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Codon usage

Thiago J Nakayama, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Norman Neumaier, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Hugo B C Molinari, Thaís R Santiago, Eduardo F Formighieri, Marcos F Basso, José R B Farias, Beatriz M Emygdio, Ana C B de Oliveira, Ângela D Campos, Aluízio Borém, Frank G Harmon, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits...
2017: PloS One
Oriah Mioduser, Eli Goz, Tamir Tuller
BACKGROUND: Viruses undergo extensive evolutionary selection for efficient replication which effects, among others, their codon distribution. In the current study, we aimed at understanding the way evolution shapes the codon distribution in early vs. late viral genes in terms of their expression during different stages in the viral replication cycle. To this end we analyzed 14 bacteriophages and 11 human viruses with available information about the expression phases of their genes. RESULTS: We demonstrated evidence of selection for distinct composition of synonymous codons in early and late viral genes in 50% of the analyzed bacteriophages...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
Pichia pastoris has been recognized as one of the most industrially important hosts for heterologous protein production. Despite its high protein productivity, the optimization of P. pastoris cultivation is still imperative due to strain- and product-specific challenges such as promoter strength, methanol utilization type and oxygen demand. To address the issues, strategies involving genetic and process engineering have been employed. Optimization of codon usage and gene dosage, as well as engineering of promoters, protein secretion pathways and methanol metabolic pathways have proved beneficial to innate protein expression levels...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Ke-Cheng Zhu, Yin-Yin Liang, Na Wu, Hua-Yang Guo, Nan Zhang, Shi-Gui Jiang, Dian-Chang Zhang
To further comprehend the genome features of Cephalloscyllium umbratile (Carcharhiniformes), an endangered species, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was firstly sequenced and annotated. The full-length mtDNA of C. umbratile was 16,697 bp and contained ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 23 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a major non-coding control region. Each PCG was initiated by an authoritative ATN codon, except for COX1 initiated by a GTG codon. Seven of 13 PCGs had a typical TAA termination codon, while others terminated with a single T or TA...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zheng-Lun Zhu, Qiu-Meng Yang, Chen Li, Jun Chen, Min Xiang, Ming-Min Chen, Min Yan, Zheng-Gang Zhu
The aim of the current study was to identify potential biomarkers of childhood obesity, and investigate molecular mechanisms and candidate agents in order to improve therapeutic strategies for childhood obesity. The GSE9624 gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in omental adipose tissues were analyzed with limma package by comparing samples from obese and normal control children. Two‑way hierarchical clustering was applied using the pheatmap package...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Md Reyazul Islam, Nan-Sun Kim, Jae-Wan Jung, Hyo-Boon Kim, So-Chon Han, Moon-Sik Yang
A human pepsinogen C (hPGC) gene was synthesized with rice-optimized codon usage and cloned into a rice expression vector containing the promoter, signal peptide, and terminator derived from the rice α-amylase 3D (Ramy3D) gene. In addition, a 6-His tag was added to the 3' end of the synthetic hPGC gene for easy purification. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of the hPGC gene into the chromosome of the transgenic rice callus and hPGC expression in transgenic rice cell suspensions was verified via genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blot analysis...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Sergey V Venev, Konstantin B Zeldovich
Prokaryotes evolved to thrive in an extremely diverse set of habitats, and their proteomes bear signatures of environmental conditions. Although correlations between amino acid usage and environmental temperature are well documented, understanding of the mechanisms of thermal adaptation remains incomplete. Here, we couple the energetic costs of protein folding and protein homeostasis to build a microscopic model explaining both the overall amino acid composition and its temperature trends. Low biosynthesis costs lead to low diversity of physical interactions between amino acid residues, which in turn makes proteins less stable and drives up chaperone activity to maintain appropriate levels of folded, functional proteins...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Marcel Noßmann, Jana Pieper, Falk Hillmann, Axel A Brakhage, Thomas Munder
The tRNA population reflects the codon bias of the organism and affects the translation of heterologous target mRNA molecules. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with modified levels of rare tRNA were engineered, that allowed efficient generation of recombinant proteins with unfavorable codon usage. We established a novel synthetic tRNA expression cassette and verified functional nonsense suppressor tRNA(GlnS)CUA generation in a stop codon read-through assay with a modified β-galactosidase reporter gene...
November 2, 2017: Current Genetics
Hui Song, Hongjun Gao, Jing Liu, Pei Tian, Zhibiao Nan
The relationship between evolutionary rates and gene expression in model plant orthologs is well documented. However, little is known about the relationships between gene expression and evolutionary trends in Arachis orthologs. We identified 7,435 one-to-one orthologs, including 925 single-copy and 6,510 multiple-copy sequences in Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis. Codon usage was stronger for shorter polypeptides, which were encoded by codons with higher GC contents. Highly expressed coding sequences had higher codon usage bias, GC content, and expression breadth...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anabel Rodriguez, Gabriel Wright, Scott Emrich, Patricia L Clark
Most amino acids can be encoded by more than one synonymous codon, but these are rarely used with equal frequency. In many coding sequences the usage patterns of rare versus common synonymous codons is non-random and under selection. Moreover, synonymous substitutions that alter these patterns can have a substantial impact on the folding efficiency of the encoded protein. This has ignited broad interest in exploring synonymous codon usage patterns. For many protein chemists, biophysicists and structural biologists, the primary motivation for codon analysis is identifying and preserving usage patterns most likely to impact high-yield production of functional proteins...
November 1, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Hyeonju Son, Hyundeok Kang, Hyun Seok Kim, Sangwoo Kim
Accumulation of DNA mutations alters amino acid sequence in the key domains of oncoproteins, leading to cellular malignant transformation. Due to redundancy of the genetic code, the same amino acid alteration can be achieved by multiple distinct genetic mutations, which are considered functionally identical and not actively distinguished in the current cancer genome research. For the first time, we analyzed the distribution of codon level transitions acquired by somatic mutations in human cancers. By analyzing the ~2...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Supinya Phakaratsakul, Thanyaporn Sirihongthong, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Prasert Auewarakul
Codon usage bias can be a result of either mutational bias or selection for translational efficiency and/or accuracy. Previous data has suggested that nucleotide composition constraint was the main determinant of HIV codon usage, and that nucleotide composition and codon usage were different between the regulatory genes, tat and rev, and other viral genes. It is not clear whether translational selection contributed to the codon usage difference and how nucleotide composition and translational selection interact to determine HIV codon usage...
October 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
Gulshana A Mazumder, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Codon usage bias refers to the phenomenon where synonymous codons are used with unequal frequencies. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial cytochrome B (MT-CYB) gene of phylum platyhelminth we used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein coding sequences of five different classes - cestoda, monogenea, rabditophora, trematoda and turbellaria. It was found from nucleotide composition analysis that in all the classes, A/T-ended codons were preferred over G/C-ended codons. From box plot analysis GC1 found to have highest response to codon usage bias...
October 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hoai J Ly, Shoko Nishiyama, Nandadeva Lokugamage, Jennifer K Smith, Lihong Zhang, David Perez, Terry L Juelich, Alexander N Freiberg, Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that affects sheep, cattle, goats, camels, and humans. Effective vaccination of susceptible ruminants is important for the prevention of RVF outbreaks. Live-attenuated RVF vaccines are in general highly immunogenic in ruminants, whereas residual virulence might be a concern for vulnerable populations. It is also important for live-attenuated strains to encode unique genetic markers for the differentiation from wild-type RVFV strains...
October 20, 2017: Vaccine
Botond Hegedüs, Péter B Kós, Gábor Bende, Naila Bounedjoum, Gergely Maróti, Krisztián Laczi, Márk Szuhaj, Katalin Perei, Gábor Rákhely
Novosphingobium resinovorum SA1 was the first single isolate capable of degrading sulfanilic acid, a widely used representative of sulfonated aromatic compounds. The genome of the strain was recently sequenced, and here, we present whole-cell transcriptome analyses of cells exposed to sulfanilic acid as compared to cells grown on glucose. The comparison of the transcript profiles suggested that the primary impact of sulfanilic acid on the cell transcriptome was a starvation-like effect. The genes of the peripheral, central, and common pathways of sulfanilic acid biodegradation had distinct transcript profiles...
October 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tue Kjærgaard Nielsen, Alexander Byth Carstens, Patrick Browne, René Lametsch, Horst Neve, Witold Kot, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen
This study describes the first molecular characterization of a bacteriophage infecting a member of the environmentally important Sphingomonadaceae family. Both bacteriophage Lacusarx and its host Sphingobium sp. IP1 were isolated from activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. Genome sequencing revealed that the phage genes display little similarity to other known phages, despite a remarkable conservation of the synteny in which the functional genes occur among distantly related phages. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that Lacusarx represents a hitherto undescribed genus of phages...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexei Y Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, Anna Nenarokova, Daria Tashyreva, Pavel Flegontov, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
We have sequenced, annotated, and analyzed the genome of Ca. Pandoraea novymonadis, a recently described bacterial endosymbiont of the trypanosomatid Novymonas esmeraldas. When compared with genomes of its free-living relatives, it has all the hallmarks of the endosymbionts' genomes, such as significantly reduced size, extensive gene loss, low GC content, numerous gene rearrangements, and low codon usage bias. In addition, Ca. P. novymonadis lacks mobile elements, has a strikingly low number of pseudogenes, and almost all genes are single copied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Irepan Salvador-Martínez, Marta Coronado-Zamora, David Castellano, Antonio Barbadilla, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
We present a survey of selection across Drosophila melanogaster embryonic anatomy. Our approach integrates genomic variation, spatial gene expression patterns and development, with the aim of mapping adaptation over the entire embryo's anatomy. Our adaptation map is based on analyzing spatial gene expression information for 5,969 genes (from text-based annotations of in situ hybridization data directly from the BDGP database, Tomancak et al. 2007) and the polymorphism and divergence in these genes (from the project DGRP, Mackay et al...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Daria Krefft, Aliaksei Papkov, Agnieszka Zylicz-Stachula, Piotr M Skowron
Obtaining thermostable enzymes (thermozymes) is an important aspect of biotechnology. As thermophiles have adapted their genomes to high temperatures, their cloned genes' expression in mesophiles is problematic. This is mainly due to their high GC content, which leads to the formation of unfavorable secondary mRNA structures and codon usage in Escherichia coli (E. coli). RM.TthHB27I is a member of a family of bifunctional thermozymes, containing a restriction endonuclease (REase) and a methyltransferase (MTase) in a single polypeptide...
2017: PloS One
Zhenguo Zhang, Gaurav Sablok
One amino acid is added to a growing peptide by a ribosome through reading triple nucleotides, i.e., a codon, each time. Twenty species of amino acids are often coded by 61 codons, so one amino acid can be coded by more than one codon and the codons coding the same amino acid are called synonymous. Intriguingly, synonymous codons' usage is often uneven: some are used more often than their alternatives in a genome. The unevenness of codon usage is termed codon usage bias (CUB). CUB is widespread, and its causes and consequences have been under intensive investigation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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