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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648615/a-multicomponent-behavioral-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy-a-nonconcurrent-multiple-baseline-design
#1
Xiaozhong Wen, Rina D Eiden, Faye E Justicia-Linde, Youfa Wang, Stephen T Higgins, Nicolas Thor, Arsalan Haghdel, Ariel R Peters, Leonard H Epstein
Given serious consequences of maternal smoking, we aimed to develop and test a multicomponent behavioral intervention to enhance smoking cessation during pregnancy. In this nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline intervention pilot study, 48 daily smoking pregnant women (mean 13.7 weeks of gestation) were recruited from Buffalo, NY, USA. Upon completion of the repeated baseline smoking monitoring (up to 3 weeks), 30 continuous smokers received a contingent financial incentive-based intervention with three additional components (education and counseling, monitoring and feedback, and family support)...
April 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622716/bilateral-multifocal-acute-lobar-nephronia-caused-by-enterococcus-faecalis
#2
Yoshiki Kusama, Kunio Muraki
An 8-year-old boy presented to our hospital with complaints of fever, epigastric pain and headache. Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from urine and blood culture, bacteraemic urinary tract infection was clinically diagnosed. Although vancomycin and ampicillin were administrated, fever did not subside. Contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) revealed bilateral and multiple wedge-shaped defects, thus prompting a diagnosis of acute lobar nephronia (ALN). After 7 days of antibiotic treatment, the patient's fever subsided...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621837/leptospirosis
#3
Colleen L Lau, Nicola Townell, Eloise Stephenson, Debra van den Berg, Scott B Craig
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. Infection occurs through contact with infected animals, or soil or water that has been contaminated by the urine of infected animals. Risk factors include occupational and recreational exposures, contact with floodwaters, and travel to areas with a high risk of leptospirosis, particularly tropical, developing countries. With climate change, flood-related outbreaks are becoming more common. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to improve awareness of leptospirosis, and provide an update for general practitioners on its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, management and prevention...
March 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621001/antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-surgical-patients-with-peritonitis-at-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-rwanda
#4
Jennifer Rickard, Christian Ngarambe, Leonard Ndayizeye, Blair Smart, Robert Riviello, Jean Paul Majyambere, Rahel G Ghebre
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the worsening problem of antibiotic resistance and the need for antibiotic stewardship in low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in patients undergoing surgery for peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All surgical patients with peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital were enrolled. Prospective data were collected on epidemiology, clinical features, interventions, and outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609886/risk-factors-for-reinsertion-of-urinary-catheter-after-early-removal-in-thoracic-surgical-patients
#5
John Young, Travis Geraci, Steven Milman, Andrew Maslow, Richard N Jones, Thomas Ng
OBJECTIVES: To reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection, Surgical Care Improvement Project 9 mandates the removal of urinary catheters within 48 hours postoperatively. In patients with thoracic epidural anesthesia, we sought to determine the rate of catheter reinsertion, the complications of reinsertion, and the factors associated with reinsertion. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing major pulmonary or esophageal resection with thoracic epidural analgesia over a 2-year period...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608476/outcomes-after-open-reduction-with-internal-fixation-of-mandible-fractures
#6
Rahman G Barry, Thao T Wolbert, Todd W Gress, Peter D Ray, Farid B Mozaffari
INTRODUCTION/HYPOTHESIS: Mandible fractures contribute substantially to morbidity after blunt trauma. Controversy exists surrounding the appropriate timing of surgical intervention and benefit from routine postreduction imaging. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 146 patients who sustained traumatic mandible fractures at a level 2 trauma center over a 5-year period, between January 2012 and December 2016. The authors excluded all patients who did not undergo surgery, underwent operative closed reduction only, sustained other significant maxillofacial injuries, penetrating mechanisms, and other major injuries based on injury severity scores (ISS) over 15...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606256/-renal-toxicity-of-high-dose-methotrexate
#7
Hugo Garcia, Véronique Leblond, François Goldwasser, Didier Bouscary, Emmanuel Raffoux, Nicolas Boissel, Sophie Broutin, Dominique Joly
INTRODUCTION: High-dose methotrexate (at least 1g/m2 ) is used to treat haematologic malignancies and osteosarcomas. Acute kidney injury is a well-known adverse-event after high-dose methotrexate and may lead to delayed drug elimination. Besides usual therapeutics (hyperhydration, urine alkalinisation, leucovorin rescue, renal replacement therapy), a costly specific enzymatic treatment (glucarpidase) is now available but its clinical impact remains elusive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed high-dose methotrexate prescription charts in 11 clinical centres during the last 15 years to identify and describe adult patients who developed acute kidney injury (according to KDIGO classification)...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603122/postconditioning-effects-of-argon-or-xenon-on-early-graft-function-in-a-porcine-model-of-kidney-autotransplantation
#8
J De Deken, S Rex, E Lerut, W Martinet, D Monbaliu, J Pirenne, I Jochmans
BACKGROUND: Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is inevitable during renal transplantation and can lead to delayed graft function and primary non-function. Preconditioning, reconditioning and postconditioning with argon and xenon protects against renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rodent models. The hypothesis that postconditioning with argon or xenon inhalation would improve graft function in a porcine renal autotransplant model was tested. METHODS: Pigs (n = 6 per group) underwent left nephrectomy after 60 min of warm ischaemia (renal artery and vein clamping)...
March 30, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597259/the-role-of-circulating-free-dna-and-microrna-in-non-invasive-diagnosis-of-hbv-and-hcv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Pezzuto, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third and the fifth leading cause of cancer related death worldwide in men and in women, respectively. HCC generally has a poor prognosis, with a very low 5-year overall survival, due to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Early tumour detection and timely intervention are the best strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in HCC patients. Histological evaluation of liver biopsies is the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, although it is an invasive, time-consuming and expensive procedure...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576370/small-intestinal-absorption-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complicated-by-cor-pulmonale-a-pilot-study
#10
S K Andersen, A L S Hardis, O D Tupper, A M B Soja, B Nilsson, C S Ulrik, J R Andersen
BACKGROUND: Cor pulmonale is a common complication to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and may result in increased pressure in the inferior caval vein and stasis of the liver. The chronic pulmonary hypertension may lead to stasis in the veins from the small intestine and thereby compromise absorption of nutrients. AIM: To investigate whether patients with pulmonary hypertension have reduced absorption capacity compared to COPD patients without cor pulmonale...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575569/clinical-biochemical-and-genetic-features-of-four-patients-with-short-chain-enoyl-coa-hydratase-echs1-deficiency
#11
Patricia E Fitzsimons, Charlotte L Alston, Penelope E Bonnen, Joanne Hughes, Ellen Crushell, Michael T Geraghty, Martine Tetreault, Peter O'Reilly, Eilish Twomey, Yusra Sheikh, Richard Walsh, Hans R Waterham, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Ronald J A Wanders, Robert W Taylor, James J Pitt, Philip D Mayne
Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH or ECHS1) deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by biallelic mutations in the gene ECHS1 (OMIM 602292). Clinical presentation includes infantile-onset severe developmental delay, regression, seizures, elevated lactate, and brain MRI abnormalities consistent with Leigh syndrome (LS). Characteristic abnormal biochemical findings are secondary to dysfunction of valine metabolism. We describe four patients from two consanguineous families (one Pakistani and one Irish Traveler), who presented in infancy with LS...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569813/prospective-monitoring-of-adenovirus-infection-and-type-analysis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-study-in-korea
#12
Ji-Man Kang, Ki-Sup Park, Jong Min Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong-Hoe Koo, Yae-Jean Kim
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of human adenovirus (HAdV) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have been conducted mostly in European countries where HAdV 2 (species C) has been most prevalent in the community. The main objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and the characteristics of HAdV infection in Korean allogeneic HCT recipients (< 19 years). METHODS: In a prospective study from April 2012 to September 2015, HAdV in blood, urine, and stool specimens were monitored weekly from transplantation to day 100 or after if clinically suspected...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555827/a-clinical-quantitative-evaluation-of-hepatobiliary-transport-of-11c-dehydropravastatin-in-humans-using-positron-emission-tomography
#13
Ken-Ichi Kaneko, Masaaki Tanaka, Akira Ishii, Yumiko Katayama, Takayoshi Nakaoka, Satsuki Irie, Hideki Kawahata, Takashi Yamanaga, Yasuhiro Wada, Takeshi Miyake, Kota Toshimoto, Kazuya Maeda, Yilong Cui, Masaru Enomoto, Etsushi Kawamura, Norifumi Kawada, Joji Kawabe, Susumu Shiomi, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Yuichi Sugiyama, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Various positron emission tomography (PET) probes have been developed to assess the in vivo activities of drug transporters in humans, that aid in the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties of drugs and the impact of drug-drug interactions. We developed a new PET probe, [11C ]dehydropravastatin ([11 C]DPV), and demonstrated its usefulness for the quantitative investigation of Oatps/SLCO and Mrp2/ABCC2 in rats. To further analyze the species differences and verify the pharmacokinetic parameters in humans, serial PET scanning of the abdominal region with [11 C]DPV was performed in six healthy volunteers with and without an OATP1Bs and MRP2 inhibitor, rifampicin (600 mg, oral), in a crossover fashion...
March 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550956/imaging-non-vascular-complications-of-renal-transplantation
#14
Nancy Kim, Roxanna Juarez, Angela D Levy
In patients with end-stage renal disease, the treatment of choice for most patients is renal transplantation. Complications that occur after kidney transplant can be broadly divided into vascular and non-vascular categories. Non-vascular complications can further be divided into surgical and medical categories. When evaluating renal transplant imaging, it is helpful to consider the occurrence of complications in a timeline from time of surgery. Ultrasound is often the first modality used for evaluation of renal transplants particularly in the early postoperative period...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534714/lumbar-spine-epidural-abscess-and-facet-joint-septic-arthritis-due-to-streptococcus-agalactiae-a-case-report
#15
Costansia Bureta, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Takuya Yamamoto, Takao Setoguchi, Hideki Kawamura, Satoshi Nagano, Ichiro Kawamura, Masahiko Abematsu, Hironori Kakoi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Setsuro Komiya
BACKGROUND: Here we report a rare case of lumbar spine epidural abscess and facet joint septic arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, which had spread to the iliopsoas muscles, leading to urine retention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old woman with low back pain experienced a sudden onset of bilateral lower limb weakness, it was followed 14 days later by urine retention. At consultation, magnetic resonance imaging and identification of serum β-hemolytic streptococci provided a diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection...
March 13, 2018: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534694/predicting-the-severity-of-dengue-fever-in-children-on-admission-based-on-clinical-features-and-laboratory-indicators-application-of-classification-tree-analysis
#16
Khansoudaphone Phakhounthong, Pimwadee Chaovalit, Podjanee Jittamala, Stuart D Blacksell, Michael J Carter, Paul Turner, Kheng Chheng, Soeung Sona, Varun Kumar, Nicholas P J Day, Lisa J White, Wirichada Pan-Ngum
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a re-emerging viral disease commonly occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. The clinical features and abnormal laboratory test results of dengue infection are similar to those of other febrile illnesses; hence, its accurate and timely diagnosis for providing appropriate treatment is difficult. Delayed diagnosis may be associated with inappropriate treatment and higher risk of death. Early and correct diagnosis can help improve case management and optimise the use of resources such as hospital staff, beds, and intensive care equipment...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534609/the-renal-elimination-pathways-of-the-dabigatran-reversal-agent-idarucizumab-and-its-impact-on-dabigatran-elimination
#17
Stephan Glund, Guanfa Gan, Viktoria Moschetti, Paul Reilly, Markus Honickel, Oliver Grottke, Joanne Van Ryn
Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment (Fab), provides rapid and sustained reversal of dabigatran-mediated anticoagulation. Idarucizumab and dabigatran are mainly eliminated via the kidneys. This analysis aimed to characterize the renal elimination of idarucizumab and investigate the influence of idarucizumab on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dabigatran and vice versa. Studies were conducted in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, in human volunteers with and without renal impairment, and in a porcine liver trauma model...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530034/the-use-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-by-patients-with-cancer-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Khadega A Abuelgasim, Yousef Alsharhan, Tariq Alenzi, Abdulaziz Alhazzani, Yosra Z Ali, Abdul Rahman Jazieh
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) along with conventional therapies (CT), whereas a smaller proportion delay or defer CT in favor of CAM. Previous studies exploring CAM use among cancer patients in the Middle East region have shown discrepant results. This study investigates the prevalence and pattern of CAM use by Saudi cancer patients. It also discusses the possible benefits and harm related to CAM use by cancer patients, and it explores the beliefs patients hold and their transparency with health care providers regarding their CAM use...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524351/do-athletes-have-a-right-to-access-data-in-their-athlete-s-biological-passport
#19
REVIEW
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in ADAMS. However, granting athletes access to this data has been a matter of debate within the anti-doping community...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523479/andrianne-mini-jupette-graft-at-the-time-of-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-for-the-management-of-post-prostatectomy-climacturia-and-minimal-urinary-incontinence
#20
Faysal A Yafi, Robert Andrianne, Laith Alzweri, Jeffrey Brady, Michael Butcher, Daniel Chevalier, Kenneth J DeLay, Antoine Faix, Georgios Hatzichristodoulou, Wayne J G Hellstrom, Lawrence Jenkins, Tobias S Kohler, Daniar Osmanov, Sun Hung Park, M David Schwabb, Robert Valenzuela, Koenraad van Renterghem, Steven K Wilson
BACKGROUND: After radical prostatectomy (RP), erectile dysfunction, often necessitating the need for inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) insertion, and urinary incontinence and climacturia can ensue. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of the mini-jupette, a mesh used to approximate the medial aspects of the 2 corporotomies at the time of IPP insertion, for the management of climacturia and urine leakage in patients with minimal incontinence. METHODS: We conducted a pilot multicenter study of patients with post-RP erectile dysfunction and climacturia and/or mild urinary incontinence (≤2 pads/day [ppd]) undergoing IPP insertion with concomitant placement of a mini-jupette graft...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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