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Prison Reentry

Derek A Kreager, David R Schaefer, Martin Bouchard, Dana L Haynie, Sara Wakefield, Jacob Young, Gary Zajac
The mid-twentieth century witnessed a surge of American prison ethnographies focused on inmate society and the social structures that guide inmate life. Ironically, this literature virtually froze in the 1980s just as the country entered a period of unprecedented prison expansion, and has only recently begun to thaw. In this manuscript, we develop a rationale for returning inmate society to the forefront of criminological inquiry, and suggest that network science provides an ideal framework for achieving this end...
2016: Justice Quarterly: JQ
Robert D Morgan, Sean M Mitchell, Megan A Thoen, Kelsey Campion, Angelea D Bolaños, Michael A Sustaíta, Steven Henderson
The effectiveness of specialty courts has been well established in the literature; however, previous studies have not taken into account referral biases that may exist based on offenders' race, socioeconomic status (SES), attorney status, and so forth. The current study hypothesized that (a) Participants who are racially diverse, of lower SES, and represented by privately retained attorneys would be referred less frequently to specialty courts, and (b) Participants in specialty courts would evidence reductions in missed court appointments and failed urinary analyses (UAs) compared with peers not enrolled in specialty courts...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Jane Jean-Hee Lee, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Kevin Lotz, Lindsay Bornheimer
In the United States more than 10,000 people are released from state and federal prisons every week and often reenter the communities in which they were arrested. Formerly incarcerated individuals face considerable challenges to securing employment and housing. Subsequently, approximately two-thirds of former prisoners are rearrested within three years of their release. Latino men represent the fastest growing ethnic group of prisoners in the United States with unique cultural and social needs during the reentry process...
July 2016: Social Work
Cathleen E Willging, Ethel G Nicdao, Elise M Trott, Nicole C Kellett
Incarceration and community reentry for rural women reflect gendered processes. We draw upon in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups to examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Our findings underscore the complexity of the reentry process for rural women and its particular impact on their families. We challenge dominant discourses of personal responsibility that detract from the structura violence and injustice shaping reentry experiences for women and their social supporters...
2016: Women & Criminal Justice
Miriam Northcutt Bohmert, Grant Duwe, Natalie Kroovand Hipple
In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota...
June 5, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Adeline M Nyamathi, Sheldon Zhang, Benissa E Salem, David Farabee, Betsy Hall, Elizabeth Marlow, Mark Faucette, Doug Bond, Kartik Yadav
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted a randomized controlled trial with 600 recently released homeless men exiting California jails and prisons. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to primarily ascertain how different levels of intensity in peer coaching and nurse-partnered intervention programs may impact reentry outcomes; specifically: (a) an intensive peer coach and nurse case managed (PC-NCM) program; (b) an intermediate peer coaching (PC) program with brief nurse counseling; and (c) the usual care (UC) program involving limited peer coaching and brief nurse counseling...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Criminology
Adeline M Nyamathi, Neha Srivastava, Benissa E Salem, Sarah Wall, Jordan Kwon, Maria Ekstrand, Elizabeth Hall, Susan F Turner, Mark Faucette
Recently released homeless women residing in temporary residential drug treatment (RDT) programs are at a critical juncture in the process of recovery, transition, and reentry. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing initial use of drugs and relapse triggers among a sample of incarcerated women exiting jails and prisons, residing in an RDT program, and preparing for reentry into their communities. Among this population, relapse to drug use and recidivism are common. A qualitative study was conducted utilizing focus groups to understand the perspectives of formerly incarcerated, currently homeless women residing in an RDT program...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Tina Simms
This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both...
April 2016: Social Work
Bruce Western, Anthony Braga, David Hureau, Catherine Sirois
Collecting data from hard-to-reach populations is a key challenge for research on poverty and other forms of extreme disadvantage. With data from the Boston Reentry Study (BRS), we document the extreme marginality of released prisoners and the related difficulties of study retention and analysis. Analysis of the BRS data yields three findings. First, released prisoners show high levels of "contact insecurity," correlated with social insecurity, in which residential addresses and contact information change frequently...
May 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Judith S Willison
This study expands limited existing knowledge of the characteristics of violent crimes for which women in state prisons are incarcerated. An analysis was conducted utilizing survey data collected from female state prisoners by the U.S. Department of Justice for the Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 2004. The randomly selected, national sample consisted of 866 female state prisoners. Results suggest that the majority of the violent offenses occurred within the context of a relationship with the victim, most often in a domestic setting, and were influenced by the presence or absence of co-defendants...
2016: Violence and Victims
Stephen M Haas, Douglas H Spence
Core correctional practices (CCP) are an evidence-based approach that can improve the quality of the prison environment and enhance prisoner outcomes. CCP focus on increasing the effectiveness of treatment interventions as well as the therapeutic potential of relationships between prisoners and correctional staff. This study utilizes a new survey-based measurement tool to assess inmate perceptions of the quality of service delivery and level of adherence to CCP. It then examines the relationship between perceptions of CCP and prisoner's preparedness for releasing using both bivariate and multivariate analyses...
January 29, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Andrea K Finlay, Matthew Stimmel, Jessica Blue-Howells, Joel Rosenthal, Jim McGuire, Ingrid Binswanger, David Smelson, Alex H S Harris, Susan M Frayne, Tom Bowe, Christine Timko
The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Health Care for Reentry Veterans (HCRV) program links veterans exiting prison with treatment. Among veterans served by HCRV, national VA clinical data were used to describe contact with VA health care, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment use. Of veterans seen for an HCRV outreach visit, 56 % had contact with VA health care. Prevalence of mental health disorders was 57 %; of whom 77 % entered mental health treatment within a month of diagnosis...
December 21, 2015: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Alison J Link, D J Williams
This study examined the statistical relationship between offender rehabilitation and leisure functioning of Oregon prisoners (N = 281) soon to reenter society. The strong positive correlation between leisure functioning and rehabilitation is an important finding of the study. Perception of freedom and intrinsic motivation in leisure, as independent variables, were significantly related to rehabilitation even when controlling for the influence of demographic and important forensic variables. This study provides initial empirical evidence for the importance of leisure in offender rehabilitation and successful offender reentry...
October 8, 2015: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Bruce Western, Anthony A Braga, Jaclyn Davis, Catherine Sirois
The historic increase in U.S. incarceration rates made the transition from prison to community common for poor, prime-age men and women. Leaving prison presents the challenge of social integration--of connecting with family and finding housing and a means of subsistence. The authors study variation in social integration in the first months after prison release with data from the Boston Reentry Study, a unique panel survey of 122 newly released prisoners. The data indicate severe material hardship immediately after incarceration...
March 2015: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Bradley Ray, Eric Grommon, Victoria Buchanan, Brittany Brown, Dennis P Watson
Access to Recovery (ATR) is a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)-funded initiative that offers a mix of clinical and supportive services for substance abuse. ATR clients choose which services will help to overcome barriers in their road to recovery, and a recovery consultant provides vouchers and helps link the client to these community resources. One of ATR's goals was to provide services to those involved in the criminal justice system in the hopes that addressing substance abuse issues could reduce subsequent criminal behaviors...
September 17, 2015: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Javier A Cepeda, Marina V Vetrova, Alexandra I Lyubimova, Olga S Levina, Robert Heimer, Linda M Niccolai
PURPOSE: Little is known about the context of the post-release risk environment among formerly incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia. The purpose of this paper is to explore these challenges as they relate to reentry, relapse to injection opioid use, and overdose. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted 25 in-depth semi-structured interviews among PWID living in St Petersburg, Russia who had been incarcerated within the past two years...
2015: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Alexis C Dennis, Clare Barrington, Sayaka Hino, Michele Gould, David Wohl, Carol E Golin
Most HIV-infected inmates leave prison with a suppressed viral load; many, however, become disconnected from care and nonadherent to medications during reentry to community life. In this secondary data analysis of focus groups (n = 6) and in-depth interviews (n = 9) with 46 formerly incarcerated HIV-infected people during reentry, we used an inductive analytic approach to explore the interplay between individual, interpersonal, community, and structural factors and HIV management. Participants described barriers and facilitators to care engagement and adherence at each of these four levels, as well as a milieu of HIV and incarceration-related stigma and discrimination...
September 2015: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Megha Ramaswamy, Francisco Diaz, Tyson Pankey, Suzanne L Hunt, Andrew Park, Patricia J Kelly
Although women and men in jails bear a burden of health problems, little is known about factors associated with their health care use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of preincarceration health care use with 596 jail inmates. Descriptive statistics and correlates of participants' health care use were assessed. A year before incarceration, 54% of participants used an emergency room, 24% were hospitalized, and 39% used primary care. Correlates of health care use included gender, health insurance status, and drug dependence...
July 2015: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Donna R Parker, Mary B Roberts, Jacob J van den Berg, Beth Bock, Lyn A R Stein, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer G Clarke
INTRODUCTION: A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults' attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Cody Warner
The present study examines the relationship between incarceration and post-prison residential mobility. In spite of recent research examining the residential context following incarceration, we know little about if or how incarceration affects individual patterns of residential mobility. This study starts to fill this gap in knowledge by drawing on nationally representative data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). I find that individuals with a history of incarceration are more likely to move after prison than they are before prison...
July 2015: Social Science Research
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