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Assisted Reproductive Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350315/revisiting-embryo-assisted-hatching-approaches-a-systematic-review-of-the-current-protocols
#1
REVIEW
Alessandra Alteri, Paola Viganò, Ahmad Abu Maizar, Luca Jovine, Elisa Giacomini, Patrizia Rubino
Zona pellucida (ZP) manipulation, termed "assisted hatching" (AH), has been introduced in order to favor embryo hatching and ultimately improve assisted reproductive technology success but with poor proofs of safety and biological plausibility. We herein provide a systematic review of clinical outcomes following the application of different methods of ZP manipulation on fresh or frozen/thawed embryos at different developmental stages in different groups of patients. Out of the 69 papers that compared the clinical outcomes deriving from hatched versus non-hatched embryos, only 11 considered blastocysts while the rest referred to cleavage stage embryos...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315421/development-of-a-new-comprehensive-and-reliable-endometrial-receptivity-map-er-map-er-grade-based-on-rt-qpcr-gene-expression-analysis
#2
M Enciso, J P Carrascosa, J Sarasa, P A Martínez-Ortiz, S Munné, J A Horcajadas, J Aizpurua
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to determine the receptivity status of an endometrium by combined quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) expression analysis of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and immunity? SUMMARY ANSWER: The new ER Map®/ER Grade® test can predict endometrial receptivity status by RT-qPCR using a new panel of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and the maternal immune response associated to embryonic implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The human endometrium reaches a receptive status adequate for embryonic implantation around Days 19-21 of the menstrual cycle...
January 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279200/proteomic-analyses-of-ram-ovis-aries-testis-during-different-developmental-stages
#3
Zengkui Lu, Youji Ma, Quanwei Zhang, Xingxu Zhao, Yong Zhang, Liping Zhang
Male reproductive capacity is essential for animal breeding and reproduction. In males, the testes produce sperm and secrete androgen, processes which require precise regulation by multiple proteins. The composition of proteins in the ram testes has not yet been studied systematically, thus, the application of proteomics to explore differential protein regulation during ram testes development is of great significance. In the present study, ram testes were studied at five different developmental phases to assess postnatal differences in protein regulation...
December 21, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259458/theory-about-the-embryo-cryo-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Iavor K Vladimirov, Desislava Tacheva, Antonio Diez
Background: To create hypothesis, which can give a logical explanation related to the benefits of freezing/thawing embryos. Cryopreservation is not only a technology used for storing embryos, but also a method of embryo treatment that can potentially improve the success rate in infertile couples. Methods: From the analysis of multiple results in assisted reproductive technology, which have no satisfactory explanation to date, we found evidence to support a 'therapeutic' effect of the freezing/thawing of embryos on the process of recovery of the embryo and its subsequent implantation...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258698/monitoring-and-controlling-ovarian-activity-in-wild-felids
#5
Ampika Thongphakdee, Wanlaya Tipkantha, Chainarong Punkong, Kaywalee Chatdarong
In the past decade, studies on reproductive biology, endocrinology, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the domestic cat have contributed to a lot of progress in conservation breeding of wild felids. However, the 36 species of the Felidae family have species- and individual-specific reproductive cycles and respond differently to exogenous hormones. Monitoring the ovarian cycle of wild felids can improve their natural breeding and maximize their reproductive success. Moreover, fundamental knowledge on the hormonal patterns of each feline species offers the opportunity to develop ARTs, particularly in threatened and endangered species...
December 11, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249329/comparative-ovarian-function-and-reproductive-monitoring-of-endangered-mammals
#6
Janine L Brown
The ability to track gonadal function is facilitated by the use of endocrine and ultrasound techniques, both of which are important tools for optimizing reproduction and ensuring sustainability of fragile populations. With so many species now endangered, captive breeding is increasingly viewed as a means to sustain important insurance populations. As reproduction is key to species survival, understanding how to control and monitor ovarian function is vital. Through decades of study, we now have a greater understanding of the diversity, and plasticity, of reproductive mechanisms across taxa...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222335/single-cell-transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-that-cell-division-cycle-5-like-protein-is-essential-for-porcine-oocyte-maturation
#7
Xiao-Man Liu, Yan-Kui Wang, Yun-Hua Liu, Xiao-Xia Yu, Pei-Chao Wang, Xuan Li, Zhi-Qiang Du, Cai-Xia Yang
The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test is used in both basic biological research and assisted reproduction to identify oocytes likely to be developmentally competent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism targeted by the BCB test is still unclear. To explore this question, we first confirmed that BCB-positive porcine oocytes had higher rates of meiotic maturation, better rates of cleavage and development into blastocysts, and lower death rates. Subsequent single-cell transcriptome sequencing on porcine germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes identified 155 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between BCB-negative and BCB-positive oocytes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202084/the-market-for-reproductive-tourism-an-analysis-with-special-reference-to-greece
#8
Anastasia Paraskou, Babu P George
Background: For many people, the need for parenthood remains unfulfilled due to biological reasons and a remedy for these individuals is assisted reproduction (AR). Because of widely differing and sometimes incompatible legislations around the world related to AR, there is considerable confusion across national borders. Within Europe, Greece seems to be in a comparatively favorable position because of lower restrictions and the availability of decent quality specialized medical facilities...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199153/retrospective-assessment-of-an-assisted-reproductive-technology-method
#9
Siham Aboulmakarim, Amal Benbella, Houyam Hardizi, Rachid Bezad
The validation of methods in medical biology is a fundamental step in which the laboratory defines its analytical objectives, characterizes the performance of the technique according to the level of quality it fixes and discusses the results obtained. The objective of this work is to contribute to respect the requirements of ISO 15189 in terms of performance verification of a manual qualitative technique of medically assisted procreation (PMA): morphological identification of the oocyte, the zygote and the embryo, harmonization of professional practices and assessment of competences by associating the bibliographic approach and above all by justifying its choices...
December 4, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158352/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-state-of-the-art-in-humans
#10
REVIEW
G D Palermo, C L O'Neill, S Chow, S Cheung, A Parrella, N Pereira, Z Rosenwaks
Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART...
December 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154161/effect-of-bovine-sperm-chromatin-integrity-evaluated-using-three-different-methods-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertility
#11
L S Castro, A F P Siqueira, T R S Hamilton, C M Mendes, J A Visintin, M E O A Assumpção
In vitro fertility potential of individual bulls is still relatively uncharacterized. Classical sperm analysis does not include the evaluation of all sperm characteristics and thus, some cell compartments could be neglected. In humans, sperm DNA integrity has already proven to have major influence in embryo development and assisted reproduction techniques successfully. In bovine, some studies already correlated chromatin integrity with field fertility. However, none of those have attempted to relate DNA assessment approaches such as chromatin deficiency (CMA3), chromatin stability (SCSA; AO+) and DNA fragmentation (COMET assay) to predict in vitro bull fertility...
November 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150167/reproductive-factors-in-relation-to-heart-failure-in-women-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Renee Bolijn, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Folkert W Asselbergs, Yvonne T van der Schouw
BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms underlying the sex-related differences in risk of heart failure are still not well understood. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current evidence on the association between reproductive factors and risk of heart failure in women. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for publications on the following reproductive factors as potential risk factors for heart failure in women: age at menarche, duration and frequency of the menstrual cycle, reproductive lifespan, use of contraception, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), pregnancy characteristics (e...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135075/the-role-of-body-mind-and-environment-in-preterm-birth-mind-the-gap
#13
REVIEW
Shelby Yamamoto, Shahirose Premji
Preterm birth continues to be a problem affecting low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with rates increasing in some areas despite ongoing efforts to reduce the incidence. This emphasizes the need for more effective interventions, particularly if we aim to achieve the broad health targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. The current focus on medically-oriented interventions such as reducing nonmedically-indicated induction of labor, cesarean birth, and multiple embryo transfers associated with assisted reproductive technologies, as well as the application of cervical cerclage and use of progesterone therapy, though important, are likely only partial solutions to the complex phenomenon of preterm birth...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121011/assisted-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-human-mitochondrial-disease-transmission
#14
Andy Greenfield, Peter Braude, Frances Flinter, Robin Lovell-Badge, Caroline Ogilvie, Anthony C F Perry
Mitochondria are essential cytoplasmic organelles that generate energy (ATP) by oxidative phosphorylation and mediate key cellular processes such as apoptosis. They are maternally inherited and in humans contain a 16,569-base-pair circular genome (mtDNA) encoding 37 genes required for oxidative phosphorylation. Mutations in mtDNA cause a range of pathologies, commonly affecting energy-demanding tissues such as muscle and brain. Because mitochondrial diseases are incurable, attention has focused on limiting the inheritance of pathogenic mtDNA by mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT)...
November 9, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065798/microphysiologic-systems-in-female-reproductive-biology
#15
REVIEW
Alexandria N Young, Georgette Moyle-Heyrman, J Julie Kim, Joanna E Burdette
Microphysiologic systems (MPS), including new organ-on-a-chip technologies, recapitulate tissue microenvironments by employing specially designed tissue or cell culturing techniques and microfluidic flow. Such systems are designed to incorporate physiologic factors that conventional 2D or even 3D systems cannot, such as the multicellular dynamics of a tissue-tissue interface or physical forces like fluid sheer stress. The female reproductive system is a series of interconnected organs that are necessary to produce eggs, support embryo development and female health, and impact the functioning of non-reproductive tissues throughout the body...
November 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031031/riceanthernet-a-gene-co-expression-network-for-identifying-anther-and-pollen-development-genes
#16
Hong Lin, Jing Yu, Simon Pearce, Dabing Zhang, Zoe Wilson
In plants, normal anther and pollen development involves many important biological events and complex molecular regulatory coordination. Understanding gene regulatory relationships during male reproductive development is essential for fundamental biology and crop breeding. In this work, we developed a rice gene co-expression network for anther development (RiceAntherNet) that allows prediction of gene regulatory relationships during pollen development. RiceAntherNet was generated from 57 rice anther tissue microarrays across all developmental stages...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028291/reproductive-biology-of-aechmea-bracteata-sw-griseb-bromelioideae-bromeliaceae
#17
Manuel Pool-Chalé, Ivón Ramírez-Morillo, Germán Carnevali Fernández-Concha, Claudia T Hornung-Leoni
Individuals of Aechmea bracteata show inflorescences with red scape bracts and odorless, yellow, tubular, diurnal flowers, with closely-arranged sexual organs, producing a large amount of fruits. In order to investigate the reproductive system of this species, a suite of characters were assessed: phenology, floral morphology and biology, nectar production dynamics, and fruit and seed production and germination, as a result of controlled pollination crosses. The study was conducted during two flowering seasons in wild populations in Yucatán, Mexico...
October 13, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988880/gender-proteomics-ii-which-proteins-in-sexual-organs
#18
Elisabetta Gianazza, Ingrid Miller, Uliano Guerrini, Luca Palazzolo, Chiara Parravicini, Ivano Eberini
In continuity with the review dealing with differences by gender in non-sexual organs [1], this review collects data on the proteomes of the sexual organs as involved in human reproduction, under both physiological and pathological conditions. It also collects data on the tissue structures and biological fluids typical of pregnancy, such as placenta and amniotic fluid, as well as what may be tested on preimplantation embryos during medically assisted reproduction. The review includes as well mention to all fluids and secretions connected with sex organs and/or reproduction, including sperm and milk, to exemplify two distinctive items in male and female physiology...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943970/ethical-legal-and-social-issues-in-japan-on-the-determination-of-blood-relationship-via-dna-testing
#19
Waki Toya
DNA paternity testing has recently become more widely available in Japan. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues surrounding (1) the implementing agency, whether the testing is conducted in a commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) setting or a judicial non-DTC setting, and (2) the implementation conditions and more specifically the legal capacity of the proband (test subject). Literature research in Japanese and English was conducted. Some countries prohibit commercial DNA testing without the consent of the proband or her or his legally authorized representative...
2017: Asian Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931409/clinical-review-of-24-35%C3%A2-year-olds-conceived-with-and-without-in-vitro-fertilization-study-protocol
#20
Sharon Lewis, Joanne Kennedy, David Burgner, Robert McLachlan, Sarath Ranganathan, Karin Hammarberg, Richard Saffery, David J Amor, Michael M H Cheung, Lex W Doyle, Markus Juonala, Susan Donath, John McBain, Jane Halliday
BACKGROUND: Children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) currently comprise 4% of Australian births. The manipulation of biological parameters related to fertilization and implantation are integral to successful ART but potentially pose a risk to the longer-term health of the offspring. There is consensus that many common adult health problems (particularly cardiovascular, metabolic and respiratory conditions) have their origins in early life, possibly before birth, and that risk trajectories track through childhood until clinical disease manifests in adulthood...
September 20, 2017: Reproductive Health
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