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Chia-Wen Hsu, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Ruili Huang, Dirk Pijnenburg, Thai Khuc, Jon Hamm, Jinghua Zhao, Caitlin Lynch, Rinie van Beuningen, Xiaoqing Chang, Rene Houtman, Menghang Xia
Chemicals that alter normal function of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) have been shown to affect the homeostasis of bile acids, glucose, and lipids. Several structural classes of environmental chemicals and drugs that modulated FXR transactivation were previously identified by quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the Tox21 10K chemical collection. In the present study, we validated the FXR antagonist activity of selected structural classes, including avermectin anthelmintics, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, 1,3-indandione rodenticides, and pyrethroid pesticides, using in vitro assay and quantitative structural-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis approaches...
October 20, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Martina Štěpánková, Kristýna Krasulová, Aneta Dořičáková, Ondřej Kurka, Pavel Anzenbacher, Zdeněk Dvořák
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are used as anti-hypertensives and in the treatment of angina pectoris. Structurally, CCBs have at least one chiral center in the molecule, thereby existing in two or more different enantiomers. In the current paper we examined effects of benidipine, felodipine and isradipine enantiomers on the expression and enzyme activities of human xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450. All CCBs dose-dependently activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), as revealed by gene reporter assays...
October 9, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Marija Pinne, Elsa Ponce, Judy L Raucy
The pregnane X receptor (PXR/SXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) are nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in the regulation of many genes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and transporters important in metabolism and uptake of both endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Activation of these receptors can lead to adverse drug effects as well as drug-drug interactions. Depending on which nuclear receptor is activated will determine which adverse effect could occur, making identification important...
2016: PloS One
Maren C Podszun, Metta Jakobi, Marc Birringer, Johanna Weiss, Jan Frank
SCOPE: Members of the vitamin E family or their metabolites may induce the xenobiotic transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which can limit the bioavailability of drugs and phytochemicals. This study aimed to investigate if α- and γ-tocopherol, α- and γ-tocotrienol, the long chain metabolite α-tocopherol-13'-COOH, the short chain metabolites α- and γ-carboxyethylhydroxychromanol and plastochromanol-8 activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and thereby modulate P-gp expression and/or activity...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Beth Williamson, Mathias Lorbeer, Michael D Mitchell, Timothy G Brayman, Robert J Riley
The nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of genes involved in the metabolism, hepatobiliary disposition, and toxicity of drugs and endogenous compounds. PXR is a promiscuous nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) with significant ligand and DNA-binding crosstalk with the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR); hence, defining the precise role of PXR in gene regulation is challenging. Here, utilising a novel PXR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, real-time PCR analysis was conducted to determine PXR involvement for a range of inducers...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Jiong Yan, Wen Xie
The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were cloned and/or established as xenobiotic receptors in 1998. Due to their activities in the transcriptional regulation of phase I and phase II enzymes as well as drug transporters, PXR and CAR have been defined as the master regulators of xenobiotic responses. The discovery of PXR and CAR provides the essential molecular basis by which drugs and other xenobiotic compounds regulate the expression of xenobiotic enzymes and transporters...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
C Trent Brewer, Taosheng Chen
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important and diverse role in mediating xenobiotic induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Several protein isoforms of PXR exist, and they have differential transcriptional activity upon target genes; transcript variants 3 (PXR3) and 4 (PXR4) do not induce target gene expression, whereas transcript variants 1 (PXR1) and 2 (PXR2) respond to agonist by activating target gene expression. PXR protein variants also display differences in protein-protein interactions; PXR1 interacts with p53, whereas PXR3 does not...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
William D Hedrich, Hazem E Hassan, Hongbing Wang
Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Z P Wang, M Zhao, Q S Qu, S Z Miao
We investigated the effect of pregnane X receptor (PXR) polymorphisms on tacrolimus (FK506) blood trough concentrations and the associated adverse reactions in kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphism loci in 336 KTRs. The PXR six-base deletion mutation was classified using specific allele PCR, and the FK506 blood trough concentration in the KTRs was measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xiang-Yu Li, Yang Yu, Miao Jia, Mei-Na Jin, Nan Qin, Chuan Zhao, Hong-Quan Duan
Nine new pregnane alkaloids (1-9), together with eight known alkaloids (10-17), were isolated from the whole herb of Pachysandra terminalis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the isolates were examined for their ability to inhibit the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells induced by the chemokine epidermal growth factor (EGF). Alkaloids 1, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 17 presented significant anti-metastasis activities compared with the positive reagent, LY294002.
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aneta Doricakova, Dirk Theile, Johanna Weiss, Radim Vrzal
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1)-mediated transport and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics thereby affecting the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and potentially modulating clinical efficacy. Thus, pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions can arise from PXR activation. Here, we examined whether the selective α1-adrenoreceptor blocker tamsulosin or the antagonist of muscarinic receptors tolterodine affect PXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and of P-gp at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level in an enantiomer-specific way...
September 27, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Desmaré van Rooyen, Therina du Toit, Renate Louw-du Toit, Donita Africander, Pieter Swart, Amanda C Swart
16α-hydroxyprogesterone (16OHP4) is not well characterised in terms of metabolism and receptor interaction. We therefore investigated its metabolism by adrenal CYP11B and peripheral steroidogenic enzymes, SRD5A and AKR1C2. UHPLC-MS/MS analyses identified novel steroids: the biosynthesis of 4-pregnen-11β,16α-diol-3,20-dione catalysed by CYP11B2; the 5α-reduction of the latter and 16OHP4 catalysed by SRD5A yielding 5α-pregnan-11β,16α-diol-3,20-diovne and 5α-pregnan-16α-ol-3,20-dione (16OH-DHP4); and 16OH-DHP4 converted by AKR1C2 to 5α-pregnan-3α,16α-diol-20-one...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sundaramoorthy Revathidevi, Ravi Sudesh, Varadharajan Vaishnavi, Muthukrishnan Kaliyanasundaram, Kilyara George MaryHelen, Ganesan Sukanya, Arasambattu Kannan Munirajan
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the commonest cancer among women in the world, ranks top in India with an incidence rate of 1,45,000 new cases and mortality rate of 70,000 women every year. Chemotherapy outcome for breast cancer is hampered due to poor response and irreversible dose-dependent cardiotoxicity which is determined by genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, induces expression of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters leading to regulation of xenobiotic metabolism...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Andrea Calcagno, Jessica Cusato, Antonio D'Avolio, Stefano Bonora
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment is highly effective in enhancing HIV-positive patients' survival and quality of life. Despite an increased tolerability in recent years, a substantial amount of patients experience side effects. Antiretrovirals' efficacy and tolerability have been associated with plasma concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected genes involved in drug disposition. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the current knowledge in genetic polymorphisms affecting plasma, intracellular or compartmental concentrations of antiretrovirals...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Hua-Qiao Tang, Min Xu, Qian Rong, Ru-Wen Jin, Qi-Ji Liu, Ying-Lun Li
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is widely incorporated as a food additive in animal diets. In order to optimize the beneficial effects of ZnO and minimize any resultant environmental pollution, ZnO nanoparticles are often used for delivery of the zinc. However, the possible toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles, including effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effect of ZnO nanoparticles, in doses used in animal feeds, on CYP450 enzymes, liver and intestinal enzymes, liver and kidney histopathology, and hematologic indices in rats...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Satyanarayana R Pondugula, Petr Pavek, Sridhar Mani
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is an adopted orphan nuclear receptor that is activated by a wide-range of endobiotics and xenobiotics, including chemotherapy drugs. PXR plays a major role in the metabolism and clearance of xenobiotics and endobiotics in liver and intestine via induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug-transporting proteins. However, PXR is expressed in several cancer tissues and the accumulating evidence strongly points to the differential role of PXR in cancer growth and progression as well as in chemotherapy outcome...
June 12, 2016: Nuclear Receptor Research
Dilip Mukherjee, Suravi Majumder, Sujata Roy Moulik, Puja Pal, Shreyasi Gupta, Payel Guha, Dhynendra Kumar
Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway...
September 8, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Mohamed Diwan M AbdulHameed, Danielle L Ippolito, Anders Wallqvist
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that acts as a master regulator of metabolizing enzymes and transporters. To avoid adverse drug-drug interactions and diseases such as steatosis and cancers associated with PXR activation, identifying drugs and chemicals that activate PXR is of crucial importance. In this work, we developed ligand-based predictive computational models for both rat and human PXR activation, which allowed us to identify potentially harmful chemicals and evaluate species-specific effects of a given compound...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Ching-Jie Lin, I-Wen Lo, Yu-Chi Lin, Shun-Ying Chen, Ching-Te Chien, Yao-Haur Kuo, Tsong-Long Hwang, Shorong-Shii Liou, Ya-Ching Shen
Phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the roots of Aphanamixis polystachya resulted in isolation of four new tetranortriterpenes (1-4) in addition to one protolimonoid (methyl-1ξ,7R-diacetoxy-23R,25-dihydroxy-20S,24R-21,24-epoxy-3,4-seco-apotirucall-4(28),14(15)-diene-3-oate (5)), five known limonoids (rohituka 3 (6), rohituka 7 (7), nymania 1 (8), rubrin G (9), prieurianin (10)) and a steroid (2,3-dihydroxy-5-pregnan-16-one (11)). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Andre L D A Mazzari, Flora Milton, Samantha Frangos, Ana C B Carvalho, Dâmaris Silveira, Francisco de Assis Rocha Neves, Jose M Prieto
Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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