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Prison Reentry

Henry A Dlugacz, Luna Droubi
This article argues that the ADA and its integration mandate, informed by international standards, should extend to incarcerated individuals with mental disabilities who reenter society, as they are at highly elevated risk for unnecessary segregation in institutions such as homeless shelters or hospitals or through reincarceration. An understanding of the precise services needed to prevent these strongly related but distinct variants of institutionalization requires a robust and continuing research agenda. In discussing the breadth of the ADA, we explore its history, interpretations of its application in a variety of contexts with respect to vulnerable populations and integration, and enforcement...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
David J Harding, Cheyney C Dobson, Jessica J B Wyse, Jeffrey D Morenoff
Cultural sociologists and other social scientists have increasingly used the concept of narrative as a theoretical tool to understand how individuals make sense of the links between their past, present, and future, how individuals construct social identities from cultural building blocks, and how culture shapes social action and individual behavior. Despite its richness, we contend that the narratives literature has yet to grapple with narrative change and stability when structural constraints or barriers challenge personal narratives and narrative identities...
March 2017: American Journal of Cultural Sociology
Naomi F Sugie, Michael C Lens
Individuals recently released from prison confront many barriers to employment. One potential obstacle is spatial mismatch-the concentration of low-skilled, nonwhite job-seekers within central cities and the prevalence of relevant job opportunities in outlying areas. Prior research has found mixed results about the importance of residential place for reentry outcomes. In this article, we propose that residential location matters for finding work, but this largely static measure does not capture the range of geographic contexts that individuals inhabit throughout the day...
April 2017: Demography
Stacey L Barrenger, Jeffrey Draine, Beth Angell, Daniel Herman
Reentry interventions for persons with mental illness leaving prison have consisted primarily of linkage to mental health services and have produced mixed results on psychiatric and criminal recidivism. These interventions primarily focus on intra-individual risk factors. However, social and environmental factors may also increase risk of reincarceration by constraining choices and pro-social opportunities for community reintegration upon release from prison. In order to add to the knowledge base on understanding reincarceration risk for men with mental illnesses leaving prison, we examined interpersonal and environmental factors that exposed men to heightened risk for reincarceration...
February 15, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
Adeline M Nyamathi, Benissa E Salem, Elizabeth Hall, Tanya Oleskowicz, Maria Ekstrand, Kartik Yadav, Joy Toyama, Susan Turner, Mark Faucette
The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = ...
February 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Jeffrey L Crabtree, David Ohm, Jarrod M Wall, Joseph Ray
This pilot study explored the strengths and weaknesses of an informal education program and identified elements of the program valued by participants. Participants were men living in a minimum security prison who had been incarcerated for ten or more years. The outside researcher was joined by three former program participants as co-researchers. Together, they interviewed 27 residents who completed the informal education program. Interviews were transcribed and de-identified. Researchers used the summative content analysis approach to analyze the data...
December 2016: Occupational Therapy International
Derek A Kreager, David R Schaefer, Martin Bouchard, Dana L Haynie, Sara Wakefield, Jacob Young, Gary Zajac
The mid-twentieth century witnessed a surge of American prison ethnographies focused on inmate society and the social structures that guide inmate life. Ironically, this literature virtually froze in the 1980s just as the country entered a period of unprecedented prison expansion, and has only recently begun to thaw. In this manuscript, we develop a rationale for returning inmate society to the forefront of criminological inquiry, and suggest that network science provides an ideal framework for achieving this end...
2016: Justice Quarterly: JQ
Robert D Morgan, Sean M Mitchell, Megan A Thoen, Kelsey Campion, Angelea D Bolaños, Michael A Sustaíta, Steven Henderson
The effectiveness of specialty courts has been well established in the literature; however, previous studies have not taken into account referral biases that may exist based on offenders' race, socioeconomic status (SES), attorney status, and so forth. The current study hypothesized that (a) Participants who are racially diverse, of lower SES, and represented by privately retained attorneys would be referred less frequently to specialty courts, and (b) Participants in specialty courts would evidence reductions in missed court appointments and failed urinary analyses (UAs) compared with peers not enrolled in specialty courts...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Jane Jean-Hee Lee, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Kevin Lotz, Lindsay Bornheimer
In the United States more than 10,000 people are released from state and federal prisons every week and often reenter the communities in which they were arrested. Formerly incarcerated individuals face considerable challenges to securing employment and housing. Subsequently, approximately two-thirds of former prisoners are rearrested within three years of their release. Latino men represent the fastest growing ethnic group of prisoners in the United States with unique cultural and social needs during the reentry process...
July 2016: Social Work
Cathleen E Willging, Ethel G Nicdao, Elise M Trott, Nicole C Kellett
Incarceration and community reentry for rural women reflect gendered processes. We draw upon in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups to examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Our findings underscore the complexity of the reentry process for rural women and its particular impact on their families. We challenge dominant discourses of personal responsibility that detract from the structura violence and injustice shaping reentry experiences for women and their social supporters...
2016: Women & Criminal Justice
Miriam Northcutt Bohmert, Grant Duwe, Natalie Kroovand Hipple
In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota...
June 5, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Adeline M Nyamathi, Sheldon Zhang, Benissa E Salem, David Farabee, Betsy Hall, Elizabeth Marlow, Mark Faucette, Doug Bond, Kartik Yadav
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted a randomized controlled trial with 600 recently released homeless men exiting California jails and prisons. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to primarily ascertain how different levels of intensity in peer coaching and nurse-partnered intervention programs may impact reentry outcomes; specifically: (a) an intensive peer coach and nurse case managed (PC-NCM) program; (b) an intermediate peer coaching (PC) program with brief nurse counseling; and (c) the usual care (UC) program involving limited peer coaching and brief nurse counseling...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Criminology
Adeline M Nyamathi, Neha Srivastava, Benissa E Salem, Sarah Wall, Jordan Kwon, Maria Ekstrand, Elizabeth Hall, Susan F Turner, Mark Faucette
Recently released homeless women residing in temporary residential drug treatment (RDT) programs are at a critical juncture in the process of recovery, transition, and reentry. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing initial use of drugs and relapse triggers among a sample of incarcerated women exiting jails and prisons, residing in an RDT program, and preparing for reentry into their communities. Among this population, relapse to drug use and recidivism are common. A qualitative study was conducted utilizing focus groups to understand the perspectives of formerly incarcerated, currently homeless women residing in an RDT program...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Tina Simms
This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both...
April 2016: Social Work
Bruce Western, Anthony Braga, David Hureau, Catherine Sirois
Collecting data from hard-to-reach populations is a key challenge for research on poverty and other forms of extreme disadvantage. With data from the Boston Reentry Study (BRS), we document the extreme marginality of released prisoners and the related difficulties of study retention and analysis. Analysis of the BRS data yields three findings. First, released prisoners show high levels of "contact insecurity," correlated with social insecurity, in which residential addresses and contact information change frequently...
May 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Judith S Willison
This study expands limited existing knowledge of the characteristics of violent crimes for which women in state prisons are incarcerated. An analysis was conducted utilizing survey data collected from female state prisoners by the U.S. Department of Justice for the Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 2004. The randomly selected, national sample consisted of 866 female state prisoners. Results suggest that the majority of the violent offenses occurred within the context of a relationship with the victim, most often in a domestic setting, and were influenced by the presence or absence of co-defendants...
2016: Violence and Victims
Stephen M Haas, Douglas H Spence
Core correctional practices (CCP) are an evidence-based approach that can improve the quality of the prison environment and enhance prisoner outcomes. CCP focus on increasing the effectiveness of treatment interventions as well as the therapeutic potential of relationships between prisoners and correctional staff. This study utilizes a new survey-based measurement tool to assess inmate perceptions of the quality of service delivery and level of adherence to CCP. It then examines the relationship between perceptions of CCP and prisoner's preparedness for releasing using both bivariate and multivariate analyses...
January 29, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Andrea K Finlay, Matthew Stimmel, Jessica Blue-Howells, Joel Rosenthal, Jim McGuire, Ingrid Binswanger, David Smelson, Alex H S Harris, Susan M Frayne, Tom Bowe, Christine Timko
The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Health Care for Reentry Veterans (HCRV) program links veterans exiting prison with treatment. Among veterans served by HCRV, national VA clinical data were used to describe contact with VA health care, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment use. Of veterans seen for an HCRV outreach visit, 56 % had contact with VA health care. Prevalence of mental health disorders was 57 %; of whom 77 % entered mental health treatment within a month of diagnosis...
March 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Alison J Link, D J Williams
This study examined the statistical relationship between offender rehabilitation and leisure functioning of Oregon prisoners ( N = 281) soon to reenter society. The strong positive correlation between leisure functioning and rehabilitation is an important finding of the study. Perception of freedom and intrinsic motivation in leisure, as independent variables, were significantly related to rehabilitation even when controlling for the influence of demographic and important forensic variables. This study provides initial empirical evidence for the importance of leisure in offender rehabilitation and successful offender reentry...
February 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Bruce Western, Anthony A Braga, Jaclyn Davis, Catherine Sirois
The historic increase in U.S. incarceration rates made the transition from prison to community common for poor, prime-age men and women. Leaving prison presents the challenge of social integration--of connecting with family and finding housing and a means of subsistence. The authors study variation in social integration in the first months after prison release with data from the Boston Reentry Study, a unique panel survey of 122 newly released prisoners. The data indicate severe material hardship immediately after incarceration...
March 2015: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
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