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Assisted Reproductive Biology

Juliana Miron Vani, Maria Tereza Ferreira Duenhas Monreal, Sarah Alves Auharek, Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura, Eduardo José de Arruda, Alessandra Ramos Lima, Cicera Maria da Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Dênis Pires de Lima, Adilson Beatriz, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
Dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus are epidemics in Brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. The liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named TaLCC-20) on the mortality of larvae and on the reproductive performance, embryonic and fetal development and genetic stability of Swiss mice...
2018: PloS One
Brenna A M Velker, Michelle M Denomme, Robert T Krafty, Mellissa R W Mann
Assisted reproductive technologies are fertility treatments used by subfertile couples to conceive their biological child. Although generally considered safe, these pregnancies have been linked to genomic imprinting disorders, including Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell Syndromes. Silver-Russell Syndrome is a growth disorder characterized by pre- and post-natal growth retardation. The Mest imprinted domain is one candidate region on chromosome 7 implicated in Silver-Russell Syndrome. We have previously shown that maintenance of imprinted methylation was disrupted by superovulation or embryo culture during pre-implantation mouse development...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
P Comizzoli, E E Paulson, L K McGinnis
Studying the reproductive biology of wild animal species produces knowledge beneficial to their management and conservation. However, wild species also share intriguing similarities in reproductive biology with humans, thereby offering alternative models for better understanding the etiology of infertility and developing innovative treatments. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness in different scientific communities about intriguing connections between wild animals and humans regarding infertility syndromes or improvement of fertility preservation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Matteo Becatti, Rossella Fucci, Amanda Mannucci, Victoria Barygina, Marco Mugnaini, Luciana Criscuoli, Claudia Giachini, Francesco Bertocci, Rita Picone, Giacomo Emmi, Paolo Evangelisti, Francesca Rizzello, Cinzia Cozzi, Niccolò Taddei, Claudia Fiorillo, Maria Elisabetta Coccia
Oxidative stress plays a major role in critical biological processes in human reproduction. However, a reliable and biologically accurate indicator of this condition does not yet exist. On these bases, the aim of this study was to assess and compare the blood and follicular fluid (FF) redox status of 45 infertile subjects (and 45 age-matched controls) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and explore possible relationships between the assessed redox parameters and IVF outcomes. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, assessed by flow cytometry analysis in blood leukocytes and granulosa cells, significantly increased (p < 0...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
J Zhang, M Gong
Since discovered in 1994, leptin has been thought to be a pleiotropic hormone that regulates food intake, controls energy balance in the body and influences multiple tissues in the body. Leptin plays an important mediating role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and can transmit the nutritional status signals to the reproductive-related central nervous system. Many studies have shown that leptin may play an important role in the control of reproductive function. Leptin can act on all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and may have local effects on the function of testis and spermatogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Andrologia
C Ozer, P Caglar Aytac, M R Goren, S Toksoz, U Gul, T Turunc
Klinefelter syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. The development of advanced assisted reproductive techniques, such as testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, has provided the possibility of biological fathering in nonobstructive azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome. We aimed to evaluate our sperm retrieval rate by microdissection testicular sperm extraction and to analyse the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in these patients...
February 20, 2018: Andrologia
Congcong Cao, Yujiao Wen, Xiaoli Wang, Na Fang, Shuiqiao Yuan, Xunbin Huang
PURPOSE: PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) is a sub-group of small RNAs about 30 nucleotides length which specifically expressed in mammalian germ cells. Although piRNAs play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis regulation, little is known in the testicular tissues of infertile men. To explore whether piRNA profile could serve as a biomarker for male infertility diagnosis in a clinic, in this study, we systematically investigated the expression profile of piRNAs in testicular tissues from the patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) between successful and unsuccessful sperm retrieval before micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
M N Islam, T Tazmin, M Siddika, M A Hossain, M A Ali, M K Bhuiyan
Multiple pregnancies are a significant risk factor for maternal and perinatal morbidity due to inherent biological risks. The present study was aimed to determine the risk factors and to evaluate the immediate neonatal outcome of multiple pregnancies. This descriptive observational study was conducted in the newly established Special Care Neonatal Unit (SCANU) of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Bangladesh from January 2015 to March 2015. Total 86 newborns of multiple pregnancies who were admitted during the study period were included in the study...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Oliver A Ryder, Manabu Onuma
Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Rajamannar Thennati, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Nitin Nage, Yena Patel, Sandip Kumar Bose, Vinod Burade, Ranjit Sudhakar Ranbhor
Introduction: Regulatory agencies recommend a stepwise approach for demonstrating biosimilarity between a proposed biosimilar and reference biological product emphasizing for functional and structural characterization to trace if there is any difference which may impact safety and efficacy. We studied the comparative structural and biological attributes of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG), SB005, with reference product, Ovidrel ® and Ovitrelle ® . Recombiant hCG was approved in 2000 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the induction of final follicular maturation, early luteinization in infertile women as part of assisted reproductive technology program...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
Jinghua Hu, D Jo Merriner, Anne E O'Connor, Brendan J Houston, Luc Furic, Mark P Hedger, Moira K O'Bryan
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of epididymal cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) in male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: While epididymal CRISPs are not absolutely required for male fertility, they are required for optimal sperm function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: CRISPs are members of the CRISP, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis related protein 1 (CAP) superfamily and are characterised by the presence of an N-terminal CAP domain and a C-terminal CRISP domain...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Alessandra Alteri, Paola Viganò, Ahmad Abu Maizar, Luca Jovine, Elisa Giacomini, Patrizia Rubino
Zona pellucida (ZP) manipulation, termed "assisted hatching" (AH), has been introduced in order to favor embryo hatching and ultimately improve assisted reproductive technology success but with poor proofs of safety and biological plausibility. We herein provide a systematic review of clinical outcomes following the application of different methods of ZP manipulation on fresh or frozen/thawed embryos at different developmental stages in different groups of patients. Out of the 69 papers that compared the clinical outcomes deriving from hatched versus non-hatched embryos, only 11 considered blastocysts while the rest referred to cleavage stage embryos...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
M Enciso, J P Carrascosa, J Sarasa, P A Martínez-Ortiz, S Munné, J A Horcajadas, J Aizpurua
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to determine the receptivity status of an endometrium by combined quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) expression analysis of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and immunity? SUMMARY ANSWER: The new ER Map®/ER Grade® test can predict endometrial receptivity status by RT-qPCR using a new panel of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and the maternal immune response associated to embryonic implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The human endometrium reaches a receptive status adequate for embryonic implantation around Days 19-21 of the menstrual cycle...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Zengkui Lu, Youji Ma, Quanwei Zhang, Xingxu Zhao, Yong Zhang, Liping Zhang
Male reproductive capacity is essential for animal breeding and reproduction. In males, the testes produce sperm and secrete androgen, processes which require precise regulation by multiple proteins. The composition of proteins in the ram testes has not yet been studied systematically, thus, the application of proteomics to explore differential protein regulation during ram testes development is of great significance. In the present study, ram testes were studied at five different developmental phases to assess postnatal differences in protein regulation...
December 21, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Iavor K Vladimirov, Desislava Tacheva, Antonio Diez
Background: To create hypothesis, which can give a logical explanation related to the benefits of freezing/thawing embryos. Cryopreservation is not only a technology used for storing embryos, but also a method of embryo treatment that can potentially improve the success rate in infertile couples. Methods: From the analysis of multiple results in assisted reproductive technology, which have no satisfactory explanation to date, we found evidence to support a 'therapeutic' effect of the freezing/thawing of embryos on the process of recovery of the embryo and its subsequent implantation...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Ampika Thongphakdee, Wanlaya Tipkantha, Chainarong Punkong, Kaywalee Chatdarong
In the past decade, studies on reproductive biology, endocrinology, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the domestic cat have contributed to a lot of progress in conservation breeding of wild felids. However, the 36 species of the Felidae family have species- and individual-specific reproductive cycles and respond differently to exogenous hormones. Monitoring the ovarian cycle of wild felids can improve their natural breeding and maximize their reproductive success. Moreover, fundamental knowledge on the hormonal patterns of each feline species offers the opportunity to develop ARTs, particularly in threatened and endangered species...
December 11, 2017: Theriogenology
Janine L Brown
The ability to track gonadal function is facilitated by the use of endocrine and ultrasound techniques, both of which are important tools for optimizing reproduction and ensuring sustainability of fragile populations. With so many species now endangered, captive breeding is increasingly viewed as a means to sustain important insurance populations. As reproduction is key to species survival, understanding how to control and monitor ovarian function is vital. Through decades of study, we now have a greater understanding of the diversity, and plasticity, of reproductive mechanisms across taxa...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
Xiao-Man Liu, Yan-Kui Wang, Yun-Hua Liu, Xiao-Xia Yu, Pei-Chao Wang, Xuan Li, Zhi-Qiang Du, Cai-Xia Yang
The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test is used in both basic biological research and assisted reproduction to identify oocytes likely to be developmentally competent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism targeted by the BCB test is still unclear. To explore this question, we first confirmed that BCB-positive porcine oocytes had higher rates of meiotic maturation, better rates of cleavage and development into blastocysts, and lower death rates. Subsequent single-cell transcriptome sequencing on porcine germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes identified 155 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between BCB-negative and BCB-positive oocytes...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anastasia Paraskou, Babu P George
Background: For many people, the need for parenthood remains unfulfilled due to biological reasons and a remedy for these individuals is assisted reproduction (AR). Because of widely differing and sometimes incompatible legislations around the world related to AR, there is considerable confusion across national borders. Within Europe, Greece seems to be in a comparatively favorable position because of lower restrictions and the availability of decent quality specialized medical facilities...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
Siham Aboulmakarim, Amal Benbella, Houyam Hardizi, Rachid Bezad
The validation of methods in medical biology is a fundamental step in which the laboratory defines its analytical objectives, characterizes the performance of the technique according to the level of quality it fixes and discusses the results obtained. The objective of this work is to contribute to respect the requirements of ISO 15189 in terms of performance verification of a manual qualitative technique of medically assisted procreation (PMA): morphological identification of the oocyte, the zygote and the embryo, harmonization of professional practices and assessment of competences by associating the bibliographic approach and above all by justifying its choices...
January 1, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
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