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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918937/methods-to-rank-traffic-rule-violations-resulting-in-crashes-for-allocation-of-funds
#1
Praveena Penmetsa, Srinivas S Pulugurtha
Education, enforcement and engineering countermeasures are implemented to make road users comply with the traffic rules. Not all the traffic rule violations can be addressed nor countermeasures be implemented at all unsafe locations, at once, due to limited funds. Therefore, this study aims at ranking the traffic rule violations resulting in crashes based on individual ranks, such as 1) frequency (expressed as a function of the number of drivers violating a traffic rule and involved in crashes), 2) crash severity, 3) total crash cost, and, 4) cost severity index, to assist transportation system managers in prioritizing the allocation of funds and improving safety on roads...
December 2, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903820/agent-based-modelling-in-synthetic-biology
#2
REVIEW
Thomas E Gorochowski
Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863127/study-on-genetic-stability-in-human-urothelial-cells-in-vitro
#3
Clara Ibel Chamorro, Said Zeiai, Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg, David Brodin, Johanna Lundin, Agneta Nordenskjöld, Magdalena Fossum
Quality control studies addressing gene expression changes and genetic stability are of vital importance in regenerative medicine. In order to rule out that in vitro expansion gives rise to gene expression changes that could favor oncogenic events, we applied a total human gene expression chip (Affymetrix®) and bioinformatics analysis using the Ingenuity web-based application in combination with an analysis of chromosomal copy number variations using array CGH. We found that urothelial cells presented a general repression of genes required for cell cycle progression and an upregulated of growth-inhibitory genes, as well as a decrease in DNA replication after long-term culture...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855603/protein-engineering-approaches-in-the-post-genomic-era
#4
Raushan Kumar Singh, Jung-Kul Lee, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Ranjitha Singh, Jinglin Li, Sang-Yong Kim, Vipin C Kalia
Proteins are one of the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems. Proteins have evolved to function under physiological conditions and, therefore, are not usually tolerant of harsh experimental and environmental conditions. The growing use of proteins in industrial processes as a greener alternative to chemical catalysts often demands constant innovation to improve their performance. Protein engineering aims to design new proteins or modify the sequence of a protein to create proteins with new or desirable functions...
November 17, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845368/magnetic-modes-in-rare-earth-perovskites-a-magnetic-field-dependent-inelastic-light-scattering-study
#5
Surajit Saha, Bing-Chen Cao, M Motapothula, Chun-Xiao Cong, Tarapada Sarkar, Amar Srivastava, Soumya Sarkar, Abhijeet Patra, Siddhartha Ghosh, Ariando, J M D Coey, Ting Yu, T Venkatesan
Here, we report the presence of defect-related states with magnetic degrees of freedom in crystals of LaAlO3 and several other rare-earth based perovskite oxides using inelastic light scattering (Raman spectroscopy) at low temperatures in applied magnetic fields of up to 9 T. Some of these states are at about 140 meV above the valence band maximum while others are mid-gap states at about 2.3 eV. No magnetic impurity could be detected in LaAlO3 by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy. We, therefore, attribute the angular momentum-like states in LaAlO3 to cationic/anionic vacancies or anti-site defects...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830249/efficient-results-in-semantic-interoperability-for-health-care-findings-from-the-section-on-knowledge-representation-and-management
#6
L F Soualmia, J Charlet
OBJECTIVES: To summarize excellent current research in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM) within the health and medical care domain. METHOD: We provide a synopsis of the 2016 IMIA selected articles as well as a related synthetic overview of the current and future field activities. A first step of the selection was performed through MEDLINE querying with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the KRM section. The second step of the selection was completed by the two section editors who separately evaluated the set of 1,432 articles...
November 10, 2016: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826132/increasing-complexity-in-rule-based-clinical-decision-support-the-symptom-assessment-and-management-intervention
#7
David F Lobach, Ellis B Johns, Barbara Halpenny, Toni-Ann Saunders, Jane Brzozowski, Guilherme Del Fiol, Donna L Berry, Ilana M Braun, Kathleen Finn, Joanne Wolfe, Janet L Abrahm, Mary E Cooley
BACKGROUND: Management of uncontrolled symptoms is an important component of quality cancer care. Clinical guidelines are available for optimal symptom management, but are not often integrated into the front lines of care. The use of clinical decision support (CDS) at the point-of-care is an innovative way to incorporate guideline-based symptom management into routine cancer care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rule-based CDS system to enable management of multiple symptoms in lung cancer patients at the point-of-care...
November 8, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812480/interfacial-materials-for-organic-solar-cells-recent-advances-and-perspectives
#8
Zhigang Yin, Jiajun Wei, Qingdong Zheng
Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs...
August 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807271/top-down-models-in-biology-explanation-and-control-of-complex-living-systems-above-the-molecular-level
#9
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Michael Levin
It is widely assumed in developmental biology and bioengineering that optimal understanding and control of complex living systems follows from models of molecular events. The success of reductionism has overshadowed attempts at top-down models and control policies in biological systems. However, other fields, including physics, engineering and neuroscience, have successfully used the explanations and models at higher levels of organization, including least-action principles in physics and control-theoretic models in computational neuroscience...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802273/fusion-of-human-fetal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-degenerating-cerebellar-neurons-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-1-model-mice
#10
Fathul Huda, Yiping Fan, Mamiko Suzuki, Ayumu Konno, Yasunori Matsuzaki, Nobutaka Takahashi, Jerry K Y Chan, Hirokazu Hirai
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate to damaged tissues, where they participate in tissue repair. Human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs), compared with adult MSCs, have higher proliferation rates, a greater differentiation capacity and longer telomeres with reduced senescence. Therefore, transplantation of quality controlled hfMSCs is a promising therapeutic intervention. Previous studies have shown that intravenous or intracortical injections of MSCs result in the emergence of binucleated cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) containing an MSC-derived marker protein in mice, thus suggesting a fusion event...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783457/vertically-formed-graphene-stripe-for-3d-field-effect-transistor-applications
#11
Seul Ki Hong, Jae Hoon Bong, Byung Jin Cho, Wan Sik Hwang
A 100-nm wide, vertically formed graphene stripe (GS) is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) electronic applications. The GS forms along the sidewall of a thin nickel film. It is possible to further scale down the GS width by engineering the deposited thickness of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) Ni film. Unlike a conventional GS or graphene nanoribbon (GNR), the vertically formed GS is made without a graphene transfer and etching process. The process integration of the proposed GS FETs resembles that of currently commercialized vertical NAND flash memory with a design rule of less than 20 nm, implying practical usage of this formed GS for 3D advanced FET applications...
October 26, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770557/aligning-analyzing-and-visualizing-sequences-for-antibody-engineering-automated-recognition-of-immunoglobulin-variable-region-features
#12
Alexander Jarasch, Arne Skerra
The analysis and comparison of large numbers of immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences that arise during an antibody selection campaign can be time-consuming and tedious. Typically, the identification and annotation of framework as well as complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) is based on multiple sequence alignments using standardized numbering schemes, which allow identification of equivalent residues among different family members but often necessitate expert knowledge and manual intervention. Moreover, due to the enormous length variability of some CDRs the benefit of conventional Ig numbering schemes is limited and the calculation of correct sequence alignments can become challenging...
October 22, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759388/how-to-make-a-glycopeptide-a-synthetic-biology-approach-to-expand-antibiotic-chemical-diversity
#13
Grace Yim, Wenliang Wang, Maulik N Thaker, Stephanie Tan, Gerard D Wright
Modification of natural product backbones is a proven strategy for the development of clinically useful antibiotics. Such modifications have traditionally been achieved through medicinal chemistry strategies or via in vitro enzymatic activities. In an orthogonal approach, engineering of biosynthetic pathways using synthetic biology techniques can generate chemical diversity. Here we report the use of a minimal teicoplanin class glycopeptide antibiotic (GPA) scaffold expressed in a production-optimized Streptomyces coelicolor strain to expand GPA chemical diversity...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749939/quality-of-diabetes-care-in-germany-improved-from-2000-to-2007-to-2014-but-improvements-diminished-since-2007-evidence-from-the-population-based-kora-studies
#14
Michael Laxy, Gabriella Knoll, Michaela Schunk, Christa Meisinger, Cornelia Huth, Rolf Holle
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of the quality of diabetes care in Germany. The aim of this study is to analyze time trends in patient self-management, physician-delivered care, medication, risk factor control, complications and quality of life from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Analyses are based on data from individuals with type 2 diabetes of the population-based KORA S4 (1999-2001, n = 150), F4 (2006-2008, n = 203), FF4 (2013/14, n = 212) cohort study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740830/hot-electron-induced-ultrafast-demagnetization-in-co-pt-multilayers
#15
N Bergeard, M Hehn, S Mangin, G Lengaigne, F Montaigne, M L M Lalieu, B Koopmans, G Malinowski
Using specially engineered structures to tailor the optical absorption in a metallic multilayer, we analyze the magnetization dynamics of a Co/Pt multilayer buried below a thick Cu layer. We demonstrate that hot electrons alone can very efficiently induce ultrafast demagnetization. Simulations based on hot electron ballistic transport implemented within a microscopic model that accounts for local dissipation of angular momentum nicely reproduce the experimental results, ruling out contribution of pure thermal transport...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712189/a-computational-model-of-osteochondral-defect-repair-following-implantation-of-stem-cell-laden-multiphase-scaffolds
#16
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708949/differential-diagnosis-of-elevated-erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate-and-c-reactive-protein-levels-a-rheumatology-perspective
#17
Berivan Bitik, Rıdvan Mercan, Abdurrahman Tufan, Engin Tezcan, Hamit Küçük, Mustafa İlhan, Mehmet Akif Öztürk, Seminur Haznedaroğlu, Berna Göker
OBJECTIVE: In the case of high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the diagnosis of the underlying disease can be challenging especially in serologically unrevealing patients who have nonspecific clinical findings. We aimed to investigate the final distribution of definitive diagnoses in patients who initially presented with nonspecific clinical findings and sustained elevations in serum ESR/CRP levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of patients hospitalized in a rheumatology clinic between January 2010 and January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed...
December 2015: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701144/thermal-transport-phenomena-in-nanoparticle-suspensions
#18
Annalisa Cardellini, Matteo Fasano, Masoud Bozorg Bigdeli, Eliodoro Chiavazzo, Pietro Asinari
Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694209/asap-a-machine-learning-framework-for-local-protein-properties
#19
Nadav Brandes, Dan Ofer, Michal Linial
Determining residue-level protein properties, such as sites of post-translational modifications (PTMs), is vital to understanding protein function. Experimental methods are costly and time-consuming, while traditional rule-based computational methods fail to annotate sites lacking substantial similarity. Machine Learning (ML) methods are becoming fundamental in annotating unknown proteins and their heterogeneous properties. We present ASAP (Amino-acid Sequence Annotation Prediction), a universal ML framework for predicting residue-level properties...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688801/design-and-integration-of-a-problem-based-biofabrication-course-into-an-undergraduate-biomedical-engineering-curriculum
#20
Ritu Raman, Marlon Mitchell, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Rashid Bashir, Lizanne DeStefano
BACKGROUND: The rapidly evolving discipline of biological and biomedical engineering requires adaptive instructional approaches that teach students to target and solve multi-pronged and ill-structured problems at the cutting edge of scientific research. Here we present a modular approach to designing a lab-based course in the emerging field of biofabrication and biological design, leading to a final capstone design project that requires students to formulate and test a hypothesis using the scientific method...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
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