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Offender Rehabilitation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822300/mental-health-problems-in-male-young-offenders-in-custodial-versus-community-based-programs-implications-for-juvenile-justice-interventions
#1
Daniel Rijo, Nélio Brazão, Ricardo Barroso, Diana Ribeiro da Silva, Paula Vagos, Ana Vieira, Ana Lavado, Ana Margarida Macedo
BACKGROUND: Young offenders are known to be a population with high prevalence of mental health disorders. In most cases, these disorders are neither identified nor treated properly, with the majority of them being chronic and difficult to treat. In many countries, the prevalence rates of psychopathology in male young offenders are still unknown and no psychotherapeutic interventions are delivered. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to assess mental health problems in Portuguese male young offenders placed in either custodial or community-based programs and discuss treatment implications within the juvenile justice interventions...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814368/chronic-musculoskeletal-disabilities-following-snake-envenoming-in-sri-lanka-a-population-based-study
#2
Subashini Jayawardana, Ariaranee Gnanathasan, Carukshi Arambepola, Thashi Chang
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major public health problem in agricultural communities in the tropics leading to acute local and systemic impairments with resultant disabilities. Snakebite related long-term musculoskeletal disabilities have been a neglected area of research. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in an agricultural community to describe the chronic musculoskeletal disabilities of snake envenoming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A sample representative of residents of a single district in a region of high incidence of snake envenoming was recruited to identify ever snakebite victims...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710003/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-narrative-exposure-therapy-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-a-context-of-ongoing-violence-in-south-africa
#3
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664812/mental-health-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-in-street-situations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#4
Cynthia Watters, Paul O'Callaghan
This article reviews the available quantitative literature on mental health and psychosocial interventions among children and adolescents in street situations (CASS) in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search five databases as well as grey literature. There were four inclusion criteria; studies had to involve a description of an external (i.e. outside of the home) mental health or psychosocial intervention/treatment, must be focused in LAMIC, must be focused on CASS, and must empirically evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention described...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605915/risk-factors-for-problematic-behaviors-among-forensic-outpatients-under-the-medical-treatment-and-supervision-act-in-japan
#5
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604971/a-gender-responsive-treatment-facility-in-correctional-services-the-development-of-psychological-gymnasium-for-women-offenders
#6
Vivian W M Mak, Samuel M Y Ho, Regina W Y Kwong, W L Li
With increasing evidence suggesting a disparity in female and male offenders in terms of rehabilitative needs, growing concern has been placed on the development of gender-specific services for female offenders. As such, a prison-based psychological gymnasium (PSY GYM), with distinctive features in integrating cognitive-behavioral and positive-psychology concepts to address female offenders' needs, was set up in 2011. The present study aims to introduce the concept as well as present findings to evaluate the overall effectiveness of PSY GYM...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565537/educational-instructors-attitudes-toward-juvenile-inmates-the-effect-of-the-inmate-s-role-in-a-criminal-event-and-the-instructors-belief-in-a-just-world
#7
Inna Levy, Yaacov Reuven
The aim of the present study was to examine factors that affect educational instructors' attitudes toward juvenile inmates in corrective educational facilities. Educational instructors play an important role in the rehabilitation of juvenile inmates, and their attitudes may affect the adolescents' chances of rehabilitation. We adopted an ecological perspective and explored the relationship between instructors' belief in a just world (BJW) and the role of inmates in a criminal event (offender/victim). The study included 196 educational instructors...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556108/polish-project-of-a-sex-offenders-registry-a-mental-health-professionals-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Filip Szumski, Krzysztof Kasparek, Józef Krzysztof Gierowski
The paper discusses the governmental draft of the Act on counteracting threats of sexual offences. It assumes the creation of the Registry of Sex Offenders in a version with a limited access and a version available to the public. The registry is supplemented with a publically available map of sexual crime threats, which includes the places of sexual offences and the places of residence of offenders. Criticising the proposed solutions, the authors point out the lack of integration with other interventions conducted in Poland against sex offenders, noncompliance with the recommendations of the most important expert circles in the field, as well as the research results showing the lack of effectiveness of the planned measures to reduce sexual offences...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554629/steven-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-a-burn-unit-a-15-year-experience
#9
M McCullough, M Burg, E Lin, D Peng, W Garner
INTRODUCTION: The diffuse epidermal exfoliation seen in Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is similar to skin loss in second degree burns, and many of these patients are referred for treatment at burn centers. Treatment can differ markedly from center to center, and mortality can range from 25% to 70%, including a considerable morbidity. However, our experience over a 15-year period from 2000 to 2015 with 40 patients found a mortality rate of only 10% (4/40)...
August 20, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540760/the-interplay-between-trauma-substance-abuse-and-appetitive-aggression-and-its-relation-to-criminal-activity-among-high-risk-males-in-south-africa
#10
Jessica Sommer, Martina Hinsberger, Thomas Elbert, Leon Holtzhausen, Debra Kaminer, Soraya Seedat, Solomon Madikane, Roland Weierstall
BACKGROUND: In persistently unsafe environments, the cumulative exposure to violence predicts not only the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also of increased aggression and violent outbursts. Substance use disorders interact with these developments, as drug consumption may blunt symptoms and also reduce the threshold for violent acts. Investigating the interplay between these variables and the possible cumulative effect of drug abuse on the attraction to cruelty is a crucial step in understanding the cycle of violence and developing intervention programs that address this cycle in violence-troubled communities such as low-income urban areas in South Africa...
January 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471323/drinking-alone-the-effect-of-an-alcohol-treatment-program-on-relationship-stability-for-convicted-drunk-drivers-in-denmark
#11
Signe Hald Andersen
This article tests whether an alcohol treatment program for drunk drivers in Denmark increased the stability of their relationships with spouses or cohabiting partners. The treatment program, implemented in 1990, allowed a group of offenders to avoid prison and participate in a rehabilitation program. I use it here as a natural experiment, exploiting a rich administrative dataset to show that the program marginally increases offenders' relationship stability. I also test whether increased relationship stability observed among the treated offenders results from their pardon from prison or from their participation in the rehabilitation program...
May 2016: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423738/modifying-a-risk-assessment-instrument-for-youthful-offenders
#12
Cheri J Shapiro, Patrick S Malone, Stephen M Gavazzi
High rates of incarceration in the United States are compounded by high rates of recidivism and prison return. One solution is more accurate identification of individual prisoner risks and needs to promote offender rehabilitation and successful community re-entry; this is particularly important for youthful offenders who developmentally are in late adolescence or early adulthood, and who struggle to reengage in education and/or employment after release. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of administration and initial psychometric properties of a risk and needs assessment instrument originally created for a juvenile justice population (the Global Risk Assessment Device or GRAD) with 895 male youthful offenders in one adult correctional system...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220362/female-offenders-hiv-peer-programs-and-attachment-the-importance-of-prison-based-civilian-staff-in-creating-opportunities-to-cultivate-prosocial-behaviors
#13
Kimberly Collica-Cox
As women commit to a conventional lifestyle, the bond of attachment becomes a fundamental component in sustaining the desistance process. If weak attachments in the community cannot be replaced or enhanced with the cultivation of strong conventional attachments while incarcerated, female offenders will leave prison without a supportive network. Strong social networks and a high level of social capital are essential for female offenders to reintegrate successfully; if social bonds are constructed before release, there is a greater chance of maintaining a crime-free lifestyle...
May 23, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195901/self-efficacy-planning-and-drink-driving-applying-the-health-action-process-approach
#14
Hollie Wilson, Mary Sheehan, Gavan Palk, Angela Watson
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the constructs from the health action process approach (HAPA) theoretical model (Schwarzer, 1992) on future drink driving avoidance by first time drink driving offenders. This research presents an advance in health related theory by the novel application of the health model to predict risk avoidance. METHOD: Baseline interviews were conducted with 198 first time drink driving offenders at the time of court appearance, and offenders were followed up 6-8 months following the offense date...
May 19, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186999/-exposed-distal-radio-ulnar-dislocation-by-dog-bite-reconstructive-surgical-technique-using-a-soft-tissue-graft-and-a-syndesmotic-fixation-implant-case-report
#15
J C Vélez-de Lachica, C A Brambila-Botello, L A Valdez-Jiménez
The main function of the forearm is the supination, which is achieved largely through the biomechanical characteristics and stability of the distal radio-ulnar joint. There are several surgical techniques for the treatment of distal radio-ulnar dislocations isolated or associated with a fracture. We report the case of a canine trainer who was bitten at the wrist and distal forearm that came to the emergency department in where distal ulnar dislocation with muscle tendon exposure was diagnosed. Due to the offending agent and multiple soft tissue injuries the treatment with standard techniques was impossible...
July 2015: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161798/the-tension-between-cross-border-cooperation-in-the-european-area-of-freedom-security-and-justice-and-the-fundamental-rights-of-mentally-ill-offenders-in-detention
#16
Michaël Meysman
In two recent judgements, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has given an alarming signal regarding the placement, care and treatment of mentally disordered offenders in Belgium. This article analyses these judgements and the Court's assessment that Belgium faces a structural problem regarding the detention of people with a mental illness in prison. By exploring other recent ECtHR decisions across the EU and combining this with an analysis of international norms and standards, it contends that there is something amiss regarding the post-trial approach towards mentally disordered offenders in an EU-wide context...
July 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138835/motivational-drive-and-alprazolam-misuse-a-recipe-for-aggression
#17
Bonnie Albrecht, Petra K Staiger, Kate Hall, Nicolas Kambouropoulos, David Best
Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137741/the-care-of-filipino-juvenile-offenders-in-residential-facilities-evaluated-using-the-risk-need-responsivity-model
#18
Anouk Spruit, Inge B Wissink, Geert Jan J M Stams
According to the risk-need-responsivity model of offender, assessment and rehabilitation treatment should target specific factors that are related to re-offending. This study evaluates the residential care of Filipino juvenile offenders using the risk-need-responsivity model. Risk analyses and criminogenic needs assessments (parenting style, aggression, relationships with peers, empathy, and moral reasoning) have been conducted using data of 55 juvenile offenders in four residential facilities. The psychological care has been assessed using a checklist...
July 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939512/our-father-who-art-in-prison-conviction-and-rehabilitation-for-australian-catholic-clergy-who-are-child-sexual-offenders
#19
Mike O'Connor
In light of the Royal Commission into Institutional Child Sexual Abuse, this article analyses the custodial sentences of 143 Australian Catholic clergy. The majority of these sentences were for convictions for indecent assault for which the median sentence was two years' imprisonment. It is doubtful whether the Australian community would consider such sentences as adequate, particularly where offences were against children. Current Australian legislation allows for ongoing long-term sanctions, including judicial orders for chemical castration, to be imposed on convicted sex offenders, especially those assessed as being at high risk of re-offending...
December 2015: Journal of Law and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928342/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-reducing-aggression-and-violence-in-serious-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#20
J Rampling, V Furtado, C Winsper, S Marwaha, G Lucca, M Livanou, S P Singh
BACKGROUND: For people with mental illness that are violent, a range of interventions have been adopted with the aim of reducing violence outcomes. Many of these interventions have been borrowed from other (offender) populations and their evidence base in a Serious Mental Illness (SMI) population is uncertain. AIMS: To aggregate the evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions in reducing violence amongst adults with SMI and PD (Personality Disorder), and to assess the efficacy of these interventions...
April 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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