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anterior cuneate nucleus

Cheng X Li, Qiuhong Yang, Sridevi Vemulapalli, Robert S Waters
We examined reorganization in cuneate nucleus (CN) in juvenile rat following forelimb amputation (n=34) and in intact controls (n=5) to determine whether CN forms a substrate for large-scale reorganization in forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) cortex. New input from the shoulder first appears in the FBS 4 weeks after amputation, and by 6 weeks, the new shoulder input comes to occupy most of the FBS. Electrophysiological recording was used to map CN in controls and in forelimb amputees during the first 12 weeks following deafferentation and at 26 and 30 weeks post-amputation...
August 14, 2013: Brain Research
Cheng X Li, Qiuhong Yang, Robert S Waters
We examined the physiological representation of the forelimb in the cuneate nucleus (CN) of forelimb-intact young adult rats (n=38) as the first part in a series of studies aimed at understanding the possible role that CN plays in delayed cortical reorganization that follows forelimb amputation. Metabolic labeling with cytochrome oxidase (CO) and electrophysiological mapping were used to examine the relationship between the structural and functional organization of CN. CN is a cylinder-shaped structure that lies bilaterally in the brainstem and extends nearly 4mm in the rostrocaudal direction...
August 15, 2012: Brain Research
Doyeun Kim, Susan L Ackerman
The cerebellum receives its input from multiple precerebellar nuclei located in the brainstem and sends processed information to other brain structures via the deep cerebellar neurons. Guidance molecules that regulate the complex migrations of precerebellar neurons and the initial guidance of their leading processes have been identified. However, the molecules necessary for dorsal guidance of precerebellar axons to the developing cerebellum or for guidance of decussating axons of the deep nuclei are not known...
February 9, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chiho Ishida, Kiyonobu Komai, Kohei Yonezawa, Ken-Ichi Sakajiri, Eishun Nitta, Atsuhiro Kawashima, Masahito Yamada
We report the case of a woman who developed limb clumsiness in her fifties and gait disturbance in her sixties. She was bedridden after bone fractures at age 75 and showed disorientation, slow eye movement, gaze palsy, ataxic speech, muscle atrophy and weakness, and areflexia with pathological reflex. She died of respiratory failure at age 85. This patient was diagnosed genetically as having spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), and the number of expanded CAG repeats was 41. At autopsy, the brain weighed 965 g, and the brainstem, cerebellum, frontal convexity and spinal cord were atrophic...
October 2011: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Zen Kobayashi, Kuniaki Tsuchiya, Tetsuaki Arai, Masashi Aoki, Masato Hasegawa, Hideki Ishizu, Haruhiko Akiyama, Hidehiro Mizusawa
Basophilic inclusions (BIs) are the pathological feature in a subset of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and familial ALS (FALS) cases. Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene have been recently identified as the cause of FALS type 6. FUS-immunoreactive (ir) inclusions are consistently found in cases of FTLD with BIs, but the association between ALS cases with BIs and FUS accumulation is still not well understood. In this study, we immunohistochemically analyzed the autopsied case of FALS with BIs using anti-FUS antibodies...
June 15, 2010: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Yong Yu, Shinya Ugawa, Takashi Ueda, Yusuke Ishida, Kiyoshi Inoue, Aung Kyaw Nyunt, Atsushi Umemura, Mitsuhito Mase, Kazuo Yamada, Shoichi Shimada
P2X7 receptor is a member of the P2X family of ATP-gated ion channels. The cellular localization of P2X7 receptors in the central nervous system remains controversial because immunohistochemical staining patterns are inconsistent among antibodies. Here we examined the precise distribution of P2X7 mRNAs in the rat brain using isotopic in situ hybridization. P2X7-positive glial-like small cells were sporadically scattered in almost all areas of the brain. P2X7-positive glial-like small cells were also observed in nerve fiber tracts such as the anterior commissure, corpus callosum (CC), optic tract, and internal capsule...
February 15, 2008: Brain Research
Andrew S Lowe, John S Beech, Steve C R Williams
Supra-spinal pain processing involves a number of extensive networks. An examination of these networks using small animal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is difficult. While prior studies have successfully delineated regions consistent with known pain processing pathways, they have been restricted to acquisitions of limited spatial extent with coarse in-plane resolution to achieve a high temporal resolution. An isotropic, whole brain fMRI protocol has been developed for the examination of the supra-spinal consequences of innocuous and nociceptive electrical stimulation of the rat forepaw...
April 1, 2007: NeuroImage
A K Bruchey, F Gonzalez-Lima
This is the first mapping study of the brain activity associated with the renewal of an extinguished conditioned response. Rats were given radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose, a glucose analog, to map brain effects of an extinguished tone during context-dependent renewal of conditioned fear. A tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a footshock unconditioned stimulus in a first context, followed by conditioned response extinction in a second context and conditioned response renewal in a third context. Control rats were treated identically, except that tone and shock were presented pseudorandomly...
December 2006: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shawn D Newlands, Adrian A Perachio
The primary purpose of this article is to review the anatomy of central projections of the vestibular nerve in amniotes. We also report primary data regarding the central projections of individual horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-filled afferents innervating the saccular macula, horizontal semicircular canal ampulla, and anterior semicircular canal ampulla of the gerbil. In total, 52 characterized primary vestibular afferent axons were intraaxonally injected with HRP and traced centrally to terminations. Lateral and anterior canal afferents projected most heavily to the medial and superior vestibular nuclei...
June 15, 2003: Brain Research Bulletin
Rafael Coveñas, Francisco Martin, Magdalena Belda, Victor Smith, Pablo Salinas, Eva Rivada, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Jose Angel Narvaez, Pilar Marcos, Gerard Tramu, Salvador Gonzalez-Baron
BACKGROUND: Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. RESULTS: Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon...
February 4, 2003: BMC Neuroscience
Mary Tolcos, Christos Tikellis, Sandra Rees, Mark Cooper, Peter Wookey
In this study, the expression of receptors for calcitonin (CTR), the CTR C1a and C1b isoforms, was investigated during development of the fetal rat central nervous system (CNS) by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Coincident expression with both techniques was evident. Immunohistochemical evidence for the expression of the C1a isoform alone was found. Expression was first observed at embryonic day 12/13 (E12/E13) within and adjacent to the ventricular zones known to include primary matrices of proliferation, in regions of the preoptic area, anterior and posterior hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pons, medulla, and spinal cord...
January 27, 2003: Journal of Comparative Neurology
C Strazielle, A R Ase, R Lalonde, T A Reader
The autosomal recessive mutation dystonia musculorum (dt(J)/dt(J)) causes degenerative alterations of peripheral and central sensory pathways leading to ataxia. To determine the consequences of this pathology on the central noradrenergic (NA) system, NA contents were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 22 brain regions and spinal cord, while NA transporters, or uptake sites, were evaluated by quantitative ligand binding autoradiography, using [3H]nisoxetine, in wild-type and dt(J)/dt(J) mutant mice...
February 2002: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
D Jones, F Gonzalez-Lima
Pavlovian conditioning effects on the brain were investigated by mapping rat brain activity with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography. The goal was to map the effects of the same tone after blocking or eliciting a conditioned emotional response (CER). In the tone-blocked group, previous learning about a light blocked a CER to the tone. In the tone-excitor group, the same pairings of tone with shock US resulted in a CER to the tone in the absence of previous learning about the light. A third group showed no CER after pseudorandom presentations of these stimuli...
August 2001: Journal of Neurophysiology
R Necker
Neck sensory information is important for control of head and body movements in all vertebrates. Neuroanatomic tracing methods were used to study the pathways of neck afferent systems. Both the projection of primary afferent fibers and of secondary afferent pathways to brainstem and cerebellum were investigated with the anterograde transport of dextran amines as tracers (biotinylated dextran amine and tetramethyl rhodamine dextran amine). For comparison, the projections of spinocerebellar systems of wing and leg were studied also...
January 15, 2001: Journal of Comparative Neurology
S Katayama, C Watanabe, T Kohriyama, Y Yamamura, J J Mao, H Ohishi, T Nishisaka, K Inai, E Tanaka, S Nakamura
In an autopsy case of sporadic rapidly progressive lower motor neuron disease (MND), Gallyas-positive argyrophilic and ubiquitinated filamentous intracytoplasmic inclusions were found in the neurons. Clinically, 7 months prior to death, a 68-year-old woman experienced a history of rapidly progressive muscle weakness of all four extremities and bulbar sign, without sensory and autonomic disturbance. Two months later, she became unable to stand or walk. Four months after onset, she needed respiratory support, and subsequently died due to cardiorespiratory arrest...
August 2000: Acta Neuropathologica
J M Wild, M N Williams
An avian "pyramidal tract" was defined in zebra finches and green finches by making injections of neuronal tracers into the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) of the rostral Wulst. Extratelencephalic projections of rostral HA traveled in the septomesencephalic tract (TSM) and gave rise to nuclear-specific terminal fields in the precerebellar medial spiriform nucleus of the posterior thalamus, the red nucleus in the mesencephalon, the medial pontine nucleus in the pons, and the subtrigeminal, external cuneate, cuneate, gracile, and inferior olivary nuclei in the medulla...
January 24, 2000: Journal of Comparative Neurology
S Katayama, C Watanabe, K Noda, H Ohishi, Y Yamamura, T Nishisaka, K Inai, K Asayama, S Murayama, S Nakamura
A 59-year-old woman with slow progression of the loss of motor function and predominant lower motor manifestation during a 14-year period showed familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) with posterior column involvement, neuropathologically. Conglomerate inclusions (CIs) were observed in the remaining neurons in various areas, including the spinal anterior horn, posterior horn, Clark's column, accessory cuneate nucleus, tegmental reticular formation, motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, nucleus of the facial nerve, hypoglossal nucleus, medial nucleus of the thalamus, dentate nucleus, and motor cortex (Betz cells)...
December 1, 1999: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
G A Bishop
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been described within varicosities that have a uniform distribution throughout the cerebellar nuclei of the cat. To date, however, no data are available as to the source of these nuclear afferents. Thus, a double-label technique was used to identify brainstem neurons which give rise to the CRF-containing afferents in the nucleus interpositus anterior (NIA) of the cat's cerebellum. Injections of fluorescent-tagged microspheres, which are retrogradely transported by cells with axons in the injection site, were made into lateral and medial aspects of the nucleus...
September 1998: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
J M Wild
The organization of the wing component of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway, and somatosensory projections from the thalamus to the Wulst, are described for an oscine member of the major group of birds, the Passeriformes. Wing primary afferents terminate throughout the cervical spinal cord, but between the brachial enlargement and the spino-medullary junction, they are confined to medial lamina V. Within the medulla, terminations extend rostrally and laterally to occupy the cuneate (Cu) and external cuneate nuclei (CuE)...
June 6, 1997: Brain Research
E Kostarczyk, X Zhang, G J Giesler
Antidromic activation was used to determine the locations of ascending spinohypothalamic tract (SHT) axons and their collateral projections within C1, medulla, pons, midbrain, and caudal thalamus. Sixty-four neurons in the cervical enlargement were antidromically activated initially by stimulation within the contralateral hypothalamus. All but one of the examined SHT neurons responded either preferentially or specifically to noxious mechanical stimuli. A total of 239 low-threshold points was classified as originating from 64 ascending (or parent) SHT axons...
January 1997: Journal of Neurophysiology
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