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Diana Baumgärtel, Corinna Mielke, Reinhold Haux
The use of decision support systems for smart homes can provide attractive solutions for challenges that have arisen in the Health Care System due to ageing of society. In order to provide an overview of current research projects in this field, a systematic literature review was performed according to the PRISMA approach. The aims of this work are to provide an overview of current research projects and to update a similar study from 2012. The literature search engines IEEE Xplore and PubMed were used. 23 papers were included...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Félix Musil, Sandip De, Jack Yang, Joshua E Campbell, Graeme M Day, Michele Ceriotti
Molecular crystals play an important role in several fields of science and technology. They frequently crystallize in different polymorphs with substantially different physical properties. To help guide the synthesis of candidate materials, atomic-scale modelling can be used to enumerate the stable polymorphs and to predict their properties, as well as to propose heuristic rules to rationalize the correlations between crystal structure and materials properties. Here we show how a recently-developed machine-learning (ML) framework can be used to achieve inexpensive and accurate predictions of the stability and properties of polymorphs, and a data-driven classification that is less biased and more flexible than typical heuristic rules...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Mahsa Dehghani Soufi, Taha Samad-Soltani, Samad Shams Vahdati, Peyman Rezaei-Hachesu
OBJECTIVES: Fast and accurate patient triage for the response process is a critical first step in emergency situations. This process is often performed using a paper-based mode, which intensifies workload and difficulty, wastes time, and is at risk of human errors. This study aims to design and evaluate a decision support system (DSS) to determine the triage level. METHODS: A combination of the Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Fuzzy Logic Classifier (FLC) approaches were used to predict the triage level of patients according to the triage specialist's opinions and Emergency Severity Index (ESI) guidelines...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Feng Shao, Wenyang Dai, Yao Zhang, Wei Zhang, A Dieter Schlüter, Renato Zenobi
Nanoscale defects in monolayers (MLs) of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), and 2D polymers (2DPs), can alter their physical, mechanical, optoelectronic, and chemical properties. However, detailed information about nano-defects within 2D covalent monolayers is difficult to obtain because it requires highly selective and sensitive techniques that can provide chemical information at the nanoscale. Here, we report a 2D imine-linked ML prepared from two custom-designed building blocks by dynamic imine chemistry at the air/water interface, in which an acetylenic moiety in one of the blocks was used as a spectroscopic reporter for nano-defects...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Lin Wang, Chiam Yu Ng, Satyakam Dash, Costas D Maranas
Computational pathway design tools often face the challenges of balancing the stoichiometry of co-metabolites and cofactors, and dealing with reaction rule utilization in a single workflow. To this end, we provide an overview of two complementary stoichiometry-based pathway design tools optStoic and novoStoic developed in our group to tackle these challenges. optStoic is designed to determine the stoichiometry of overall conversion first which optimizes a performance criterion (e.g. high carbon/energy efficiency) and ensures a comprehensive search of co-metabolites and cofactors...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Ruling Huang, Meiling Huang, Xiaofeng Li, Fei An, Nikhil Koratkar, Zhong-Zhen Yu
The development of fully foldable energy storage devices is a major science and engineering challenge, but one that must be overcome if next-generation foldable or wearable electronic devices are to be realized. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to develop new electrically conductive materials that exhibit superflexibility and can be folded or crumpled without plastic deformation or damage. Herein, a graphene film with engineered microvoids is prepared by reduction (under confinement) of its precursor graphene oxide film...
April 2, 2018: Advanced Materials
Robert Sidney Cox, Curtis Madsen, James Alastair McLaughlin, Tramy Nguyen, Nicholas Roehner, Bryan Bartley, Jacob Beal, Michael Bissell, Kiri Choi, Kevin Clancy, Raik Grünberg, Chris Macklin, Goksel Misirli, Ernst Oberortner, Matthew Pocock, Meher Samineni, Michael Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Zach Zundel, John H Gennari, Chris Myers, Herbert Sauro, Anil Wipat
Synthetic biology builds upon the techniques and successes of genetics, molecular biology, and metabolic engineering by applying engineering principles to the design of biological systems. The field still faces substantial challenges, including long development times, high rates of failure, and poor reproducibility. One method to ameliorate these problems would be to improve the exchange of information about designed systems between laboratories. The synthetic biology open language (SBOL) has been developed as a standard to support the specification and exchange of biological design information in synthetic biology, filling a need not satisfied by other pre-existing standards...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
David E Clarke, Christopher D J Parmenter, Oren A Scherman
Oligopeptide-based supramolecular hydrogels hold promise in a range of applications. The gelation of these systems is hard to control with minor alterations in the peptide sequence significantly influencing the self-assembly process. This makes sequence design difficult whereby typical self-assembly rules cannot be applied. We explored the design of pentapeptide sequences with different charge distributions and discovered that they formed robust, pH-responsive hydrogels. Through altering the concentration and charge distribution of the peptide sequence, we demonstrated that the stiffness of the hydrogels can be tuned across two orders of magnitude (2-200 kPa)...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Rossella Farra, Francesco Musiani, Francesca Perrone, Maja Čemažar, Urška Kamenšek, Federica Tonon, Michela Abrami, Aleš Ručigaj, Mario Grassi, Gabriele Pozzato, Deborah Bonazza, Fabrizio Zanconati, Giancarlo Forte, Maguie El Boustani, Lucia Scarabel, Marica Garziera, Concetta Russo Spena, Lucia De Stefano, Barbara Salis, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio, Gabriele Grassi, Barbara Dapas
Despite the advances in anticancer therapies, their effectiveness for many human tumors is still far from being optimal. Significant improvements in treatment efficacy can come from the enhancement of drug specificity. This goal may be achieved by combining the use of therapeutic molecules with tumor specific effects and delivery carriers with tumor targeting ability. In this regard, nucleic acid-based drug (NABD) and particularly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are attractive molecules due to the possibility to be engineered to target specific tumor genes...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ryan Suderman, Eshan D Mitra, Yen Ting Lin, Keesha E Erickson, Song Feng, William S Hlavacek
Gillespie's direct method for stochastic simulation of chemical kinetics is a staple of computational systems biology research. However, the algorithm requires explicit enumeration of all reactions and all chemical species that may arise in the system. In many cases, this is not feasible due to the combinatorial explosion of reactions and species in biological networks. Rule-based modeling frameworks provide a way to exactly represent networks containing such combinatorial complexity, and generalizations of Gillespie's direct method have been developed as simulation engines for rule-based modeling languages...
March 28, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Brandi L Bellissima, Malcolm D Tingle, Aleksandar Cicović, Mohammed Alawami, Christopher Kenedi
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is beneficial to some patients who failed to have an adequate clinical response to other antipsychotic drugs. Its clinical use is limited due to several potentially fatal adverse reactions including myocarditis. Careful monitoring of patients on clozapine is required. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on myocarditis associated with clozapine therapy. The search engines used to identify cases were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane reviews...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Dick van Oevelen, Christina E Mueller, Tomas Lundälv, Fleur C van Duyl, Jasper M de Goeij, Jack J Middelburg
The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa is an ecosystem engineer that builds reef structures on the seafloor. The interaction of the reef topography with hydrodynamics is known to enhance the supply of suspended food sources to the reef communities. However, the reef framework is also a substrate for other organisms that may compete for the very same suspended food sources. Here, we used the passive suspension feeder Lophelia pertusa and the active suspension feeding sponge Hymedesmia coriacea as model organisms to study niche overlap using isotopically-enriched algae and bacteria as suspended food sources...
2018: PloS One
S Baranidharan, Arun Kumar
The objective of this study was to obtain preliminary evidence of metal-based nanoparticle (NP) occurrence in Delhi (India). Six sampling locations (inlets and outlets of two different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), groundwater, and river water) were collected in three independent sampling events. Microscopic analysis (TEM) found majority (40%) of the particles ranged between 150 and 200 nm followed by particles of size 100-150 nm (22%) at the inlet of WWTP, while at outlet, 90% of the particles were < 100 nm...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Désirée Goubert, Mihály Koncz, Antal Kiss, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetic editing is a promising approach to modulate the local chromatin environment of target genes with the ultimate goal of stable gene expression reprogramming. Epigenetic editing tools minimally consist of a DNA-binding domain and an effector domain. The CRISPR/dCas9 platform, where mutations in the nuclease domains render the Cas9 protein inactive, is widely used to guide epigenetic effectors to their intended genomic loci. Its flexible nature, simple use, and relatively low cost have revolutionized the research field of epigenetic editing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gloria Di Filippo, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
The study examined whether developmental deficits in reading and numerical skills could be expressed in terms of global factors by reference to the rate and amount (RAM) and difference engine (DEM) models. From a sample of 325 fifth grade children, we identified 5 children with dyslexia, 16 with dyscalculia, 7 with a "mixed pattern," and 49 control children. Children were asked to read aloud words presented individually that varied for frequency and length and to respond (either vocally or manually) to a series of simple number tasks (addition, subtraction, number reading, and number comparisons)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Brian Pavilonis, Cora Roelofs, Carly Blair
Nail salons are an important business and employment sector for recent immigrants offering popular services to a diverse range of customers across the United States. However, due to the nature of nail products and services, salon air can be burdened with a mix of low levels of hazardous airborne contaminants. Surveys of nail technicians have commonly found increased work-related symptoms, such as headaches and respiratory irritation that are consistent with indoor air quality problems. In an effort to improve indoor air quality in nail salons, the state of New York recently promulgated regulations to require increased outdoor air and "source capture" of contaminants...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sundus Erbas-Cakmak, Safacan Kolemen, Adam C Sedgwick, Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson, Tony D James, Juyoung Yoon, Engin U Akkaya
The field of molecular logic gates originated 25 years ago, when A. P. de Silva published a seminal article in Nature. Stimulated by this ground breaking research, scientists were inspired to join the race to simulate the workings of the fundamental components of integrated circuits using molecules. The rules of this game of mimicry were flexible, and have evolved and morphed over the years. This tutorial review takes a look back on and provides an overview of the birth and growth of the field of molecular logics...
March 1, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Dalong Ni, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes (64 Cu,89 Zr,18 F,68 Ga,124 I, etc...
February 28, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Samuel D Stimple, Ashwin Lahiry, Joseph E Taris, David W Wood, Richard A Lease
RNA biology and RNA engineering are subjects of growing interest due to recent advances in our understanding of the diverse cellular functions of RNAs, including their roles as genetic regulators. The noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) of bacteria are a fundamental basis of regulatory control that can regulate gene expression via antisense base-pairing to one or more target mRNAs. The sRNAs can be customized to generate a range of mRNA translation rates and stabilities. The sRNAs can be applied as a platform for metabolic engineering, to control expression of genes of interest by following relatively straightforward design rules (Kushwaha et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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