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Local anaesthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046095/surgical-placement-of-rectus-sheath-catheters-in-a-cadaveric-cystectomy-model
#1
Ecp Chedgy, G Lowe, R Tang, C Krebs, A Sawka, H Vaghadia, M E Gleave, A I So
Introduction Surgically inserted rectus sheath catheters (RSCs) are used increasingly for analgesia after cystectomy and other abdominal surgery. Currently, there is little information on the optimal positioning of RSCs to allow maximal spread of local anaesthetic. This study sought to assess the spread of dye injected via RSCs and to highlight the extent of its coverage in a fresh unembalmed cadaveric cystectomy model in order to confirm the nerve endings that are likely to be anaesthetised with RSCs. Methods Four cadavers underwent lower midline incision with limited bladder mobilisation...
October 19, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045562/attenuation-of-high-frequency-30-200%C3%A2-hz-thalamocortical-eeg-rhythms-as-correlate-of-anaesthetic-action-evidence-from-dexmedetomidine
#2
G Plourde, F Arseneau
Background: Gamma (30-80 Hz) and high-gamma (80-200 Hz) thalamocortical EEG rhythms are involved in conscious processes and are attenuated by isoflurane and propofol. To explore the hypothesis that this attenuation is a correlate of anaesthetic action, we characterized the effect dexmedetomidine, a selective adrenergic α-2 agonist with lesser hypnotic potency, on these rhythms. Methods: We recorded local field potentials from barrel cortex and ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus in ten previously instrumented rats to measure spectral power (30-50 Hz, 51-75 Hz, 76-125 Hz, 126-200 Hz bands) during baseline, at four dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations obtained by i...
October 16, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044462/urgency-of-caesarean-section-grading-alarm-chain-and-intrauterine-resuscitation-a-survey-of-scandinavian-practice
#3
K Wildgaard, M Ismaiel, F Hetmann
BACKGROUND: About 40,000 women have caesarean section in Scandinavia each year. Organizational factors for emergency caesarean section (CS), classification, anaesthetic practice, alarm chain, intrauterine resuscitation has all been investigated in the United Kingdom, but no information from the Scandinavian countries exists. METHODS: Using publicly available data from the National Board of Health, obstetric anaesthetic departments were identified. The heads of the departments provided e-mail contact details of two anaesthesiologists regularly practicing obstetric anaesthesia who were then surveyed...
October 18, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038901/pre-peritoneal-local-anaesthetic-does-not-reduce-post-operative-pain-in-laparoscopic-total-extra-peritoneal-inguinal-hernia-repair-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
S Kulasegaran, M Rohan, L Pearless, M Hulme-Moir
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal hernia repair (TEP) is associated with less post-operative pain and earlier return to normal activity compared to open hernia repair (OHP). Despite this, post-operative pain remains a major issue. The aim of this double-blinded randomized controlled trial was to identify whether the instillation of local anaesthetic in the pre-peritoneal space improves pain scores following TEP. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing laparoscopic total pre-peritoneal hernia repair (TEP) between the years of 2009-2014 were included...
October 16, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037430/total-spinal-block-after-local-anesthetic-administration-through-the-wrong-access-port-of-a-spinal-infusion-pump
#5
Sensar
We present a case reported on the SENSAR database. A patient with a spinal infusion pump was admitted for reservoir refill. On administration of 22ml of 0.75% bupivacaine the patient suffered a total spinal block with widespread loss strength and respiratory arrest. The patient required emergency orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and admission to ICU, where extubation was achieved within two hours without incidences. At a later stage it was stated that the local anaesthetic had been administered via the access port for bolus or contrast administration instead of via the access to the reservoir...
October 13, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034840/non-anaesthetic-effects-of-volatile-anaesthetics-a-short-trip-on-the-sea-of-translational-medicine
#6
Lukasz J Krzych, Anna J Szczepanska
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics (VA) are commonly used worldwide for induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia. They act in the central nervous system to reduce sensation and motor response during surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures. VAs also have some non-anaesthetic properties in the brain when administrated to patients at the extremes of age. Their biological impact on other organs should be taken into account during administration of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: In this review we summarize the recent knowledge on the non-anaesthetic effects of inhaled halogenic ethers on cells and tissues...
October 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031203/local-anaesthetic-pain-relief-therapy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-nanotechnological-formulation-co-loaded-with-ropivacaine-and-dexamethasone
#7
Yongxin Zhang, Yaocun Yue, Meng Chang
Combination therapy is frequently applied to anesthesia and analgesia for its benefits, which includes prolonged analgesia following peripheral nerve blockade, and reduced side effects. The aim of this study was to develop chitosan (CH) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles to co-deliver ropivacaine (RPV) and dexamethasone (DEM) (RPV/DEM CH-PCL NPs) for the prolongation of anesthesia and pain relief. In the present study, RPV/DEM CH-PCL NPs were fabricated. The properties of CH-PCL NPs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential, drug loading capacity and in vitro drug release profile...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026686/pain-prediction-from-ecg-in-vascular-surgery
#8
Tricia Adjei, Wilhelm Von Rosenberg, Valentin Goverdovsky, Katarzyna Powezka, Usman Jaffer, Danilo P Mandic
Varicose vein surgeries are routine outpatient procedures, which are often performed under local anaesthesia. The use of local anaesthesia both minimises the risk to patients and is cost effective, however, a number of patients still experience pain during surgery. Surgical teams must therefore decide to administer either a general or local anaesthetic based on their subjective qualitative assessment of patient anxiety and sensitivity to pain, without any means to objectively validate their decision. To this end, we develop a 3-D polynomial surface fit, of physiological metrics and numerical pain ratings from patients, in order to model the link between the modulation of cardiovascular responses and pain in varicose vein surgeries...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025864/pre-emptive-ice-cube-cryotherapy-for-reducing-pain-from-local-anaesthetic-injections-for-simple-lacerations-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
JaeWoo Song, HyukHoon Kim, EunJung Park, Jung Hwan Ahn, Eunhui Yoon, Samsun Lampotang, Nikolaus Gravenstein, SangChun Choi
OBJECTIVE: Subcutaneous local anaesthetic injection can be painful to patients in the ED. We evaluated the effect of cryotherapy by application of an ice cube to the injection site prior to injection in patients with simple lacerations. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomised, controlled trial in consented patients with simple lacerations needing primary repair at a single emergency centre from April to July 2016. We randomly assigned patients undergoing repair for simple lacerations to either the cryotherapy group or the control group (standard care; no cryotherapy or other pretreatment of the injection site)...
October 12, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023733/tonic-inhibition-of-brown-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#10
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
We sought to determine if body temperature and energy expenditure are influenced by a cholinergic input to neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), the site of sympathetic premotor neurons controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Nanoinjections of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) receptor agonist, oxotremorine, or the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEOS), in the rRPa of anaesthetized rats decreased cold-evoked BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, nadirs: -72%, and -95%), BAT temperature (TBAT, -0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021729/management-of-split-skin-graft-donor-site-in-the-west-african-sub-region-survey-of-plastic-surgeons-practice
#11
O A Olawoye, S A Ademola, A O Iyun, A I Michael, O M Oluwatosin
Split skin graft (SSG) is one of the most commonly performed operations on any Plastic Surgery service. Rate of donor site healing is affected by various factors including the type of dressing applied. The aim of this study was to survey the practice of plastic surgeons in the sub region with respect to management of SSG donor site and see how it conforms to international standards. Structured questionnaires on various aspects of the harvest and management of SSG donor sites were administered to plastic surgeons during the 53rd annual conference of the West African College of Surgeons (WACS) at Lome, Togo in March 2013...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020878/pharmacokinetics-of-articaine-hydrochloride-and-its-metabolite-articainic-acid-after-subcutaneous-administration-in-red-deer-cervus-elaphus
#12
D Venkatachalam, J P Chambers, K Kongara, P Singh
AIM: To develop and validate a simple and sensitive method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for quantification of articaine, and its major metabolite articainic acid, in plasma of red deer (Cervus elaphus), and to investigate the pharmacokinetics of articaine hydrochloride and articainic acid in red deer following S/C administration of articaine hydrochloride as a complete ring block around the antler pedicle. METHODS: The LC-MS method was validated by determining linearity, sensitivity, recovery, carry-over and repeatability...
October 11, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992753/pelvic-vein-embolisation-of-gonadal-and-internal-iliac-veins-can-be-performed-safely-and-with-good-technical-results-in-an-ambulatory-vein-clinic-under-local-anaesthetic-alone-results-from-two-years-experience
#13
Mark S Whiteley, Chiyinde Lewis-Shiell, Sophia I Bishop, Eluned L Davis, Tim J Fernandez-Hart, Previn Diwakar, David Beckett
Objectives Pelvic vein embolisation is increasing in venous practice for the treatment of conditions associated with pelvic venous reflux. In July 2014, we introduced a local anaesthetic "walk-in walk-out" pelvic vein embolisation service situated in a vein clinic, remote from a hospital. Methods Prospective audit of all patients undergoing pelvic vein embolisation for pelvic venous reflux. All patients had serum urea and electrolytes tested before procedure. Embolisation coils used were interlock embolisation coils (Boston Scientific, USA) as they can be repositioned after deployment and before release...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984095/the-addition-of-continuous-wound-infusion-of-local-anaesthetics-to-local-infiltration-in-the-management-of-postoperative-pain-and-rehabilitation-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Pierfrancesco Fusco, Vincenza Cofini, Emiliano Petrucci, Paolo Scimia, Maurizio Fiorenzi, Giuseppe Paladini, Astrid U Behr, Battista Borghi, Stefano Flamini, Renzo Pizzoferrato, Olivo Colafarina, Alexander DI Francesco, Tito Tabacco, Stefano Necozione, Franco Marinangeli
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common procedures in orthopaedic surgery. We hypothesized that local infiltration of analgesia and continuous wound infusion of anaesthetics in the first 72 h after surgery could provide more effective postoperative analgesia with better rehabilitation. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted with 96 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. The patients were randomized to receive either a local infiltration analgesia and continuous wound infusion of anaesthetics or a local infiltration analgesia and continuous wound infusion of saline solution...
October 4, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981145/rapid-versus-slow-ascending-vasodilatation-intercellular-conduction-versus-flow-mediated-signalling-with-tetanic-versus-rhythmic-muscle-contractions
#15
Shenghua Y Sinkler, Steven S Segal
In response to exercise, vasodilatation initiated within the microcirculation of skeletal muscle ascends the resistance network into upstream feed arteries (FAs) located external to the tissue. Ascending vasodilatation (AVD) is essential to reducing FA resistance that otherwise restricts blood flow into the microcirculation. We tested the hypothesis that signalling events underlying AVD vary with the intensity and duration of muscle contraction. In the gluteus maximus muscle of anaesthetized male C57BL/6 mice (age, 3-4 months), brief tetanic contraction (100 Hz, 500 ms) evoked rapid onset vasodilatation (ROV) in FAs that peaked within 4 s...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979305/development-of-novel-potentiometric-sensors-for-determination-of-lidocaine-hydrochloride-in-pharmaceutical-preparations-serum-and-urine-samples
#16
Tamer Awad Ali, Gehad Genidy Mohamed, Ghada A Yahya
This article is focused on the determination of lidocaine hydrochloride as a local anaesthetic drug. A potentiometric method based on modified screen-printed and modified carbon paste ion-selective electrodes was described for the determination of lidocaine hydrochloride in different pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids (urine and serum). It was based on potentiometric titration of lidocaine hydrochloride using modified screen-printed and carbon paste electrodes as end point indicator sensors. The influences of the paste composition, different conditioning parameters and foreign ions on the electrodes performance were investigated and response times of the electrodes were studied...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975884/anaesthesia-in-patients-undergoing-esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy-for-suspected-bleeding
#17
Ida Helsø, Martin Risom, Therese Risom Vestergaard, Nicolai Bang Foss, Steffen Rosenstock, Morten Hylander Møller, Lars Hyldborg Lundstrøm, Nicolai Lohse
INTRODUCTION: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency. Currently, there are no agreed guidelines on the level of anaesthetic support required in patients undergoing acute esophago-gastro-duodendoscopy (EGD). METHODS: An online questionnaire comprising 19 questions was distributed to all members of the Danish Association of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (n = 1,418) and the Danish Society of Anaesthesiologists in Training (n = 566). The questions concerned clinical practice for anaesthesia care to patients undergoing EGD for suspected UGIB and availability of local guidelines...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974111/in-vitro-neurotoxicity-by-ropivacaine-is-reduced-by-silencing-cav3-3-t-type-calcium-subunits-in-neonatal-rat-sensory-neurons
#18
Xianjie Wen, Hua Liang, Heng Li, Weiming Ou, Han-Bing Wang, Hongzhen Liu, Shijie Li
Neurotoxicity of local anaesthetics has been alerted by more and more peoples. Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels were closely related with local anaesthetics toxicity. However, the role of Cav3.3, another subtype of the T-type calcium channel, on the neurotoxicity induced by local anaesthetics remains unclear. CaMKIIγ is a kind of multifunctional kinase and associated with a variety of physiological and pathological process. T-type calcium channel is closely related with CaMKIIγ. Up-regulation CaMKIIγ can increase T-type currents at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
October 3, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972589/articaine-and-neurotoxicity-a-review
#19
A J G Hopman, J A Baart, H S Brand
The biochemical composition of articaine differs from other amide anaesthetics. The lipophilic part of articaine consists of a thiophene ring, whereas other amide anaesthetics contain a benzene ring. When used correctly, local anaesthetics are remarkably safe. However, all local anaesthetics are potentially neurotoxic. In rare cases a prolonged abnormal perception/sensation may be present after the expected duration of action (paraesthesia). In several countries retrospective studies have been conducted that examined the incidence of persistent paraesthesia after the use of local anaesthetics...
November 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972127/functional-characterization-of-5-ht1b-receptor-drugs-in-non-human-primates-using-simultaneous-pet-mr
#20
Hanne D Hansen, Joseph B Mandeville, Christin Y Sander, Jacob M Hooker, Ciprian Catana, Bruce R Rosen, Gitte M Knudsen
In the present study, we used a simultaneous PET-MR experimental design to investigate the effects of functionally different compounds (agonist, partial agonist and antagonist) on 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) occupancy and the associated hemodynamic responses. In anaesthetized male non-human primates (NHP, n=3), we used PET imaging with the radioligand [(11)C]AZ10419369 administered as a bolus followed by constant infusion to measure changes in 5-HT1BR occupancy. Simultaneously, we measured changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) as a proxy of drug effects on neuronal activity...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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