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Prison Reform

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025417/human-rights-and-mental-health-in-post-apartheid-south-africa-lessons-from-health-care-professionals-working-with-suicidal-inmates-in-the-prison-system
#1
Jason Bantjes, Leslie Swartz, Pieter Niewoudt
BACKGROUND: During the era of apartheid in South Africa, a number of mental health professionals were vocal about the need for socio-economic and political reform. They described the deleterious psychological and social impact of the oppressive and discriminatory Nationalist state policies. However, they remained optimistic that democracy would usher in positive changes. In this article, we consider how mental health professionals working in post-apartheid South Africa experience their work...
October 12, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942751/modifiable-risk-factors-for-external-cause-mortality-after-release-from-prison-a-nested-case-control-study
#2
M J Spittal, S Forsyth, R Borschmann, J T Young, S A Kinner
AIM: People released from prison are at higher risk of mortality from potentially preventable causes than their peers in the general population. Because most studies of this phenomenon are reliant on registry data, there is little health and behavioural information available on those at risk, hampering the development of targeted, evidence-based preventive responses. Our aim was to identify modifiable risk and protective factors for external cause and cause-specific mortality after release from prison...
September 25, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914122/improving-health-in-prisons-from-evidence-to-policy-to-implementation-experiences-from-the-uk
#3
Jane Leaman, Anna Amelia Richards, Lynn Emslie, Eamonn Joseph O'Moore
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the components of a high-quality prison healthcare system and the impact, ten-years on, of the transfer of accountability in England, from a justice ministry to a health ministry. Design/methodology/approach A rapid the evidence review was undertaken, which included a review of 82 papers and qualitative interviews with key informants. The concepts and themes identified were summarised and analysed through a framework analysis, designed to improve population outcomes and address health inequalities...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852561/barred-from-better-medicine-reexamining-regulatory-barriers-to-the-inclusion-of-prisoners-in-research
#4
Elaine Huang, Jacqueline Cauley, Jennifer K Wagner
In 2015, President Obama announced plans for the Precision Medicine Initiative(®) (PMI), an ambitious longitudinal project aimed at revolutionizing medicine. Integral to this Initiative is the recruitment of over one million Americans into a volunteer research cohort, the All of Us(SM) Research Program. The announcement has generated much excitement but absent is a discussion of how the All of Us Research Program-to be implemented within the context of social realities of mass incarcerations and racial disparities in criminal justice and healthcare-might excaberate health disparities...
April 2017: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807487/exploring-how-prison-based-drug-rehabilitation-programming-shapes-racial-disparities-in-substance-use-disorder-recovery
#5
Erin M Kerrison
Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative...
August 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661746/the-indefinite-stay-on-regulatory-reforms-for-research-with-prisoners
#6
Elaine Huang, Jennifer K Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646844/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-hiv-infection-among-male-prisoners-in-tehran-iran
#7
SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Behnam Farhoudi, Minoo Mohraz, Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani, Mostafa Hosseini, Marzieh Farnia, Mohammad Shahbazi, Ramin Alasvand, Mehrzad Tashakoriyan
BACKGROUND: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted on 6900 male prisoners in Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. METHODS: In order to find HIV positive prisoners in the prison's quarantine and two housing units, we used HIV active case finding (ACF) strategy by rapid screening test. In ACF, healthcare staff and trained prisoners asked inmates to answer relevant questions about history of risky behaviors related to HIV as well as to be tested voluntarily by HIV rapid test...
June 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619878/clarification-to-prison-litigation-reform-act-three-strikes-rule
#8
Vivek Datta, Tania M Michaels, John R Chamberlain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612900/italian-law-on-the-vehicular-homicide-medical-legal-issues-and-comparative-analysis
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
G Montanari Vergallo, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, V Masotti, R Cecchi, S Zaami
Law no. 41/2016, enacted after a parliamentary debate characterized by a strong media pressure, intends to give a strong response to the growing social alarm caused by road accidents causing deaths. In this perspective, it introduced the categories of road homicide and road injuries within the Penal Code and the new hypotheses of mandatory and facultative arrest in flagrante delicto. This paper aims at comparing the rules by which the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy protect people's lives and safety of vehicular traffic in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses with a view to future reforms...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427371/inside-the-nation-s-largest-mental-health-institution-a-prevalence-study-in-a-state-prison-system
#10
Tala Al-Rousan, Linda Rubenstein, Bruce Sieleni, Harbans Deol, Robert B Wallace
BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404202/hepatitis-c-treatment-as-prevention-evidence-feasibility-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Behzad Hajarizadeh, Jason Grebely, Marianne Martinello, Gail V Matthews, Andrew R Lloyd, Gregory J Dore
The advent of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has heightened discussion of treatment as prevention. Rapid scale-up in many settings, and the prospect of further treatment simplification have extended therapeutic optimism towards HCV elimination. However, questions remain regarding the feasability of HCV treatment as prevention, including real world efficacy of direct-acting antiviral therapy, particularly among people who inject drugs, and whether expanded treatment access will be sufficient to reduce HCV transmission...
December 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343114/seeing-through-the-public-health-smoke-screen-in-drug-policy
#12
Joanne Csete, Daniel Wolfe
In deliberations on drug policy in United Nations fora, a consensus has emerged that drug use and drug dependence should be treated primarily as public health concerns rather than as crimes. But what some member states mean by "public health approach" merits scrutiny. Some governments that espouse treating people who use drugs as "patients, not criminals" still subject them to prison-like detention in the name of drug-dependence treatment or otherwise do not take measures to provide scientifically sound treatment and humane social support to those who need them...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299972/older-and-incarcerated-policy-implications-of-aging-prison-populations
#13
Zachary Psick, Jonathan Simon, Rebecca Brown, Cyrus Ahalt
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299970/human-rights-and-correctional-health-policy-a-view-from-europe
#14
Mary Rogan
Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299967/reducing-the-use-and-impact-of-solitary-confinement-in-corrections
#15
Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P Fox, David Farabee, Brie Williams
Purpose Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally. Design/methodology/approach A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application. Findings Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270476/prison-litigation-reform-act-congressional-statute-not-open-to-judicial-discretion
#16
Celeste Valencia, Charles C Dike
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918186/prison-break-karl-menninger-s-the-crime-of-punishment-and-its-reception-in-u-s-psychology
#17
David C Devonis, Jessica Triggs
In 1968, Karl Menninger, a highly visible and vocal U.S. psychiatrist, published a call to action on prison reform, The Crime of Punishment (Menninger, 1966/1968). This widely circulated book's central idea is that punishment as practiced in penal settings is an injustice amounting to a crime. At the outset, The Crime of Punishment quickly achieved national attention. Within mainstream psychology, its antipunishment message encountered a changed climate in which punishment, thought ineffective during the period 1930 through 1960, was redefined as an effective component in learning...
February 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837570/the-importance-of-the-patients-deemed-not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity-for-the-psychiatric-reform
#18
EDITORIAL
Athanasios Douzenis
According to the Greek Penal Law if someone "because of a morbid disturbance of his mental functioning" (article 34) is acquitted of a crime or misdemeanour that the law punishes with more than 6 months imprisonment, then the court orders that this individual should be kept in a public psychiatric institution if the court reaches the conclusion that this person poses a threat to public safety.1 Individuals who have broken the law and deemed "not guilty by reason of insanity" are treated in psychiatric units of Psychiatric Hospitals according to the article 69 of the Penal Code...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671534/health-and-healthcare-access-among-zambia-s-female-prisoners-a-health-systems-analysis
#19
Stephanie M Topp, Clement N Moonga, Constance Mudenda, Nkandu Luo, Michael Kaingu, Chisela Chileshe, George Magwende, Jody S Heymann, German Henostroza
BACKGROUND: Research exploring the drivers of health outcomes of women who are in prison in low- and middle-income settings is largely absent. This study aimed to identify and examine the interaction between structural, organisational and relational factors influencing Zambian women prisoners' health and healthcare access. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews of 23 female prisoners across four prisons, as well as 21 prison officers and health care workers. The prisoners were selected in a multi-stage sampling design with a purposive selection of prisons followed by a random sampling of cells and of female inmates within cells...
September 26, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665840/psychiatry-and-the-dying-prisoner
#20
Annette Hanson
Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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