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Grace Yim, Wenliang Wang, Maulik N Thaker, Stephanie Tan, Gerard D Wright
Modification of natural product backbones is a proven strategy for the development of clinically useful antibiotics. Such modifications have traditionally been achieved through medicinal chemistry strategies or via in vitro enzymatic activities. In an orthogonal approach, engineering of biosynthetic pathways using synthetic biology techniques can generate chemical diversity. Here we report the use of a minimal teicoplanin class glycopeptide antibiotic (GPA) scaffold expressed in a production-optimized Streptomyces coelicolor strain to expand GPA chemical diversity...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Michael Laxy, Gabriella Knoll, Michaela Schunk, Christa Meisinger, Cornelia Huth, Rolf Holle
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of the quality of diabetes care in Germany. The aim of this study is to analyze time trends in patient self-management, physician-delivered care, medication, risk factor control, complications and quality of life from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Analyses are based on data from individuals with type 2 diabetes of the population-based KORA S4 (1999-2001, n = 150), F4 (2006-2008, n = 203), FF4 (2013/14, n = 212) cohort study...
2016: PloS One
N Bergeard, M Hehn, S Mangin, G Lengaigne, F Montaigne, M L M Lalieu, B Koopmans, G Malinowski
Using specially engineered structures to tailor the optical absorption in a metallic multilayer, we analyze the magnetization dynamics of a Co/Pt multilayer buried below a thick Cu layer. We demonstrate that hot electrons alone can very efficiently induce ultrafast demagnetization. Simulations based on hot electron ballistic transport implemented within a microscopic model that accounts for local dissipation of angular momentum nicely reproduce the experimental results, ruling out contribution of pure thermal transport...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Berivan Bitik, Rıdvan Mercan, Abdurrahman Tufan, Engin Tezcan, Hamit Küçük, Mustafa İlhan, Mehmet Akif Öztürk, Seminur Haznedaroğlu, Berna Göker
OBJECTIVE: In the case of high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the diagnosis of the underlying disease can be challenging especially in serologically unrevealing patients who have nonspecific clinical findings. We aimed to investigate the final distribution of definitive diagnoses in patients who initially presented with nonspecific clinical findings and sustained elevations in serum ESR/CRP levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of patients hospitalized in a rheumatology clinic between January 2010 and January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Annalisa Cardellini, Matteo Fasano, Masoud Bozorg Bigdeli, Eliodoro Chiavazzo, Pietro Asinari
Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Nadav Brandes, Dan Ofer, Michal Linial
Determining residue-level protein properties, such as sites of post-translational modifications (PTMs), is vital to understanding protein function. Experimental methods are costly and time-consuming, while traditional rule-based computational methods fail to annotate sites lacking substantial similarity. Machine Learning (ML) methods are becoming fundamental in annotating unknown proteins and their heterogeneous properties. We present ASAP (Amino-acid Sequence Annotation Prediction), a universal ML framework for predicting residue-level properties...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Ritu Raman, Marlon Mitchell, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Rashid Bashir, Lizanne DeStefano
BACKGROUND: The rapidly evolving discipline of biological and biomedical engineering requires adaptive instructional approaches that teach students to target and solve multi-pronged and ill-structured problems at the cutting edge of scientific research. Here we present a modular approach to designing a lab-based course in the emerging field of biofabrication and biological design, leading to a final capstone design project that requires students to formulate and test a hypothesis using the scientific method...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Yi Wen, Amelia Waltman, Huifang Han, Joel H Collier
Biomaterials created from supramolecular peptides, proteins, and their derivatives have been receiving increasing interest for both immunological applications, such as vaccines and immunotherapies, as well as ostensibly nonimmunological applications, such as therapeutic delivery or tissue engineering. However, simple rules for either maximizing immunogenicity or abolishing it have yet to be elucidated, even though immunogenicity is a prime consideration for the design of any supramolecular biomaterial intended for use in vivo...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
Xingchen Ye, Jun Chen, M Eric Irrgang, Michael Engel, Angang Dong, Sharon C Glotzer, Christopher B Murray
Expanding the library of self-assembled superstructures provides insight into the behaviour of atomic crystals and supports the development of materials with mesoscale order. Here we build on recent findings of soft matter quasicrystals and report a quasicrystalline binary nanocrystal superlattice that exhibits correlations in the form of partial matching rules reducing tiling disorder. We determine a three-dimensional structure model through electron tomography and direct imaging of surface topography. The 12-fold rotational symmetry of the quasicrystal is broken in sublayers, forming a random tiling of rectangles, large triangles and small triangles with 6-fold symmetry...
September 26, 2016: Nature Materials
Meng Fatt Leong, Hong Fang Lu, Tze Chiun Lim, Chan Du, Nina K L Ma, Andrew C A Wan
: The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for clinical tissue engineering applications requires expansion and differentiation of the cells using defined, xeno-free substrates. The screening and selection of suitable synthetic substrates however, is tedious, as their performance relies on the inherent material properties. In the present work, we demonstrate an alternative concept for xeno-free expansion and differentiation of hiPSCs using synthetic substrates, which hinges on the structure-function relationship between electrospun polystyrene scaffolds (ESPS) and pluripotent stem cell growth...
September 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Serdal Baştuğ, Abdullah Nabi Aslan, Cenk Sarı, Hakan Süygün, Engin Bozkurt
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), most commonly performed via retrograde femoral artery access, is a promising alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in elderly, high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Approximately one-third of these patients suffer from severe iliofemoral arteriopathy, ruling out transfemoral approach. The case of a 74-year-old man with severe AS and bilateral iliofemoral arteriopathy treated with left trans-subclavian (TS) TAVI using the Lotus valve system is described in the present report...
September 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Stephan Moyses, Anton Ginzburg
A Porous Graphitic Carbon (PGC) column was evaluated for the analysis of poly(phenylene ether) (PPE). This column appears particularly well-suited for the separation of this polymer. Conditions for the elution of PPE either in adsorption mode with chloroform or size exclusion with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) as eluent were established. Elution of homologous species is obtained in chloroform that follows Martin's rule. A separation based on a gradient consisting of a sequence of non-solvent (acetonitrile), solvent/adsorli (chloroform) provided the highest peak capacity...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Muhammad Arif Butt, Muhammad Akram
We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process...
2016: SpringerPlus
Michael P Maier, Carsten Prasse, Sarah G Pati, Sebastian Nitsche, Zhe Li, Michael Radke, Armin Meyer, Thomas B Hofstetter, Thomas A Ternes, Martin Elsner
Although diclofenac ranks among the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in the urban water cycle, its environmental transformation reactions remain imperfectly understood. Biodegradation-induced changes in (15)N/(14)N ratios (εN = -7.1‰ ± 0.4‰) have indicated that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may detect diclofenac degradation. This singular observation warrants exploration for further transformation reactions. The present study surveys carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in other environmental and engineered transformation reactions of diclofenac...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Marco Cirilli, Filippo Geuna, Anna R Babini, Valentina Bozhkova, Luigi Catalano, Beniamino Cavagna, Sylvie Dallot, Véronique Decroocq, Luca Dondini, Stefano Foschi, Vincenza Ilardi, Alessandro Liverani, Bruno Mezzetti, Angelantonio Minafra, Marco Pancaldi, Tiziana Pandolfini, Thierry Pascal, Vito N Savino, Ralph Scorza, Ignazio Verde, Daniele Bassi
Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV), is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial-temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elena Senís, Stefan Mockenhaupt, Daniel Rupp, Tobias Bauer, Nagarajan Paramasivam, Bettina Knapp, Jan Gronych, Stefanie Grosse, Marc P Windisch, Florian Schmidt, Fabian J Theis, Roland Eils, Peter Lichter, Matthias Schlesner, Ralf Bartenschlager, Dirk Grimm
Successful RNAi applications depend on strategies allowing robust and persistent expression of minimal gene silencing triggers without perturbing endogenous gene expression. Here, we propose a novel avenue which is integration of a promoterless shmiRNA, i.e. a shRNA embedded in a micro-RNA (miRNA) scaffold, into an engineered genomic miRNA locus. For proof-of-concept, we used TALE or CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases to site-specifically integrate an anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) shmiRNA into the liver-specific miR-122/hcr locus in hepatoma cells, with the aim to obtain cellular clones that are genetically protected against HCV infection...
September 9, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Astrid Layton, Bert Bras, Marc Weissburg
Biologically Inspired Design (biomimicry) and Industrial Ecology both look to natural systems to enhance the sustainability and performance of engineered products, systems and industries. Bioinspired design (BID) traditionally has focused on a unit operation and single product level. In contrast, this paper describes how principles of network organization derived from analysis of ecosystem properties can be applied to industrial system networks. Specifically, this paper examines the applicability of particular food web matrix properties as design rules for economically and biologically sustainable industrial networks, using an optimization model developed for a carpet recycling network...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Julie R Beegle, Nataly Lessa Magner, Stefanos Kalomoiris, Aja Harding, Ping Zhou, Catherine Nacey, Jeannine Logan White, Karen Pepper, William Gruenloh, Geralyn Annett, Jan A Nolta, Fernando A Fierro
Numerous clinical trials are utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to treat critical limb ischemia, primarily for their ability to secrete signals that promote revascularization. These cells have demonstrated clinical safety, but their efficacy has been limited, possibly because these paracrine signals are secreted at subtherapeutic levels. In these studies the combination of cell and gene therapy was evaluated by engineering MSC with a lentivirus to overexpress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To achieve clinical compliance, the number of viral insertions was limited to 1-2 copies/cell and a constitutive promoter with demonstrated clinical safety was used...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Matthias Zeisberger, Alessandro Tuniz, Markus A Schmidt
We present a mathematical model that allows interpreting the dispersion and attenuation of modes in hollow-core fibers (HCFs) on the basis of single interface reflection, giving rise to analytic and semi-analytic expressions for the complex effective indices in the case where the core diameter is large and the guiding is based on the reflection by a thin layer. Our model includes two core-size independent reflection parameters and shows the universal inverse-cubed core diameter dependence of the modal attenuation of HCFs...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
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