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Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Tiffany R Glynn, Kristi E Gamarel, Christopher W Kahler, Mariko Iwamoto, Don Operario, Tooru Nemoto
High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being...
September 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Patricia A Cioe, Kristi E Gamarel, David W Pantalone, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, Christopher W Kahler
Intermittent smokers (ITS) have increased health risks compared with non-smokers (NS). Cigarette smoking remains prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons living with HIV (PLWH), yet most studies in PLWH do not discriminate between daily smokers (DS) and ITS. In this study, the characteristics and quit intentions of ITS and DS are compared in a sample of heavy-drinking HIV-infected MSM. Of the 185 participants enrolled, 49.2% reported having smoked cigarettes in the past month; among those, 50...
October 2, 2016: AIDS Care
Patrick MacDonald Fisher, Camilla Camilla Larsen, Vincent Beliveau, Susanne Henningsson, Anja Pinborg, Klaus Kähler Holst, Peter Steen Jensen, Claus Svarer, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Vibe Gedsoe Frokjaer
Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by dramatic fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute to heightened risk is not fully understood but may involve intrinsic functional connectivity. We induced a biphasic ovarian sex-hormone fluctuation using the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin to determine, with a randomized placebo-controlled design, intervention effects on or GnRHa-provoked depressive symptoms associations with change in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in 58 healthy women for six seeds (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal raphe, median raphe and posterior cingulate cortex)...
September 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
S R Yarboro, P H Richter, D M Kahler
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging can enhance trauma care by allowing better evaluation of bony detail and implant position compared to conventional fluoroscopy or x‑ray. Intraoperative 3D imaging further improves this evaluation by allowing any necessary revisions to be made in the operating room prior to the patient emerging from anesthesia. This revision, if necessary, better achieves the surgical goals and alleviates the stressful situation of obtaining postoperative 3D imaging, where the benefit of revision must be balanced against the cost and risk of returning to the operating room...
October 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Alexander Hetz, Gonzalo A Palma
We study the realization of slow-roll inflation in N=1 supergravities where inflation is the result of the evolution of a single chiral field. When there is only one flat direction in field space, it is possible to derive a single-field effective field theory parametrized by the sound speed c_{s} at which curvature perturbations propagate during inflation. The value of c_{s} is determined by the rate of bend of the inflationary path resulting from the shape of the F-term potential. We show that c_{s} must respect an inequality that involves the curvature tensor of the Kähler manifold underlying supergravity, and the ratio M/H between the mass M of fluctuations ortogonal to the inflationary path, and the Hubble expansion rate H...
September 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
William N Ha, Peter Duckmanton, Bill Kahler, Laurence J Walsh
This study aims to assess education on the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine among members of the Australian Society of Endodontology (ASE), a society of specialist endodontists (ED) and general dentists with an interest in endodontics (GD). The study also aims to compare the procedural preferences relating to perforation repair, apical barrier, root-end filling and regenerative endodontics. A structured online questionnaire was used, which sought details of the education in the use of MTA and the procedural steps involved in perforation repair, apical barrier, root-end filling and regenerative endodontics...
September 15, 2016: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
Tobias Tenenbaum, Georg Kähler, Christoph Janke, Horst Schroten, Süha Demirakca
BACKGROUND: Rigid bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in many countries to remove airway foreign bodies (FBs). We aimed to analyze the feasibility of airway FB removal in children, primarily by flexible bronchoscopy through a laryngeal mask. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2013 62 children with suspected airway FB who underwent flexible bronchoscopy were analyzed in a retrospective chart review at a tertiary university hospital with respect to clinical presentation and medical management...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
S R Yarboro, P H Richter, D M Kahler
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging can enhance trauma care by allowing better evaluation of bony detail and implant position compared to conventional fluoroscopy or x‑ray. Intraoperative 3D imaging further improves this evaluation by allowing any necessary revisions to be made in the operating room prior to the patient emerging from anesthesia. This revision, if necessary, better achieves the surgical goals and alleviates the stressful situation of obtaining postoperative 3D imaging, where the benefit of revision must be balanced against the cost and risk of returning to the operating room...
September 12, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
BACKGROUND: Many lines of scientific research suggest that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) may be associated with alterations in the enteric ecosystem, including alterations of the enteric macrobiome (i.e. helminthes and fungi) and changes in predominant microbiome species, particularly a reduction in microbiome diversity. METHODS: We performed and comprehensive review of the literature and summarized the major findings. RESULTS: These alterations are believed to be due to a variety of factors including changes in the post-industrial society related to decreased exposure to symbiotic organisms, increased human migration, overuse of antibiotics and changes in dietary habits...
September 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Dmitriy M Niyazov, Stephan G Kahler, Richard E Frye
Mitochondrial disease refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in defective cellular energy production due to abnormal oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) is diagnosed clinically and ideally, but not always, confirmed by a known or indisputably pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutation. The PMD genes either encode oxphos proteins directly or they affect oxphos function by impacting production of the complex machinery needed to run the oxphos process...
July 2016: Molecular Syndromology
Kelly R Ylitalo, M Renée Umstattd Meyer, Kahler Stone, Eva I Doyle, Ramona Curtis
Insufficient physical activity and unhealthy eating behaviors are major contributors to the obesity epidemic in the United States. Identifying health behaviors and disparities in underserved communities is needed to guide the development of targeted interventions. The Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) is a set of tools designed for public health emergencies, but the utility of CASPER in non-emergency settings has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use CASPER to obtain information on household-based behaviors of and barriers to fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity, and explore the utility of these methods for future health assessments...
December 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Krista K Ingram, Deborah M Gordon, Daniel A Friedman, Michael Greene, John Kahler, Swetha Peteru
Task allocation among social insect workers is an ideal framework for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural plasticity because workers of similar genotype adopt different behavioural phenotypes. Elegant laboratory studies have pioneered this effort, but field studies involving the genetic regulation of task allocation are rare. Here, we investigate the expression of the foraging gene in harvester ant workers from five age- and task-related groups in a natural population, and we experimentally test how exposure to light affects foraging expression in brood workers and foragers...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tarek Mohamed A Saoud, Sonali Mistry, Bill Kahler, Asgeir Sigurdsson, Louis M Lin
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injury to the teeth can cause horizontal root fractures and inflammatory root resorptions (external and internal). Traditionally, traumatized teeth with horizontal root fractures resulting in pulp necrosis and inflammatory root resorptions are treated with conventional root canal therapy. METHODS: A 15-year-old boy had a history of traumatic injury to mature tooth #8 resulting in horizontal root fracture and pulp necrosis of the coronal fragment...
October 2016: Journal of Endodontics
C Unterweger, A Kahler, G-F Gerlach, M Viehmann, A von Altrock, I Hennig-Pauka
A bacterial cocktail of living strains of Clostridium perfringens type A (CPA) without β2-toxin gene and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli was administered orally to newborn piglets before first colostrum intake and on 2 consecutive days on a farm with a high incidence of diarrhoea and antibiotic treatment in suckling piglets associated with E. coli and CPA. This clinical field study was driven by the hypothetic principle of competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria due to prior colonization of the gut mucosal surface by non-pathogenic strains of the same bacterial species with the aim of preventing disease...
August 30, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ulf Lützen, Maaz Zuhayra, Marlies Marx, Yi Zhao, Christian Colberg, Stephanie Knüpfer, René Baumann, Katharina Charlotte Kähler, Klaus-Peter Jünemann, Carsten Maik Naumann
PURPOSE: The international guidelines recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for lymph node staging in penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (LN) but it is not recommended with palpable inguinal LN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and morbidity of SLNB in combination with an ultrasound-guided resection of suspect inguinal LNs as a new multimodal, minimally invasive staging approach in these patients. METHODS: We performed SLNB in 26 penile cancer patients with 42 palpable inguinal LNs...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Anastasija Reimer, Florian Seufert, Matthias Weiwad, Jutta Ebert, Nicole M Bzdyl, Charlene M Kahler, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Thomas Rudel, Vera Kozjak-Pavlovic
The pathogenic bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis express the surface-exposed macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP)-like protein, which plays a role in their pathogenicity. MIP exhibits a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity that is inhibited by rapamycin and FK506. In this study, pipecolic acid derivatives were tested for their activity against the chlamydial and neisserial MIP. Two MIP inhibitors were identified, PipN3 and PipN4, that affected the developmental cycle of C...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Jane Metrik, Elizabeth R Aston, Christopher W Kahler, Damaris J Rohsenow, John E McGeary, Valerie S Knopik, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. METHODS: This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana's incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Tyler B Wray, David W Pantalone, Christopher W Kahler, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rebecca A Hess, Kyle Gunnerson, John Kahler
Herpes zoster, commonly called shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. Local trauma has been reported as a precipitant for reactivation, but this condition is rarely seen localized to a fresh surgical incision. We present the case of a patient who developed shingles overlying the incision site of a recently buried central venous access port, illustrating the need to consider this diagnosis as a unique imposter of localized infection or reaction at sites of recent procedural trauma...
July 27, 2016: CJEM
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