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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053936/evaluation-of-an-improved-prototype-mini-baghouse-to-control-the-release-of-respirable-crystalline-silica-from-sand-movers
#1
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda, Graeham Heil
The OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica (RCS) will require hydraulic fracturing companies to implement engineering controls to limit workers' exposure to RCS. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. Chronic inhalation of RCS can lead to serious disease, including silicosis and lung cancer. NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where RCS aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047902/correcting-groove-error-in-gratings-ruled-on-a-500-mm-ruling-engine-using-interferometric-control
#2
Xiaotao Mi, Haili Yu, Hongzhu Yu, Shanwen Zhang, Xiaotian Li, Xuefeng Yao, Xiangdong Qi, Bayinhedhig, Qiuhua Wan
Groove error is one of the most important factors affecting grating quality and spectral performance. To reduce groove error, we propose a new ruling-tool carriage system based on aerostatic guideways. We design a new blank carriage system with double piezoelectric actuators. We also propose a completely closed-loop servo-control system with a new optical measurement system that can control the position of the diamond relative to the blank. To evaluate our proposed methods, we produced several gratings, including an echelle grating with 79  grooves/mm, a grating with 768  grooves/mm, and a high-density grating with 6000  grooves/mm...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042610/giant-enhancement-of-exchange-coupling-in-entropy-stabilized-oxide-heterostructures
#3
P B Meisenheimer, T J Kratofil, J T Heron
Entropy-stabilized materials are stabilized by the configurational entropy of the constituents, rather than the enthalpy of formation of the compound. A unique benefit to entropy-stabilized materials is the increased solubility of elements, which opens a broad compositional space, with subsequent local chemical and structural disorder resulting from different atomic sizes and preferred coordinations of the constituents. Known entropy-stabilized oxides contain magnetically interesting constituents, however, the magnetic properties of the multi-component oxide have yet to be investigated...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040454/to-fly-as-a-pilot-after-cardiac-surgery
#4
Thomas Syburra, Ed Nicol, Stuart Mitchell, Denis Bron, Ulrich Rosendahl, John Pepper
Aircrew are responsible for safe and reliable aircraft operations. Cardiovascular disease accounts for 50% of all pilot licences declined or withdrawn for medical reasons in Western Europe and is the most common cases of sudden incapacitation in flight. Aircrew retirement age is increasing (up to age 65) in a growing number of airlines and the burden of subclinical, but potentially significant, coronary atherosclerosis is unknown in qualified pilots above age 40. Safety considerations are paramount in aviation medicine, and the most dreaded cardiovascular complications are thromboembolic events and rhythm disturbances due to their potential for sudden incapacitation...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028252/surveillance-and-analysis-of-occupational-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-the-paris-region
#5
Eric Dos Santos, Antoine Villa, Robert Garnier, Laurene Dufayet, Jerome Langrand
Objectives: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common and often severe. Domestic causes have been extensively documented, while occupational exposures have been reported less frequently. We analyse occupational carbon monoxide poisonings from the available data of the carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance network for Paris and its region, and identify predictive factors of severity for occupational poisoning in order to identify priority prevention actions. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all events of acute accidental carbon monoxide exposures which occurred in the Paris region, at the work place, and notified to the surveillance network from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2011...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021130/knowledge-management-framework-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-preparedness-and-response-design-and-development-of-public-health-document-ontology
#6
Zhizun Zhang, Mila C Gonzalez, Stephen S Morse, Venkat Venkatasubramanian
BACKGROUND: There are increasing concerns about our preparedness and timely coordinated response across the globe to cope with emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). This poses practical challenges that require exploiting novel knowledge management approaches effectively. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge management framework that addresses the existing challenges in sharing and reusing public health knowledge. METHODS: We propose a systems engineering-inspired ontology-driven knowledge management approach...
October 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991747/dna-implementation-of-fuzzy-inference-engine-towards-dna-decision-making-systems
#7
Aby K George, Harpreet Singh
Decision-making systems are an integral part of any autonomous device. With the recent developments in bionanorobots, smart drugs, and engineered viruses, there is an immediate need of decision-making systems which are biocompatible in nature. DNA is considered a perfect candidate for designing the computing systems in such decision-making systems because of their bio-compatibility and programmability. Complex biological systems can be easily modeled/controlled using fuzzy logic operations with the help of linguistic rules...
October 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978431/compartmental-and-spatial-rule-based-modeling-with-virtual-cell
#8
Michael L Blinov, James C Schaff, Dan Vasilescu, Ion I Moraru, Judy E Bloom, Leslie M Loew
In rule-based modeling, molecular interactions are systematically specified in the form of reaction rules that serve as generators of reactions. This provides a way to account for all the potential molecular complexes and interactions among multivalent or multistate molecules. Recently, we introduced rule-based modeling into the Virtual Cell (VCell) modeling framework, permitting graphical specification of rules and merger of networks generated automatically (using the BioNetGen modeling engine) with hand-specified reaction networks...
October 3, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971416/vhmentor-an-ontology-supported-mobile-agent-system-for-pervasive-health-care-monitoring
#9
Stella C Christopoulou, Theodore Kotsilieris, Ioannis Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos, Phivos Mylonas
Healthcare provision is a set of activities that demands the collaboration of several stakeholders (e.g. physicians, nurses, managers, patients etc.) who hold distinct expertise and responsibilities. In addition, medical knowledge is diversely located and often shared under no central coordination and supervision authority, while medical data flows remain mostly passive regarding the way data is delivered to both clinicians and patients. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a virtual health Mentor (vhMentor) which stands as a dedicated ontology schema and FIPA compliant agent system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961716/predicting-novel-metabolic-pathways-through-subgraph-mining
#10
Aravind Sankar, Sayan Ranu, Karthik Raman
Motivation: The ability to predict pathways for biosynthesis of metabolites is very important in metabolic engineering. It is possible to mine the repertoire of biochemical transformations from reaction databases, and apply the knowledge to predict reactions to synthesise new molecules. However, this usually involves a careful understanding of the mechanism and the knowledge of the exact bonds being created and broken. There is a need for a method to rapidly predict reactions for synthesising new molecules, which relies only on the structures of the molecules, without demanding additional information such as thermodynamics or hand-curated reactant mapping, which are often hard to obtain accurately...
July 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957184/caustic-beams-from-unusual-powers-of-the-spectral-phase
#11
Pablo Vaveliuk, Alberto Lencina, Óscar Martínez-Matos
Caustic optical beams arising from a spectral phase whose power lies in an unusual range of values less than two are presented. Unlike what happens for conventional phase powers greater than two, it is feasible to generate caustic structures having properties that do not follow the established sorting. For instance, an asymptotic cusp caustic beam having a cusp point at infinity is demonstrated. For the sake of completeness, the caustic beam properties are analyzed within the whole real range of the phase power...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951570/efficient-engineering-of-chromosomal-ribosome-binding-site-libraries-in-mismatch-repair-proficient-escherichia-coli
#12
Sabine Oesterle, Daniel Gerngross, Steven Schmitt, Tania Michelle Roberts, Sven Panke
Multiplexed gene expression optimization via modulation of gene translation efficiency through ribosome binding site (RBS) engineering is a valuable approach for optimizing artificial properties in bacteria, ranging from genetic circuits to production pathways. Established algorithms design smart RBS-libraries based on a single partially-degenerate sequence that efficiently samples the entire space of translation initiation rates. However, the sequence space that is accessible when integrating the library by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is severely restricted by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) systems...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950453/true-nature-of-the-curzon-ahlborn-efficiency
#13
Y Apertet, H Ouerdane, C Goupil, Ph Lecoeur
The Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency has long served as the definite upper bound for the thermal efficiency at maximum output power, and has thus shaped the development of finite-time thermodynamics. In this paper, we repeal the ruling consensus according to which it has a genuine universal character that can be derived from linear irreversible thermodynamics. We demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency should instead properly be associated with a particular case of nonlinear heat engines, and we derive a generalized expression for the efficiency at maximum power beyond the restrictive case of linear models...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947758/kinetic-constraints-on-self-assembly-into-closed-supramolecular-structures
#14
Thomas C T Michaels, Mathias M J Bellaiche, Michael F Hagan, Tuomas P J Knowles
Many biological and synthetic systems exploit self-assembly to generate highly intricate closed supramolecular architectures, ranging from self-assembling cages to viral capsids. The fundamental design principles that control the structural determinants of the resulting assemblies are increasingly well-understood, but much less is known about the kinetics of such assembly phenomena and it remains a key challenge to elucidate how these systems can be engineered to assemble in an efficient manner and avoid kinetic trapping...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945811/retinal-thinning-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-without-ophthalmic-disease
#15
Nisha Mukherjee, Shan McBurney-Lin, Anthony Kuo, Richard Bedlack, Henry Tseng
IMPORTANCE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motor neurons. Recently, three causative genes have been implicated in both ALS and glaucoma. However, it is still uncertain whether patients with ALS have neurodegeneration in their retinas. If so, retinal thickness measurements might be a useful biomarker for ALS progression. Previous work in this area has been inconclusive, as it has not taken into account the effect of ophthalmic diseases on retinal thinning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945331/unexpected-tribological-synergy-in-polymer-blend-coatings-leveraging-phase-separation-to-isolate-domain-size-effects-and-reduce-friction
#16
Jillian A Emerson, Nikolay T Garabedian, Axel C Moore, David L Burris, Eric M Furst, Thomas H Epps
We employed a systematic processing approach to control phase separation in polymer blend thin films and significantly reduce dynamic friction coefficients (μ)s. We leveraged this modulation of phase separation to generate composite surfaces with dynamic friction coefficients that were substantially lower than expected on the basis of simple mixing rules, and in several cases, these friction coefficients were lower than those of both pure components. Using a model polyisoprene [PI]/polystyrene [PS] composite system, a minimum μ was found in films with PS mass fractions between 0...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937360/strain-engineering-on-transmission-carriers-of-monolayer-phosphorene
#17
Wei Zhang, Feng Li, Junsong Hu, Ping Zhang, Jiuren Yin, Xianqiong Tang, Yong Jiang, Bozhao Wu, Yanhuai Ding
The effects of uniaxial strain on the structure, band gap and transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene were investigated by first-principles calculations. The strain induced semiconductor-metal as well as direct-indirect transitions is studied in monolayer phosphorene. The position of CBM which belonged to indirect gap shifts along the direction of the applied strain. We have concluded the change rules of the carrier effective mass when plane strains are applied. In band structure, the sudden decrease of band gap or the new formation of CBM (VBM) causes the unexpected change in carrier effective mass...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931004/the-logic-of-the-floral-transition-reverse-engineering-the-switch-controlling-the-identity-of-lateral-organs
#18
Jean-Louis Dinh, Etienne Farcot, Charlie Hodgman
Much laboratory work has been carried out to determine the gene regulatory network (GRN) that results in plant cells becoming flowers instead of leaves. However, this also involves the spatial distribution of different cell types, and poses the question of whether alternative networks could produce the same set of observed results. This issue has been addressed here through a survey of the published intercellular distribution of expressed regulatory genes and techniques both developed and applied to Boolean network models...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925681/enhanced-coalescence-induced-droplet-jumping-on-nanostructured-superhydrophobic-surfaces-in-the-absence-of-microstructures
#19
Peng Zhang, Yota Maeda, Fengyong Lv, Yasuyuki Takata, Daniel Orejon
Superhydrophobic surfaces are receiving increasing attention due to the enhanced condensation heat transfer, self-cleaning, and anti-icing properties by easing droplet self-removal. Despite the extensive research carried out on this topic, the presence or absence of microstructures on droplet adhesion during condensation has not been fully addressed yet. In this work we, therefore, study the condensation behavior on engineered superhydrophobic copper oxide surfaces with different structural finishes. More specifically, we investigate the coalescence-induced droplet-jumping performance on superhydrophobic surfaces with structures varying from the micro- to the nanoscale...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922664/patchy-particles-made-by-colloidal-fusion
#20
Zhe Gong, Theodore Hueckel, Gi-Ra Yi, Stefano Sacanna
Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or 'patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems...
October 12, 2017: Nature
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