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Prison Reentry

Keunbok Lee, David J Harding, Jeffrey D Morenoff
A potentially important but understudied aspect of prisoner reentry is the neighborhood environments experienced by formerly incarcerated people. We know that many formerly incarcerated people return to very disadvantaged neighborhood environments and that returning to disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison increases the risk of recidivism and reduces employment. Yet very little is known about the social, economic, and institutional processes that sort formerly incarcerated people into different neighborhoods after release or their trajectories of neighborhood attainment over time...
August 2017: Social Science Research
Nathan Wong Link, Leah K Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Much work has investigated the association between substance use, crime, and recidivism, yet little scholarship has examined these associations longitudinally among samples of recently released prisoners. We examine the lagged reciprocal effects of hard substance use and crime, among other covariates, in the context of the prisoner reentry process. METHODS: We rely on data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) evaluation and employ cross-lagged panel models to examine short-term changes in substance use and crime over time among a large sample of high-risk, former prisoners (N = 1697)...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Ioan Durnescu
This article is based on an ethnographic study involving 58 Roma and Romanian participants who were released from Jilava Prion in Romania between January and July 2015. The methodology involved interviews, observation, questionnaires, and photovoice. The findings seem to suggest that most of the factors associated with desistance and reentry in the literature are relevant to the ex-prisoner's experiences. The main contribution of this article is the observation that these factors come into play at different times and in different stages of the reentry process...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Meagan Cusack, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery
Homelessness and incarceration share a bidirectional association: individuals experiencing homelessness are more likely to be incarcerated and former inmates are more likely to become homeless. Permanent supportive housing (PSH) programs have demonstrated positive outcomes for participants with criminal histories, yet participants continue to exit to jail or prison and experience subsequent homelessness. Using data on Veterans participating in a PSH program at 4 locations between 2011 and 2014 (N = 1,060), logistic regression was used to examine the risk factors for exiting PSH because of incarceration and returning to homelessness...
May 2017: Psychological Services
Ashli J Sheidow, Michael R McCart, Maryann Davis
Most serious mental illnesses (SMI) have onset by emerging adulthood and SMI can impair adolescents' transitions into healthy, productive adults. Emerging adults (EAs) with SMI are at high risk for justice involvement, and rates of recidivism are greater for offenders with SMI than without. These EAs are frequently multi-system involved (e.g., aging out of foster care; both juvenile and adult arrests; prison reentry). Few interventions, however, have focused specifically on EAs, and no interventions have focused on reducing recidivism in EAs with or without SMI...
August 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
Henry A Dlugacz, Luna Droubi
This article argues that the ADA and its integration mandate, informed by international standards, should extend to incarcerated individuals with mental disabilities who reenter society, as they are at highly elevated risk for unnecessary segregation in institutions such as homeless shelters or hospitals or through reincarceration. An understanding of the precise services needed to prevent these strongly related but distinct variants of institutionalization requires a robust and continuing research agenda. In discussing the breadth of the ADA, we explore its history, interpretations of its application in a variety of contexts with respect to vulnerable populations and integration, and enforcement...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
David J Harding, Cheyney C Dobson, Jessica J B Wyse, Jeffrey D Morenoff
Cultural sociologists and other social scientists have increasingly used the concept of narrative as a theoretical tool to understand how individuals make sense of the links between their past, present, and future, how individuals construct social identities from cultural building blocks, and how culture shapes social action and individual behavior. Despite its richness, we contend that the narratives literature has yet to grapple with narrative change and stability when structural constraints or barriers challenge personal narratives and narrative identities...
March 2017: American Journal of Cultural Sociology
Naomi F Sugie, Michael C Lens
Individuals recently released from prison confront many barriers to employment. One potential obstacle is spatial mismatch-the concentration of low-skilled, nonwhite job-seekers within central cities and the prevalence of relevant job opportunities in outlying areas. Prior research has found mixed results about the importance of residential place for reentry outcomes. In this article, we propose that residential location matters for finding work, but this largely static measure does not capture the range of geographic contexts that individuals inhabit throughout the day...
April 2017: Demography
Stacey L Barrenger, Jeffrey Draine, Beth Angell, Daniel Herman
Reentry interventions for persons with mental illness leaving prison have consisted primarily of linkage to mental health services and have produced mixed results on psychiatric and criminal recidivism. These interventions primarily focus on intra-individual risk factors. However, social and environmental factors may also increase risk of reincarceration by constraining choices and pro-social opportunities for community reintegration upon release from prison. In order to add to the knowledge base on understanding reincarceration risk for men with mental illnesses leaving prison, we examined interpersonal and environmental factors that exposed men to heightened risk for reincarceration...
February 15, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
Adeline M Nyamathi, Benissa E Salem, Elizabeth Hall, Tanya Oleskowicz, Maria Ekstrand, Kartik Yadav, Joy Toyama, Susan Turner, Mark Faucette
The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = ...
February 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Jeffrey L Crabtree, David Ohm, Jarrod M Wall, Joseph Ray
This pilot study explored the strengths and weaknesses of an informal education program and identified elements of the program valued by participants. Participants were men living in a minimum security prison who had been incarcerated for ten or more years. The outside researcher was joined by three former program participants as co-researchers. Together, they interviewed 27 residents who completed the informal education program. Interviews were transcribed and de-identified. Researchers used the summative content analysis approach to analyze the data...
December 2016: Occupational Therapy International
Derek A Kreager, David R Schaefer, Martin Bouchard, Dana L Haynie, Sara Wakefield, Jacob Young, Gary Zajac
The mid-twentieth century witnessed a surge of American prison ethnographies focused on inmate society and the social structures that guide inmate life. Ironically, this literature virtually froze in the 1980s just as the country entered a period of unprecedented prison expansion, and has only recently begun to thaw. In this manuscript, we develop a rationale for returning inmate society to the forefront of criminological inquiry, and suggest that network science provides an ideal framework for achieving this end...
2016: Justice Quarterly: JQ
Robert D Morgan, Sean M Mitchell, Megan A Thoen, Kelsey Campion, Angelea D Bolaños, Michael A Sustaíta, Steven Henderson
The effectiveness of specialty courts has been well established in the literature; however, previous studies have not taken into account referral biases that may exist based on offenders' race, socioeconomic status (SES), attorney status, and so forth. The current study hypothesized that (a) Participants who are racially diverse, of lower SES, and represented by privately retained attorneys would be referred less frequently to specialty courts, and (b) Participants in specialty courts would evidence reductions in missed court appointments and failed urinary analyses (UAs) compared with peers not enrolled in specialty courts...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Jane Jean-Hee Lee, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Kevin Lotz, Lindsay Bornheimer
In the United States more than 10,000 people are released from state and federal prisons every week and often reenter the communities in which they were arrested. Formerly incarcerated individuals face considerable challenges to securing employment and housing. Subsequently, approximately two-thirds of former prisoners are rearrested within three years of their release. Latino men represent the fastest growing ethnic group of prisoners in the United States with unique cultural and social needs during the reentry process...
July 2016: Social Work
Cathleen E Willging, Ethel G Nicdao, Elise M Trott, Nicole C Kellett
Incarceration and community reentry for rural women reflect gendered processes. We draw upon in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups to examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Our findings underscore the complexity of the reentry process for rural women and its particular impact on their families. We challenge dominant discourses of personal responsibility that detract from the structura violence and injustice shaping reentry experiences for women and their social supporters...
2016: Women & Criminal Justice
Miriam Northcutt Bohmert, Grant Duwe, Natalie Kroovand Hipple
In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota...
June 5, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Adeline M Nyamathi, Sheldon Zhang, Benissa E Salem, David Farabee, Betsy Hall, Elizabeth Marlow, Mark Faucette, Doug Bond, Kartik Yadav
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted a randomized controlled trial with 600 recently released homeless men exiting California jails and prisons. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to primarily ascertain how different levels of intensity in peer coaching and nurse-partnered intervention programs may impact reentry outcomes; specifically: (a) an intensive peer coach and nurse case managed (PC-NCM) program; (b) an intermediate peer coaching (PC) program with brief nurse counseling; and (c) the usual care (UC) program involving limited peer coaching and brief nurse counseling...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Criminology
Adeline M Nyamathi, Neha Srivastava, Benissa E Salem, Sarah Wall, Jordan Kwon, Maria Ekstrand, Elizabeth Hall, Susan F Turner, Mark Faucette
Recently released homeless women residing in temporary residential drug treatment (RDT) programs are at a critical juncture in the process of recovery, transition, and reentry. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing initial use of drugs and relapse triggers among a sample of incarcerated women exiting jails and prisons, residing in an RDT program, and preparing for reentry into their communities. Among this population, relapse to drug use and recidivism are common. A qualitative study was conducted utilizing focus groups to understand the perspectives of formerly incarcerated, currently homeless women residing in an RDT program...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Tina Simms
This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both...
April 2016: Social Work
Bruce Western, Anthony Braga, David Hureau, Catherine Sirois
Collecting data from hard-to-reach populations is a key challenge for research on poverty and other forms of extreme disadvantage. With data from the Boston Reentry Study (BRS), we document the extreme marginality of released prisoners and the related difficulties of study retention and analysis. Analysis of the BRS data yields three findings. First, released prisoners show high levels of "contact insecurity," correlated with social insecurity, in which residential addresses and contact information change frequently...
May 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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