-1%C3%A2-year-after-start-of-treatment-is-related-to-better-mentalization-and-strong-reduction-of-sensitivity-to-others
#20
Greet S Kuipers, Sandra den Hollander, L Andries van der Ark, Marrie H J Bekker
PURPOSE: To investigate whether recovery from an eating disorder is related to pre-treatment attachment and mentalization and/or to improvement of attachment and mentalization during treatment. METHOD: For a sample of 38 anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients receiving treatment the relations between attachment security, mentalization, comorbidity and recovery status after 12 months (not recovered or recovered), and after 18 months (persistently ill, relapsed, newly recovered, or persistently recovered) were investigated...
June 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
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