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Codon usage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209199/making-life-difficult-for-clostridium-difficile-augmenting-the-pathogen-s-metabolic-model-with-transcriptomic-and-codon-usage-data-for-better-therapeutic-target-characterization
#1
Sara Saheb Kashaf, Claudio Angione, Pietro Lió
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which can infect various animal species, including humans. Infection with this bacterium is a leading healthcare-associated illness. A better understanding of this organism and the relationship between its genotype and phenotype is essential to the search for an effective treatment. Genome-scale metabolic models contain all known biochemical reactions of a microorganism and can be used to investigate this relationship. RESULTS: We present icdf834, an updated metabolic network of C...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198504/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-amur-hedgehog-erinaceus-amurensis-erinaceidae-and-higher-phylogeny-of-the-family-erinaceidae
#2
N H Kim, S J Lim, H M Chae, Y C Park
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome (KX964606) of the Amur hedgehog Erinaceus amurensis to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Erinaceus (Erinaceidae). The mitogenome of E. amurensis is a circular molecule 16,941 bp long, consisting of a control region and a conserved set of 37 genes containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of E. amurensis is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 33.9% A, 21...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188868/gene-sequence-variations-and-expression-patterns-of-mitochondrial-genes-are-associated-with-the-adaptive-evolution-of-two-gynaephora-species-lepidoptera-lymantriinae-living-in-different-high-elevation-environments
#3
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Tian-Xuan Zhao, Juan Wang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
The adaptive evolution of animals to high-elevation environments has been extensively studied in vertebrates, while few studies have focused on insects. Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and represent an important insect pest of alpine meadows. Here, we present a detailed comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two Gynaephora species inhabiting different high-elevation environments: G. alpherakii and G. menyuanensis. The results indicated that the general mitogenomic features (genome size, nucleotide composition, codon usage and secondary structures of tRNAs) were well conserved between the two species...
February 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187713/novel-methods-to-optimize-gene-and-statistic-test-for-evaluation-an-application-for-escherichia-coli
#4
Tran Tuan-Anh, Le Thi Ly, Ngo Quoc Viet, Pham The Bao
BACKGROUND: Since the recombinant protein was discovered, it has become more popular in many aspects of life science. The value of global pharmaceutical market was $87 billion in 2008 and the sales for industrial enzyme exceeded $4 billion in 2012. This is strong evidence showing the great potential of recombinant protein. However, native genes introduced into a host can cause incompatibility of codon usage bias, GC content, repeat region, Shine-Dalgarno sequence with host's expression system, so the yields can fall down significantly...
February 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185367/codon-degeneracy-and-amino-acid-abundance-influence-the-measures-of-codon-usage-bias-improved-nc-n%C3%AC-c-and-encprime-n%C3%AC-c-measures
#5
Siddhartha Sankar Satapathy, Ajit Kumar Sahoo, Suvendra Kumar Ray, Tapash Chandra Ghosh
Effective number of codons (N^c) and its variant N^'c (effective number of codons prime) are the two widely used methods for measuring unequal usage of synonymous codons in coding sequences, known as the codon usage bias (CUB). The mathematical formula used in calculating N^c and N^'c values is giving inappropriate measures of CUB in case of low abundance of amino acids. In addition, the magnitude of error also varies according to codon degeneracy. In this study, a modified formula for N^c and N^'c has been developed to measure the CUB more accurately...
February 10, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185042/phylogenomic-relationship-of-feijoa-acca-sellowiana-o-berg-burret-with-other-myrtaceae-based-on-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences
#6
Lilian Oliveira de Machado, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Valdir Marcos Stefenon, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Rubens Onofre Nodari
Given their distribution, importance, and richness, Myrtaceae species comprise a model system for studying the evolution of tropical plant diversity. In addition, chloroplast (cp) genome sequencing is an efficient tool for phylogenetic relationship studies. Feijoa [Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret; CN: pineapple-guava] is a Myrtaceae species that occurs naturally in southern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Feijoa is known for its exquisite perfume and flavorful fruits, pharmacological properties, ornamental value and increasing economic relevance...
February 9, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178222/complete-chloroplast-genome-of-medicinal-plant-lonicera-japonica-genome-rearrangement-intron-gain-and-loss-and-implications-for-phylogenetic-studies
#7
Liu He, Jun Qian, Xiwen Li, Zhiying Sun, Xiaolan Xu, Shilin Chen
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Lonicera japonica, a common ornamental and medicinal plant in North America and East Asia, was sequenced and analyzed. The length of the L. japonica cp genome is 155,078 bp, contains a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), of 23,774 bp each, as well as large (LSC, 88,858 bp) and small (SSC, 18,672 bp) single-copy regions. A total of 129 genes were identified in the cp genome, 16 of which were duplicated within the IR regions. Relative to other plant cp genomes, the L...
February 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177830/analysis-of-codon-usage-patterns-in-morus-notabilis-based-on-genome-and-transcriptome-data
#8
Yan Wen, Ziliang Zou, Hongshun Li, Zhonghuai Xiang, Ningjia He
Codons play important roles in regulating gene expression levels and mRNA half-lives. However, codon usage and related studies in multicellular organisms still lag far behind those in unicellular organisms. In this study, we describe for the first time genome-wide patterns of codon bias in Morus notabilis (mulberry tree), and analyze genome-wide codon usage in 12 other Rosales species. The codon usage of M. notabilis was affected by nucleotide composition, mutation pressure, nature selection, and gene expression level...
January 3, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168289/ribo-seq-enlightens-codon-usage-bias
#9
Damien Paulet, Alexandre David, Eric Rivals
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160143/molecular-characterisation-of-fowl-adenovirus-type-7-isolated-from-poultry-associated-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-in-poland
#10
Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk
The fowl adenovirus field strain FAdV-JSN-5/10j (GenBank accession number KP879219) was isolated from the intestine of a 7-week-old chicken diagnosed with inclusion body hepatitis and simultaneously with Marek's disease, and for that reason, it was chosen for molecular study. It was identified as fowl adenovirus genotype 7 (species Fowl aviadenovirus E) based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the loop L1 region of the hexon gene. Nucleotide sequence alignment of this strain, FAdV-7 reference strains B-3A ATCC VR-832 (AF339922) and YR36 (AF508955), and eight additional FAdV-7 field strains confirmed its classification as FAdV-JS-5/10j and showed that these viruses are very similar to each other...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154517/tissue-specific-expression-levels-of-apoptosis-involved-genes-have-correlations-with-codon-and-amino-acid-usage
#11
Mohammadreza Hajjari, Iman Sadeghi, Abbas Salavaty, Habib Nasiri, Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani
Different mechanisms, including transcriptional and post transcriptional processes, regulate tissue specific expression of genes. In this study, we report differences in gene/protein compositional features between apoptosis involved genes selectively expressed in human tissues. We found some correlations between codon/amino acid usage and tissue specific expression level of genes. The findings can be significant for understanding the translational selection on these features. The selection may play an important role in the differentiation of human tissues and can be considered for future studies in diagnosis of some diseases such as cancer...
December 2016: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138738/expression-of-a-codon-optimized-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-cellulomonas-flavigena-pr-22-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-bioethanol-production-from-cellobiose
#12
Francisco Javier Ríos-Fránquez, Enrique González-Bautista, Teresa Ponce-Noyola, Ana Carmela Ramos-Valdivia, Héctor Mario Poggi-Varaldo, Jaime García-Mena, Alfredo Martinez
Bioethanol is one of the main biofuels produced from the fermentation of saccharified agricultural waste; however, this technology needs to be optimized for profitability. Because the commonly used ethanologenic yeast strains are unable to assimilate cellobiose, several efforts have been made to express cellulose hydrolytic enzymes in these yeasts to produce ethanol from lignocellulose. The C. flavigenabglA gene encoding β-glucosidase catalytic subunit was optimized for preferential codon usage in S. cerevisiae...
January 30, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130234/evolutionary-design-of-multiple-genes-encoding-the-same-protein
#13
Goro Terai, Satoshi Kamegai, Akito Taneda, Kiyoshi Asai
MOTIVATION: Enhancing expression levels of a target protein is an important goal in synthetic biology. A widely used strategy is to integrate multiple copies of genes encoding a target protein into a host organism genome. Integrating highly similar sequences, however, can induce homologous recombination between them, resulting in the ultimate reduction of the number of integrated genes. RESULTS: We propose a method for designing multiple protein-coding sequences (i...
January 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124482/nucleotide-composition-and-codon-usage-bias-of-sry-gene
#14
M N Choudhury, A Uddin, S Chakraborty
The SRY gene is present within the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome which is responsible for maleness in mammals. The nonuniform usage of synonymous codons in the mRNA transcript for encoding a particular amino acid is the codon usage bias (CUB). Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and molecular organisation of a gene. It also helps in heterologous gene expression, design of primer and synthetic gene. However, the analysis of codon usage bias of SRY gene was not yet studied...
January 26, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122952/the-impact-of-selection-at-the-amino-acid-level-on-the-usage-of-synonymous-codons
#15
Paweł Błažej, Dorota Mackiewicz, Małgorzata Wnętrzak, Paweł Mackiewicz
There are two main forces that affect usage of synonymous codons: directional mutational pressure and selection. The effectiveness of protein translation is usually considered as the main selectional factor. However, the biased codon usage can be also a by-product of a general selection at the amino acid level interacting with nucleotide replacements. To evaluate the validity and strength of such effect, we superimposed more than 3.5 billion unrestricted mutational processes on the selection of non-synonymous substitutions based on the differences in physicochemical properties of the coded amino acids...
January 25, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086981/does-antiretroviral-treatment-change-hiv-1-codon-usage-patterns-in-its-genes-a-preliminary-bioinformatics-study
#16
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Nathan Osman, Frédéric Ohnona, Hong-Tao Xu, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplède, Mark A Wainberg
BACKGROUND: Codon usage bias has been described for various organisms and is thought to contribute to the regulation of numerous biological processes including viral infections. HIV-1 codon usage has been previously shown to be different from that of other viruses and man. It is evident that the antiretroviral drugs used to restrict HIV-1 replication also select for resistance variants. We wanted to test whether codon frequencies in HIV-1 sequences from treatment-experienced patients differ from those of treatment-naive individuals due to drug pressure affecting codon usage bias...
January 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068395/correction-analysis-of-synonymous-codon-usage-bias-of-zika-virus-and-its-adaption-to-the-hosts
#17
Hongju Wang, Siqing Liu, Bo Zhang, Wenqiang Wei
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166260.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974854/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-leucoma-salicis-lepidoptera-lymantriidae-and-comparison-with-other-lepidopteran-insects
#18
Yu-Xuan Sun, Lei Wang, Guo-Qing Wei, Cen Qian, Li-Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Bao-Jian Zhu, Chao-Liang Liu
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoma salicis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) was sequenced and annotated. It is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp, containing the 37 genes usually present in insect mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, other than cox1, which is initiated by CGA. Three of the 13 PCGs had an incomplete termination codon, T or TA, while the others terminated with TAA. The relative synonymous codon usage of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) was consistent with those of published lepidopteran sequences...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966614/imbalanced-positive-selection-maintains-the-functional-divergence-of-duplicated-dihydrokaempferol-4-reductase-genes
#19
Bing-Hong Huang, Yi-Wen Chen, Chia-Lung Huang, Jian Gao, Pei-Chun Liao
Gene duplication could be beneficial by functional division but might increase the risk of genetic load. The dynamics of duplicated paralogs number could involve recombination, positive selection, and functional divergence. Duplication of DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE (DFR) has been reported in several organisms and may have been retained by escape from adaptive conflict (EAC). In this study, we screened the angiosperm DFR gene focusing on a diversified genus Scutellaria to investigate how these duplicated genes are retained...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964762/new-tools-to-analyze-overlapping-coding-regions
#20
Amir H Bayegan, Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin, Peter Clote
BACKGROUND: Retroviruses transcribe messenger RNA for the overlapping Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, by using a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift which requires a slippery sequence and an immediate downstream stem-loop secondary structure, together called frameshift stimulating signal (FSS). It follows that the molecular evolution of this genomic region of HIV-1 is highly constrained, since the retroviral genome must contain a slippery sequence (sequence constraint), code appropriate peptides in reading frames 0 and 1 (coding requirements), and form a thermodynamically stable stem-loop secondary structure (structure requirement)...
December 13, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
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