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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421158/cytotoxicity-of-zardaverine-in-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-from-a-costello-syndrome-patient
#1
Donna M Cartledge, Katherine M Robbins, Katherine M Drake, Rachel Sternberg, Deborah L Stabley, Karen W Gripp, E Anders Kolb, Katia Sol-Church, Andrew D Napper
Costello syndrome (CS) patients suffer from a very high 10% incidence of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). As tools to discover targeted therapeutic leads, we used a CS patient-derived ERMS cell line (CS242 ERMS) harboring a homozygous p.G12A mutation in HRAS, and a control cell line derived from the same patient comprising non-malignant CS242 fibroblasts with a heterozygous p.G12A HRAS mutation. A library of 2,000 compounds with known pharmacological activities was screened for their effect on CS242 ERMS cell viability...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409782/controlling-interface-states-in-1d-photonic-crystals-by-tuning-bulk-geometric-phases
#2
Wensheng Gao, Meng Xiao, Baojie Chen, Edwin Y B Pun, C T Chan, Wing Yim Tam
There is no known simple rule that assures the existence of interface states in photonic crystals (PCs). We show here that one can control the existence or absence of interface states in 1D PCs through engineering the bulk geometrical phase such that interface states can be guaranteed in some or all photonic bandgaps. We verify experimentally the interface state design paradigm in 1D multilayered PCs fabricated by electron beam vapor deposition. We obtain the geometrical phases by measuring the reflection phases at the bandgaps of the PCs and achieve good agreement with the theory...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390355/optimizing-the-formation-of-solid-solutions-with-components-of-different-shapes
#3
Fernando A Escobedo
A key challenge to engineer ordered solids from the co-assembly of two differently shaped building blocks is to predict the key particle characteristics that lead to maximal mutual ordered-phase compatibility (MaxOC). While both entropy disparity, as captured by the relative size of the components, and energetic inter-species selectivity affect MaxOC, it is the former whose effect is less intuitive and the main focus of this work. Such MaxOC predictive rules are formulated and validated by using Monte Carlo simulation results for hard-core mixtures of octahedra and spheres and of other previously studied mixtures...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382356/magnetic-fluidized-bed-for-solid-phase-extraction-in-microfluidic-systems
#4
Iago Pereiro, Sanae Tabnaoui, Marc Fermigier, Olivia du Roure, Stéphanie Descroix, Jean-Louis Viovy, Laurent Malaquin
Fluidization, a process in which a granular solid phase behaves like a fluid under the influence of an imposed upward fluid flow, is routinely used in many chemical and biological engineering applications. It brings, to applications involving fluid-solid exchanges, advantages such as high surface to volume ratio, constant mixing, low flow resistance, continuous operation and high heat transfer. We present here the physics of a new miniaturized, microfluidic fluidized bed, in which gravity is replaced by a magnetic field created by an external permanent magnet, and the solid phase is composed of magnetic microbeads with diameters ranging from 1 to 5 μm...
April 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376304/origins-of-pdz-binding-specificity-a-computational-and-experimental-study-using-nherf1-and-the-parathyroid-hormone-receptor
#5
Tatyana Mamonova, Qiangmin Zhang, Mintu Chandra, Brett Collins, Edward K Sarfo, Zimei Bu, Kunhong Xiao, Alessandro Bisello, Peter A Friedman
Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor-1 (NHERF1) is a scaffolding protein containing two PSD95/discs large/ZO1 (PDZ) domains that modifies signaling, trafficking, and function of the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), a Family B G-protein coupled receptor. PTHR and NHERF1 bind through a PDZ-ligand recognition mechanism. We show that PTH elicits phosphorylation of Thr591 in the canonical -ETVM binding motif of PTHR. Conservative substitution of Thr591 with Cys does not affect PTH(1-34)-induced cAMP production or PTHR binding to NHERF1...
April 4, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351131/inorganic-surface-engineering-to-enhance-perovskite-solar-cell-efficiency
#6
Naemeh Aeineh, Eva M Barea, Abbas Behjat, Nafiseh Sharifi, Iván Mora-Seró
The photoconversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is enhanced by the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) at the interface between the compact TiO2 electron-selective contact and the mesoporous TiO2 film. The NPs used are core/shell Au@SiO2, where a thin SiO2 coating protects the Au core from the direct chemical interaction with CH3NH3PbI3 halide perovskite used as light-harvesting material. The samples prepared with Au@SiO2 NPs exhibit a higher external quantum efficiency in the complete wavelength range at which perovskite presents light absorption and not just at the wavelengths at which Au@SiO2 NPs present their absorption peak...
April 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350442/engineered-polymer-transferrin-conjugates-as-self-assembling-targeted-drug-delivery-systems
#7
Hiteshri Makwana, Francesca Mastrotto, Johannes Pall Magnusson, Darrell Sleep, Joanna Hay, Karl J Nicholls, Stephanie Allen, Cameron Alexander
Polymer-protein conjugates can be engineered to self-assemble into discrete and well-defined drug delivery systems which combine the advantages of receptor targeting and controlled drug release. We designed specific conjugates of the iron-binding and transport protein, transferrin (Tf), to combine the advantages of this serum-stable protein as a targeting agent for cancer cells with self-assembling polymers to act as carriers of cytotoxic drugs. Tf variants were expressed with cysteine residues at sites spanning different regions of the protein surface and the polymer conjugates grown from these variants were compared with polymer conjugates grown from non-selectively derivatised sites on native Tf...
March 28, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317383/design-rules-for-enhanced-interfacial-shear-response-in-functionalized-carbon-fiber-epoxy-composites
#8
Baris Demir, Luke C Henderson, Tiffany R Walsh
Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are ideal light-weighting candidates to replace traditional engineering materials. The mechanical performance of these composites results from a complex interplay of influences operating over several length and time scales. The mechanical performance may therefore be limited by many factors, one of which being the modest interfacial adhesion between the carbon fiber and the polymer. Chemical modification of the fiber, via surface grafting of molecules, is one possible strategy to enhance interactions across the fiber-polymer interface...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303677/examination-of-crispr-cas9-design-tools-and-the-effect-of-target-site-accessibility-on-cas9-activity
#9
Ciaran M Lee, Timothy H Davis, Gang Bao
The recent adaptation of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted genome engineering has led to its widespread applications in many fields worldwide. In order to better understand the design rules of CRISPR/Cas9 systems, several groups have carried out large library-based screens leading to some insight into sequence preferences among highly active target sites. To facilitate CRISPR/Cas9 design these studies have spawned a plethora of gRNA design tools with algorithms based solely on direct or indirect sequence features...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299937/noncovalent-protein-and-peptide-functionalization-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-biodelivery-and-optical-sensing-applications
#10
Alessandra Antonucci, Justyna Kupis-Rozmysłowicz, Ardemis A Boghossian
The exquisite structural and optical characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), combined with the tunable specificities of proteins and peptides, can be exploited to strongly benefit technologies with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine to industrial biocatalysis. The key to exploiting the synergism of these materials is designing protein/peptide-SWCNT conjugation schemes that preserve biomolecule activity while keeping the near-infrared optical and electronic properties of SWCNTs intact...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283770/multifactorial-level-of-extremostability-of-proteins-can-they-be-exploited-for-protein-engineering
#11
Debamitra Chakravorty, Mohd Faheem Khan, Sanjukta Patra
Research on extremostable proteins has seen immense growth in the past decade owing to their industrial importance. Basic research of attributes related to extreme-stability requires further exploration. Modern mechanistic approaches to engineer such proteins in vitro will have more impact in industrial biotechnology economy. Developing a priori knowledge about the mechanism behind extreme-stability will nurture better understanding of pathways leading to protein molecular evolution and folding. This review is a vivid compilation about all classes of extremostable proteins and the attributes that lead to myriad of adaptations divulged after an extensive study of 6495 articles belonging to extremostable proteins...
March 10, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280815/lyotropic-liquid-crystal-engineering-moving-beyond-binary-compositional-space-ordered-nanostructured-amphiphile-self-assembly-materials-by-design
#12
REVIEW
Leonie van 't Hag, Sally L Gras, Charlotte E Conn, Calum J Drummond
Ordered amphiphile self-assembly materials with a tunable three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure are of fundamental interest, and crucial for progressing several biological and biomedical applications, including in meso membrane protein crystallization, as drug and medical contrast agent delivery vehicles, and as biosensors and biofuel cells. In binary systems consisting of an amphiphile and a solvent, the ability to tune the 3D cubic phase nanostructure, lipid bilayer properties and the lipid mesophase is limited...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278127/veterinary-drugs-residues-a-review-of-the-latest-analytical-research-on-sample-preparation-and-lc-ms-based-methods
#13
Lucia Mainero Rocca, Alessandra Gentili, Virginia Pérez-Fernández, Pierpaolo Tomai
The world population is increasing day by day and as a result there is a growing demand for food. Inevitably livestock and crops become intensive and require an increasing use of adjuvants. Even the logic of the extreme profit acts as an engine and often leads to fraudulent use of drugs, pesticides etc. Particularly, veterinary drugs can pose a real risk to human health if their residues are allowed to enter the food chain. Parent drugs and their metabolites can occur in foodstuffs individually or as multicomponent mixtures with enhanced adverse effects...
February 22, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277724/newcomer-adjustment-examining-the-role-of-managers-perception-of-newcomer-proactive-behavior-during-organizational-socialization
#14
Allison M Ellis, Sushil S Nifadkar, Talya N Bauer, Berrin Erdogan
Separate streams of organizational socialization research have recognized the importance of (a) newcomer proactivity and (b) manager support in facilitating newcomer adjustment. However, extant research has largely focused on the newcomers' experience, leaving the perspectives of managers during socialization relatively unexplored-a theoretical gap that has implications both for newcomer adjustment and manager-newcomer interactions that may serve as a basis for future relationship development. Drawing from the "interlocked" employee behavior argument of Weick (1979), we propose that managers' perception of newcomers' proactive behaviors are associated with concordant manager behaviors, which, in turn, support newcomer adjustment...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267310/computational-prediction-and-design-for-creating-iteratively-larger-heterospecific-coiled-coil-sets
#15
Richard O Crooks, Alexander Lathbridge, Anna S Panek, Jody M Mason
A major biochemical goal is the ability to mimic nature in engineering highly specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We previously devised a computational interactome screen to identify eight peptides that form four heterospecific dimers despite 32 potential off-targets. To expand the speed and utility of our approach and the PPI toolkit, we have developed new software to derive much larger heterospecific sets (≥24 peptides) while directing against antiparallel off-targets. It works by predicting Tm values for every dimer on the basis of core, electrostatic, and helical propensity components...
March 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262696/cooperation-in-carbon-source-degradation-shapes-spatial-self-organization-of-microbial-consortia-on-hydrated-surfaces
#16
Robin Tecon, Dani Or
Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249393/modeling-complexity-in-engineered-infrastructure-system-water-distribution-network-as-an-example
#17
Fang Zeng, Xiang Li, Ke Li
The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties...
February 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247435/engineering-chemically-active-defects-in-monolayer-mos2-transistors-via-ion-beam-irradiation-and-their-healing-via-vapor-deposition-of-alkanethiols
#18
Simone Bertolazzi, Sara Bonacchi, Guangjun Nan, Anton Pershin, David Beljonne, Paolo Samorì
Irradiation of 2D sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides with ion beams has emerged as an effective approach to engineer chemically active defects in 2D materials. In this context, argon-ion bombardment has been utilized to introduce sulfur vacancies in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ). However, a detailed understanding of the effects of generated defects on the functional properties of 2D MoS2 is still lacking. In this work, the correlation between critical electronic device parameters and the density of sulfur vacancies is systematically investigated through the fabrication and characterization of back-gated monolayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) exposed to a variable fluence of low-energy argon ions...
March 1, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242181/detecting-knee-osteoarthritis-and-its-discriminating-parameters-using-random-forests
#19
Margarita Kotti, Lynsey D Duffell, Aldo A Faisal, Alison H McGregor
This paper tackles the problem of automatic detection of knee osteoarthritis. A computer system is built that takes as input the body kinetics and produces as output not only an estimation of presence of the knee osteoarthritis, as previously done in the literature, but also the most discriminating parameters along with a set of rules on how this decision was reached. This fills the gap of interpretability between the medical and the engineering approaches. We collected locomotion data from 47 subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 47 healthy subjects...
May 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196071/how-green-are-the-streets-an-analysis-for-central-areas-of-chinese-cities-using-tencent-street-view
#20
Ying Long, Liu Liu
Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city...
2017: PloS One
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