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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102293/ocean-warming-and-acidification-synergistically-increase-coral-mortality
#1
F Prada, E Caroselli, S Mengoli, L Brizi, P Fantazzini, B Capaccioni, L Pasquini, K E Fabricius, Z Dubinsky, G Falini, S Goffredo
Organisms that accumulate calcium carbonate structures are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA), potentially reducing the socioeconomic benefits of ecosystems reliant on these taxa. Since rising atmospheric CO2 is responsible for global warming and increasing ocean acidity, to correctly predict how OW and OA will affect marine organisms, their possible interactive effects must be assessed. Here we investigate, in the field, the combined temperature (range: 16-26 °C) and acidification (range: pHTS 8...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101415/endoscopic-sensing-of-alveolar-ph
#2
D Choudhury, M G Tanner, S McAughtrie, F Yu, B Mills, T R Choudhary, S Seth, T H Craven, J M Stone, I K Mati, C J Campbell, M Bradley, C K I Williams, K Dhaliwal, T A Birks, R R Thomson
Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100813/coral-calcifying-fluid-ph-is-modulated-by-seawater-carbonate-chemistry-not-solely-seawater-ph
#3
S Comeau, E Tambutté, R C Carpenter, P J Edmunds, N R Evensen, D Allemand, C Ferrier-Pagès, S Tambutté, A A Venn
Reef coral calcification depends on regulation of pH in the internal calcifying fluid (CF) in which the coral skeleton forms. However, little is known about calcifying fluid pH (pHCF) regulation, despite its importance in determining the response of corals to ocean acidification. Here, we investigate pHCF in the coral Stylophora pistillata in seawater maintained at constant pH with manipulated carbonate chemistry to alter dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and therefore total alkalinity (AT). We also investigate the intracellular pH of calcifying cells, photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates under the same conditions...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100167/conserved-gene-expression-in-sperm-reservoirs-between-birds-and-mammals-in-response-to-mating
#4
Mohammad Atikuzzaman, Manuel Alvarez-Rodriguez, Alejandro Vicente Carrillo, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is currently unknown whether females from these species share conserved mechanisms to tolerate such a lengthy presence of immunologically-foreign spermatozoa...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098943/a-survey-of-the-peptide-profile-in-prato-cheese-as-measured-by-maldi-ms-and-capillary-electrophoresis
#5
Débora Parra Baptista, Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Mirna Lúcia Gigante
In this study, we describe the characterization of the peptide profile in commercial Prato cheese by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Ten commercial Prato cheese brands were characterized via their physicochemical composition and subjected to fractionation according to solubility at pH 4.6. The pH 4.6 insoluble fraction was evaluated by CE, whereas MALDI-MS was applied to the fraction soluble at pH 4.6 and in 70% ethanol. CE revealed a characteristic pattern of hydrolysis, with formation of para-κ-casein, hydrolysis of αs1 -casein at the Phe23 - Phe24 bond, and hydrolysis of β-casein...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098824/fabrication-of-a-miniature-multi-parameter-sensor-chip-for-water-quality-assessment
#6
Bo Zhou, Chao Bian, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
Water contamination is a main inducement of human diseases. It is an important step to monitor the water quality in the water distribution system. Due to the features of large size, high cost, and complicated structure of traditional water determination sensors and devices, it is difficult to realize real-time water monitoring on a large scale. In this paper, we present a multi-parameter sensor chip, which is miniature, low-cost, and robust, to detect the pH, conductivity, and temperature of water simultaneously...
January 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098803/optimization-of-the-production-of-1-phenylethanol-using-enzymes-from-flowers-of-tea-camellia-sinensis-plants
#7
Fang Dong, Ying Zhou, Lanting Zeng, Naoharu Watanabe, Xinguo Su, Ziyin Yang
1-Phenylethanol (1PE) can be used as a fragrance in food flavoring and cosmetic industries and as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry. 1PE can be synthesized from acetophenone, and the cost of 1PE is higher than the cost of acetophenone. Therefore, it is important to establish an effective and low-cost approach for producing 1PE. Our previous studies found that tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers, which are an abundant and waste resource, contained enzymes that could transform acetophenone to 1PE. In the present study, we extracted crude enzymes from tea flowers and optimized the production conditions of 1PE using response surface methodology...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098457/surface-forces-and-rheology-of-titanium-dioxide-in-the-presence-of-dicarboxylic-acids-from-molecular-interactions-to-yield-stress
#8
E-Jen Teh, Yee-Kwong Leong, Vincent S J Craig
The surface forces and yield stress of titanium dioxide were measured in the presence of dicarboxylic acids in order to understand the molecular basis for the observed rheological response. The yield stress was measured using the static vane technique whilst the surface forces were characterised using an Atomic Force Microscope. The trans and cis isomers of butenedioic acid (fumaric and maleic acids respectively) were chosen as the relative orientation of the carboxylic groups differs substantially. This enables us to test the hypothesis that an increase in adhesion leads to an increase in yield stress as a consequence of the dicarboxylic acids participating in highly directed bridging...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098453/surface-engineered-multifunctional-eu-gd2o3-nanoplates-for-targeted-and-ph-responsive-drug-delivery-and-imaging-applications
#9
Arindam Saha, Subas Chandra Mohanta, Kashmiri Deka, Pritam Deb, Parukuttyamma Sujatha Devi
In this paper, we report the synthesis of surface-engineered multifunctional Eu:Gd2O3 triangular nanoplates with small size and uniform shape via a high-temperature solvothermal technique. Surface engineering has been performed by a one-step polyacrylate coating, followed by controlled conjugation chemistry. This creates the desired number of surface functional groups that can be used to attach folic acid as a targeting ligand on the nanoparticle surface. To specifically deliver the drug molecules in the nucleus, the folate density on the nanoparticle surface has been kept low...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098435/supramolecular-helical-nanofibers-formed-by-achiral-monomers-and-their-reversible-sol-gel-transition
#10
Da-Hui Qu, Wen-Zhi Wang, Chuan Gao, Qi Zhang, Xu-Hao Ye
A well-defined supramolecular helical nanofibers has been constructed by a rationally designed achiral monomer in aqueous solution based on the 1:2 host-guest combination between cucurbit[8]uril and a 4,4'-bipyridin-1-ium chloride (BPY+) salt derivative. The formed nanostructures could be adjusted by varying the concentration of monomer from helical nanofibers to pH-responsive hydrogel.
January 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098315/a-ph-responsive-wormlike-micellar-system-of-a-noncovalent-interaction-based-surfactant-with-a-tunable-molecular-structure
#11
Wanli Kang, Pengxiang Wang, Haiming Fan, Hongbin Yang, Caili Dai, Xia Yin, Yilu Zhao, Shujun Guo
Responsive wormlike micelles are very useful in a number of applications, whereas it is still challenging to create dramatic viscosity changes in wormlike micellar systems. Here we developed a pH-responsive wormlike micellar system based on a noncovalent constructed surfactant, which is formed by the complexation of N-erucamidopropyl-N,N-dimethylamine (UC22AMPM) and citric acid at the molar ratio of 3 : 1 (EACA). The phase behavior, aggregate microstructure and viscoelasticity of EACA solutions were investigated by macroscopic appearance observation, rheological and cryo-TEM measurements...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097872/a-dual-responsive-bola-type-supra-amphiphile-constructed-from-water-soluble-pillar-5-arene-and-naphthalimide-containing-amphiphile-for-intracellular-drug-delivery
#12
Xin Liu, Keke Jia, Yichen Wang, Wei Shao, Chenhao Yao, Luming Peng, Dongmei Zhang, Xiao-Yu Hu, Leyong Wang
Supramolecular construction of multi-stimuli platform for drug delivery is a challenging task. In this work, a pH and GSH (glutathione) dual-responsive bola-type supramolecular amphiphile was successfully fabricated by the complexation between a water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) and a bolaform naphthalimide guest (G) in water. The resulting bola-type amphiphile further self-assembled into supramolecular binary vesicles, which could be disassembled by low pH and/or high GSH concentration environment. Furthermore, the results of drug loading and releasing tests showed that doxorubicin (DOX), the hydrophobic anticancer drug, could be successfully encapsulated into the Stern region of the obtained supramolecular vesicles and generated the DOX-loaded vesicles with good drug-loading efficiency...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097830/plant-phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase-cat-the-center-of-plant-innate-immunity
#13
Ahmed M AbdEl-Haliem, Matthieu H A J Joosten
Understanding plant resistance to pathogenic microbes requires detailed information on the molecular mechanismscontrolling the execution of plant innate immune-responses.A growing body of evidence places phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes immediately downstream of activated immune receptors,well upstream of the initiation of early defense responses. An increase of the cytoplasmic levels of free Ca(2+) , lowering of the intercellular pH andthe oxidative burst are a few examples ofsuch responses and these are regulated by PI-PLCs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097384/stress-response-physiology-of-thermophiles
#14
REVIEW
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095853/crispri-mediated-metabolic-engineering-of-e-coli-for-o-methylated-anthocyanin-production
#15
Brady F Cress, Quentin D Leitz, Daniel C Kim, Teresita D Amore, Jon Y Suzuki, Robert J Linhardt, Mattheos A G Koffas
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a class of brightly colored, glycosylated flavonoid pigments that imbue their flower and fruit host tissues with hues of predominantly red, orange, purple, and blue. Although all anthocyanins exhibit pH-responsive photochemical changes, distinct structural decorations on the core anthocyanin skeleton also cause dramatic color shifts, in addition to improved stabilities and unique pharmacological properties. In this work, we report for the first time the extension of the reconstituted plant anthocyanin pathway from (+)-catechin to O-methylated anthocyanins in a microbial production system, an effort which requires simultaneous co-option of the endogenous metabolites UDP-glucose and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095639/early-involvement-of-lysosome-dysfunction-in-the-degeneration-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons-caused-by-the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxynonenal
#16
Shi Zhang, Erez Eitan, Mark P Mattson
Free radical-mediated oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA occurs in neurons during acute brain injuries and in neurodegenerative disorders. Membrane lipid peroxidation contributes to neuronal dysfunction and death, in part by disrupting neuronal ion homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. Emerging findings suggest that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehyde produced during lipid peroxidation, impairs the function of various proteins involved in neuronal homeostasis. Here we tested the hypothesis that HNE impairs the cellular system that removes damaged proteins and organelles, the autophagy - lysosome pathway in rat primary cortical neurons...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094773/methane-emissions-and-microbial-communities-as-influenced-by-dual-cropping-of-azolla-along-with-early-rice
#17
Jingna Liu, Heshui Xu, Ying Jiang, Kai Zhang, Yuegao Hu, Zhaohai Zeng
Azolla caroliniana Willd. is widely used as a green manure accompanying rice, but its ecological importance remains unclear, except for its ability to fix nitrogen in association with cyanobacteria. To investigate the impacts of Azolla cultivation on methane emissions and environmental variables in paddy fields, we performed this study on the plain of Dongting Lake, China, in 2014. The results showed that the dual cropping of Azolla significantly suppressed the methane emissions from paddies, likely due to the increase in redox potential in the root region and dissolved oxygen concentration at the soil-water interface...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094342/optimizing-isothiocyanate-formation-during-enzymatic-glucosinolate-breakdown-by-adjusting-ph-value-temperature-and-dilution-in-brassica-vegetables-and-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Franziska S Hanschen, Rebecca Klopsch, Teresa Oliviero, Monika Schreiner, Ruud Verkerk, Matthijs Dekker
Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094234/association-between-preterm-labor-and-genitourinary-tract-infections-caused-by-trichomonas-vaginalis-mycoplasma-hominis-gram-negative-bacilli-and-coryneforms
#19
Alaa El-Dien M S Hosny, Waleed El-Khayat, Mona T Kashef, Mohsen N Fakhry
BACKGROUND: Preterm labor (PTL) is responsible for most cases of neonatal death. In most of these cases, the causes of PTL have not been established although several risk factors have been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for PTL before 37 gestational weeks among Egyptian women. METHODS: In this case-control study, 117 pregnant women without risk factors for PTL were chosen. The control group (n=45) had term labor (gestational weeks≥37 weeks), and the case group (n=72) had PTL (gestational weeks < 37 weeks)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093948/design-and-evaluation-of-a-stearylated-multicomponent-peptide-sirna-nanocomplex-for-efficient-cellular-sirna-delivery
#20
Yu Wan, Peter M Moyle, Pei Z Gn, Istvan Toth
AIM: To develop a new synthetic peptide-based nanoparticulate siRNA delivery system. MATERIALS & METHODS: DEN-K(GALA)-TAT-K(STR) was generated by incorporating stearic acid into a multicomponent peptide (DEN-K(GALA)-TAT), containing a cationic poly-L-lysine dendron, an endosome-disrupting peptide GALA and a cell-penetrating peptide TAT(48-60). Its physicochemical characteristics, size, toxicity, cellular uptake and gene knockdown activity of the peptide/siRNA complexes were studied...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
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