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Xy body, histone

Harmonie Barasc, Annabelle Congras, Nicolas Mary, Lidwine Trouilh, Valentine Marquet, Stéphane Ferchaud, Isabelle Raymond-Letron, Anne Calgaro, Anne-Marie Loustau-Dudez, Nathalie Mouney-Bonnet, Hervé Acloque, Alain Ducos, Alain Pinton
Individuals carrying balanced constitutional reciprocal translocations generally have a normal phenotype, but often present reproductive disorders. The aim of our research was to analyze the meiotic process in an oligoasthenoteratospermic boar carrying an asymmetric reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 14. Different multivalent structures (quadrivalent and trivalent plus univalent) were identified during chromosome pairing analysis. Some of these multivalents were characterized by the presence of unpaired autosomal segments with histone γH2AX accumulation sometimes associated with the XY body...
December 2016: Chromosome Research
Mengcheng Luo, Jian Zhou, N Adrian Leu, Carla M Abreu, Jianle Wang, Montserrat C Anguera, Dirk G de Rooij, Maria Jasin, P Jeremy Wang
Polycomb group proteins mediate transcriptional silencing in diverse developmental processes. Sex chromosomes undergo chromosome-wide transcription silencing during male meiosis. Here we report that mouse SCML2 (Sex comb on midleg-like 2), an X chromosome-encoded polycomb protein, is specifically expressed in germ cells, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids. SCML2 associates with phosphorylated H2AX and localizes to the XY body in spermatocytes. Loss of SCML2 in mice causes defective spermatogenesis, resulting in sharply reduced sperm production...
January 2015: PLoS Genetics
Judith W Bergs, Nina Neuendorff, Godfried van der Heijden, Evelyne Wassenaar, Peter Rexin, Hans-Peter Elsässer, Roland Moll, Willy M Baarends, Alexander Brehm
ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelers of the CHD family play important roles in chromatin regulation during development and differentiation. The ubiquitously expressed CHD3 and CHD4 proteins are essential for stem cell function and serve to orchestrate gene expression in different developmental settings. By contrast, the closely related CHD5 is predominantly expressed in neural tissue and its role is believed to be restricted to neural differentiation. Indeed, loss of CHD5 contributes to neuroblastoma. In this study, we first demonstrate that CHD5 is a nucleosome-stimulated ATPase...
2014: PloS One
Lu Wang, Wenjing Liu, Weidong Zhao, Gendi Song, Guishuan Wang, Xiaorong Wang, Fei Sun
In mammalian meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are largely unsynapsed and transcriptionally silenced during the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation), forming a specialized nuclear territory called sex or XY body. An increasing number of proteins and noncoding RNAs were found to localize to the sex body and take part in influencing expression of sex chromosome genes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2 (-/-)) spermatocytes show incomplete sex chromosome pairing. Here, we further showed that phosphorylation of CDK2 isoform 1 (p-CDK2(39) [39 kDa]) on threonine 160 localizes to the sites of asynapsis and the sex body, interacting with phosphorylated gamma-H2AX...
June 2014: Biology of Reproduction
Roberta B Sciurano, I Mónica Rahn, Juan C Cavicchia, Alberto J Solari
The XY body from spermatocytes of the rodent Galea musteloides shows progressive changes of the synaptonemal complex (SC) axes and the X-chromatin during pachynema. There is a gross thickening of the X-axis and the formation of a large X chromosome loop at mid and late pachytene stages. The SC proteins synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3), synaptonemal complex protein 1, and synaptonemal complex central element protein 3 and the proteins breast cancer 1, MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), and radiation-repair 51 (related to meiotic processes), the cohesin structural maintenance of chromosome 3, the centromeric protein (with CREST antibody), and the silenced chromatin (with phosphorylated (139ph) H2A histone family, member X (γ-H2AX) antibody) were analyzed in this XY body...
December 2013: Chromosome Research
Paul J Bonthuis, Emilie F Rissman
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior...
October 2013: Endocrinology
Yu-Qiang Shi, Xin-Jie Zhuang, Bo Xu, Juan Hua, Shang-Ying Liao, Qinghua Shi, Howard J Cooke, Chunsheng Han
Meiosis is the process by which diploid germ cells produce haploid gametes. A key event is the formation of the synaptonemal complex. In the pachytene stage, the unpaired regions of X and Y chromosomes form a specialized structure, the XY body, within which gene expression is mostly silenced. In the present study, we showed that SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2, 1700013H16Rik), a novel member of XLR (X-linked Lymphocyte-Regulated) family, was specifically expressed in meiotic germ cells. In the spermatocyte SLX2 was distributed in the nucleus of germ cells at the preleptotene, leptotene and zygotene stages and is then restricted to the XY body at the pachytene stage...
September 15, 2013: Gene
Ana Vasileva, Kevin M Hopkins, Xiangyuan Wang, Melissa M Weisbach, Richard A Friedman, Debra J Wolgemuth, Howard B Lieberman
In mitotic cells, RAD9A functions in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination and facilitates the process by cell cycle checkpoint control in response to DNA damage. DSBs occur naturally in the germline during meiosis but whether RAD9A participates in repairing such breaks is not known. In this study, we determined that RAD9A is indeed expressed in the male germ line with a peak of expression in late pachytene and diplotene stages, and the protein was found associated with the XY body...
September 1, 2013: Journal of Cell Science
Elizabeth B Evans, Cathryn Hogarth, Ryan M Evanoff, Debra Mitchell, Christopher Small, Michael D Griswold
Meiosis is essential for generation of healthy gametes in both sexes and involves recombination and segregation of homologous chromosomes to produce haploid gametes. The initiation of meiosis in both sexes relies upon retinoic acid (RA) (Griswold MD, Hogarth CA, Bowles J, Koopman P. Initiating Meiosis: The Case for Retinoic Acid. Biol Reprod 2012; 86(35):1-7). Previous studies have demonstrated that the stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) was required for meiotic progression in both the mouse ovary and postnatal testis...
September 2012: Biology of Reproduction
Marieke de Vries, Sanne Vosters, Gerard Merkx, Kathleen D'Hauwers, Derick G Wansink, Liliana Ramos, Peter de Boer
In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained...
2012: PloS One
R B Sciurano, M I Rahn, G Rey-Valzacchi, R Coco, A J Solari
The basic molecular mechanisms by which chromosomal rearrangements in heterozygous state produce spermatogenic disturbances are poorly understood. Testicular biopsies from five patients - one carrier of a Robertsonian translocation rob t(13;14), two carriers of two different Y-autosome translocations, a t(Y;6) and a t(Y;11), one carrier of a reciprocal translocation t(3;13) and one carrier of a heterochromatin duplication in chromosome 9 - were processed for histopathological analysis, electron microscopy and fluorescent immunolocalization of meiotic proteins...
August 2012: International Journal of Andrology
Akiko Inagaki, Esther Sleddens-Linkels, Evelyne Wassenaar, Marja Ooms, Wiggert A van Cappellen, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jost Seibler, Thomas F Vogt, Myung K Shin, J Anton Grootegoed, Willy M Baarends
RAD18 is an ubiquitin ligase that is involved in replication damage bypass and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes in mitotic cells. Here, we investigated the testicular phenotype of Rad18-knockdown mice to determine the function of RAD18 in meiosis, and in particular, in the repair of meiotic DSBs induced by the meiosis-specific topoisomerase-like enzyme SPO11. We found that RAD18 is recruited to a specific subfraction of persistent meiotic DSBs. In addition, RAD18 is recruited to the chromatin of the XY chromosome pair, which forms the transcriptionally silent XY body...
August 15, 2011: Journal of Cell Science
Ryusuke Chizaki, Ikuko Yao, Tayo Katano, Tadashi Matsuda, Seiji Ito
The development of multicellular organisms is controlled by sequential activation of a hierarchy of regulatory genes, which encode transcription factors having DNA-binding motifs. We previously identified a testis-specific zinc finger transcriptional factor, Ovol2/MOVO, as a mouse homologue of Drosophila Ovo. Because mice deficient in Ovol2/Movo die during early embryogenesis, its function in male germ cells has remained unknown. We have recently succeeded in preparing anti-Ovol2/MOVO antiserum for immunohistochemical use...
March 2012: Journal of Andrology
Yosuke Ichijima, Misako Ichijima, Zhenkun Lou, André Nussenzweig, R Daniel Camerini-Otero, Junjie Chen, Paul R Andreassen, Satoshi H Namekawa
Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear. Here we identify an essential mechanism underlying the recognition of the chromosome-wide domain in the male germline. We show that mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), a binding partner of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), defines the chromosome-wide domain, initiates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), and leads to XY body formation...
May 1, 2011: Genes & Development
Makiko Tsutsumi, Hiroshi Kogo, Hiroe Kowa-Sugiyama, Hidehito Inagaki, Tamae Ohye, Hiroki Kurahashi
Xlr6 is a novel but uncharacterized X-linked gene that is upregulated in meiotic prophase I during mouse spermatogenesis. Xlr6 belongs to the Xlr gene family, which includes a component of the axial/lateral element of the synaptonemal complex, Sycp3, and its transcripts are abundant in the fetal ovary and adult testis. Immunostaining and Western blot analysis demonstrate a diffuse localization pattern for this protein in the nucleus and an association with chromatin during the leptotene and zygotene stages...
July 2011: Biology of Reproduction
T J Crow
Less than 2% of the 80-90% heritability of major psychiatric disease, for example, schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness is attributable to genes identified by linkage and association. Where is the missing heritability? The recently described PRDM9 gene imposes epigenetic stability on the XY body in male meiosis including Sapiens-specific variation relating to a gene pair (Protocadherin11XY) created by X to Y duplication at 6MYA. Thus sexually dimorphic variation that distinguishes the species may be transmitted between generations in epigenetic form that evades detection by linkage and association...
April 2011: Molecular Psychiatry
Claudia Baumann, Christopher M Daly, Sue M McDonnell, Maria M Viveiros, Rabindranath De La Fuente
Pairing of the sex chromosomes during mammalian meiosis is characterized by the formation of a unique heterochromatin structure at the XY body. The mechanisms underlying the formation of this nuclear domain are reportedly highly conserved from marsupials to mammals. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to all eutherian species studied to date, partial synapsis of the heterologous sex chromosomes during pachytene stage in the horse is not associated with the formation of a typical macrochromatin domain at the XY body...
June 2011: Chromosoma
Eleanor M Maine
In many animals and some fungi, mechanisms have been described that target unpaired chromosomes and chromosomal regions for silencing during meiotic prophase. These phenomena, collectively called "meiotic silencing," target sex chromosomes in the heterogametic sex, for example, the X chromosome in male nematodes and the XY-body in male mice, and also target any other chromosomes that fail to synapse due to mutation or chromosomal rearrangement. Meiotic silencing phenomena are hypothesized to maintain genome integrity and perhaps function in setting up epigenetic control of embryogenesis...
2010: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Eskeatnaf Mulugeta Achame, Evelyne Wassenaar, Jos W Hoogerbrugge, Esther Sleddens-Linkels, Marja Ooms, Zu-Wen Sun, Wilfred F J van IJcken, J Anton Grootegoed, Willy M Baarends
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme HR6B is required for spermatogenesis in mouse. Loss of HR6B results in aberrant histone modification patterns on the trancriptionally silenced X and Y chromosomes (XY body) and on centromeric chromatin in meiotic prophase. We studied the relationship between these chromatin modifications and their effects on global gene expression patterns, in spermatocytes and spermatids. RESULTS: HR6B is enriched on the XY body and on centromeric regions in pachytene spermatocytes...
June 10, 2010: BMC Genomics
Sam Schoenmakers, Evelyne Wassenaar, Jos W Hoogerbrugge, Joop S E Laven, J Anton Grootegoed, Willy M Baarends
During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase...
May 2009: PLoS Genetics
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