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Michael E Newcomb, Kevin Moran, Brian A Feinstein, Emily Forscher, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at preventing HIV acquisition. It remains unclear if PrEP use increases rates of condomless sex (i.e., risk compensation), which may increase risk of infection if PrEP adherence is not optimal. This study aimed to examine whether PrEP use and PrEP adherence were associated with change in sexual risk behaviors in a large longitudinal cohort of YMSM reporting on multiple sexual partnerships over time...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
C J Newcomb, N P Qafoku, J W Grate, V L Bailey, J J De Yoreo
In the original version of this Article, the Acknowledgements section omitted the Department of Energy-funded Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory in which the XRD measurements were performed. This error has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Richard D Newcomb, Rosemary Frasso, Phoebe Cruz, Laura E Breeher, Robin G Molella, Judith Green-McKenzie
OBJECTIVE: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that institutions establish a medical surveillance program for workers who handle hazardous drugs. Our aim was to investigate current practices with occupational medicine practice (OMP) national leaders. METHODS: A series of qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 11 OMP national leaders from medical centers in 10 states. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using a directed content analysis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Joseph Newcombe, Anna Chatzidaki, Tom D Sheppard, Maya Topf, Neil S Millar
By combining electrophysiological and computational approaches we have examined a series of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) acting on the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Electrophysiological studies have focussed on three α7-selective PAMs (A-867744, TBS-516 and TQS) that display similar effects on wild-type α7 nAChRs. In addition to potentiating agonist-evoked responses, all three compounds reduce receptor desensitisation and, consequently, are classed as type II PAMs. Despite having similar effects on wild-type receptors, A-867744 was found to have profoundly differing effects to TBS-516 and TQS on mutated receptors, a finding that is consistent with previous studies indicating that A-867744 may have a different mechanism of action to other α7-selective type II PAMs...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
Julie A Heinrichs, Joshua J Lawler, Nathan H Schumaker, Chad B Wilsey, Kira Newcomb, Cameron L Aldridge
For species at risk of decline or extinction in source-sink systems, sources are an obvious target for habitat protection actions. However, the way in which source habitats are identified and prioritized can reduce the effectiveness of conservation actions. Although sources and sinks are conceptually defined using both demographic and movement criteria, simplifications are often required in systems with limited data. To assess the conservation outcomes of alternative source metrics and resulting prioritizations, we simulated population dynamics and extinction risk for three endangered species...
November 29, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jessica S Citronberg, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Unhee Lim, Kristine R Monroe, Meredith A J Hullar, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Johanna W Lampe
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, increases inflammatory response signaling and may play a role in the pathogenesis of several adverse outcomes, including inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While LPS is hypothesized to be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, there are relatively few human studies which have examined this association. METHODS: We examined the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of LPS, in 1,638 participants (819 CRC cases and 819 controls) matched on multiple factors, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, from the Multiethnic Cohort study...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Jacqueline-Yvonne Cephus, Matthew T Stier, Hubaida Fuseini, Jeffrey A Yung, Shinji Toki, Melissa H Bloodworth, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Jian Zhang, Sarah L Garon, Robert G Hamilton, Vasiliy V Poloshukin, Kelli L Boyd, R Stokes Peebles, Dawn C Newcomb
Sex hormones regulate many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma. As adults, asthma prevalence is 2-fold greater in women compared to men. The number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is increased in patients with asthma, and we investigate how testosterone attenuates ILC2 function. In patients with moderate to severe asthma, we determine that women have an increased number of circulating ILC2 compared to men. ILC2 from adult female mice have increased IL-2-mediated ILC2 proliferation versus ILC2 from adult male mice, as well as pre-pubescent females and males...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
Lurdes Y T Inoue, Daniel W Lin, Lisa F Newcomb, Amy S Leonardson, Donna Ankerst, Roman Gulati, H Ballentine Carter, Bruce J Trock, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg, Janet E Cowan, Laurence H Klotz, Alexandre Mamedov, David F Penson, Ruth Etzioni
Background: Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly accepted for managing low-risk prostate cancer, yet there is no consensus about implementation. This lack of consensus is due in part to uncertainty about risks for disease progression, which have not been systematically compared or integrated across AS studies with variable surveillance protocols and dropout to active treatment. Objective: To compare risks for upgrading from a Gleason score (GS) of 6 or less to 7 or more across AS studies after accounting for differences in surveillance intervals and competing treatments and to evaluate tradeoffs of more versus less frequent biopsies...
November 28, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Mercy Y Laurino, Anjali R Truitt, Lederle Tenney, Douglass Fisher, Noralane M Lindor, David Veenstra, Gail P Jarvik, Polly A Newcomb, Stephanie M Fullerton
BACKGROUND: The extent to which participants act to clinically verify research results is largely unknown. This study examined whether participants who received Lynch syndrome (LS)-related findings pursued researchers' recommendation to clinically verify results with testing performed by a CLIA-certified laboratory. METHODS: The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center site of the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry offered non-CLIA individual genetic research results to select registry participants (cases and their enrolled relatives) from 2011 to 2013...
November 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Alexandra D Twyman, Mark P Holden, Nora S Newcombe
There are several models of the use of geometric and feature cues in reorientation (Cheng, Huttenlocher, & Newcombe, ). The adaptive combination approach posits that people integrate cues with weights that depend on cue salience and learning, or, when discrepancies are large, they choose between cues based on these variables (Cheng, Shettleworth, Huttenlocher, & Rieser, ; Newcombe & Huttenlocher, ). In a new paradigm designed to evaluate integration and choice, disoriented participants attempted to return to a heading direction, in a trapezoidal enclosure in which feature and geometric cues both unambiguously specified a heading, but later the feature was moved...
November 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
Chi T Ngo, Kylie H Alm, Athanasia Metoki, William Hampton, Tracy Riggins, Nora S Newcombe, Ingrid R Olson
Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Soo Hee Jeong, Janie Sheridan, David Newcombe, Malcolm Tingle
Cytisine is a plant alkaloid that is a partial agonist for the α4β2-nAChRs and is used as an aid to smoking cessation. To date, there are no published data on cytisine concentrations in humans following multiple dosing. The aim of this study was to determine cytisine plasma concentrations after taking recommended doses for smoking cessation and to report on adverse effects. Subjects (n = 10) were instructed to follow the 25-day standard dosing regimen of cytisine. Blood was collected at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 10 hours on day 1 then on subsequent visits (days 2, 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25 and 26) to measure plasma cytisine concentrations...
November 23, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Stephanie A Bien, Paul L Auer, Tabitha A Harrison, Conghui Qu, Charles M Connolly, Peyton G Greenside, Sai Chen, Sonja I Berndt, Stéphane Bézieau, Hyun M Kang, Jeroen Huyghe, Hermann Brenner, Graham Casey, Andrew T Chan, John L Hopper, Barbara L Banbury, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen J Chanock, Robert W Haile, Michael Hoffmeister, Christian Fuchsberger, Mark A Jenkins, Suzanne M Leal, Mathieu Lemire, Polly A Newcomb, Steven Gallinger, John D Potter, Robert E Schoen, Martha L Slattery, Joshua D Smith, Loic Le Marchand, Emily White, Brent W Zanke, Goncalo R Abeçasis, Christopher S Carlson, Ulrike Peters, Deborah A Nickerson, Anshul Kundaje, Li Hsu
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of less frequent genetic variants and their effect on complex disease pose new challenges for genomic research. To investigate whether epigenetic data can be used to inform aggregate rare-variant association methods (RVAM), we assessed whether variants more significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) were preferentially located in non-coding regulatory regions, and whether enrichment was specific to colorectal tissues. METHODS: Active regulatory elements (ARE) were mapped using data from 127 tissues and cell-types from NIH Roadmap Epigenomics and Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) projects...
2017: PloS One
Laura K Newcomb, Megan S Bradley, Tracy Truong, Michelle Tang, Bryan Comstock, Yi-Ju Li, Anthony G Visco, Nazema Y Siddiqui
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a set of virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation drills have correlative validity when compared to the validated Robotic Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (R-OSATS) dry lab drills. DESIGN: A prospective methods comparison study (Canadian Task Force II-2). SETTING: A teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty current residents, fellows, and faculty from the departments of OB/GYN, Urology, and General Surgery...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Nahidh Hasaniya, Anees Razzouk, Jennifer Newcombe, Dana Hassneiah, Jessica Heimes, Joshua Gysbers, Timothy Martens, Leonard Bailey
BACKGROUND: Adhesions encountered during reoperative cardiac surgery can prolong operative time and increase operative risk. The purpose of this clinical study was to investigate the antiadhesion property of a synthetic bioabsorbable polymer spray after cardiac reoperations in infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized double-blinded study was designed. Forty infants requiring staged cardiac operations were randomly allocated to a study group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20)...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Chen Wu, Victoria G Twort, Ross N Crowhurst, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: Stick insects (Phasmatodea) have a high incidence of parthenogenesis and other alternative reproductive strategies, yet the genetic basis of reproduction is poorly understood. Phasmatodea includes nearly 3000 species, yet only the genome of Timema cristinae has been published to date. Clitarchus hookeri is a geographical parthenogenetic stick insect distributed across New Zealand. Sexual reproduction dominates in northern habitats but is replaced by parthenogenesis in the south...
November 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Matthew W Conklin, Ronald E Gangnon, Brian L Sprague, Lisa van Germert, John M Hampton, Kevin W Eliceiri, Jeremy S Bredfeldt, Yuming Liu, Nuntida Surachaicharn, Polly A Newcomb, Andreas Friedl, Patricia Keely, Amy Trentham-Dietz
BACKGROUND: Collagen fibers surrounding breast ducts may influence breast cancer progression. Syndecan-1 interacts with constituents in the extracellular matrix, including collagen fibers, and may contribute to cancer cell migration. Thus, the orientation of collagen fibers surrounding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions and stromal syndecan-1 expression may predict recurrence. METHODS: We evaluated collagen fiber alignment and syndecan-1 expression in 227 women diagnosed with DCIS in 1995-2006 followed through 2014 (median 14...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
P J Newcombe, S Connolly, S Seaman, S Richardson, S J Sharp
Background: Accurate detection and estimation of true exposure-outcome associations is important in aetiological analysis; when there are multiple potential exposure variables of interest, methods for detecting the subset of variables most likely to have true associations with the outcome of interest are required. Case-cohort studies often collect data on a large number of variables which have not been measured in the entire cohort (e.g. panels of biomarkers). There is a lack of guidance on methods for variable selection in case-cohort studies...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
Elizabeth Ralevski, Marya Shanabrough, Jenelle Newcomb, Erin Gandelman, Ryan Hayden, Tamas L Horvath, Ismene Petrakis
Aims: Ghrelin, a feeding-related peptide mainly produced in the stomach, has been linked to reward mechanisms for food and drugs of abuse in addition to traits of impulsivity. This study is a secondary analysis of an existing data set designed to examine the direct relationships between fasting ghrelin levels and reward sensitivity/impulsivity in healthy social drinkers. Methods: Participants (n = 20) were recruited from an original study examining the subjective effects of alcohol among social drinkers...
November 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Victoria G Twort, Alice B Dennis, Duckchul Park, Kathryn F Lomas, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
Animal reproductive proteins, especially those in the seminal fluid, have been shown to have higher levels of divergence than non-reproductive proteins and are often evolving adaptively. Seminal fluid proteins have been implicated in the formation of reproductive barriers between diverging lineages, and hence represent interesting candidates underlying speciation. RNA-seq was used to generate the first male reproductive transcriptome for the New Zealand tree weta species Hemideina thoracica and H. crassidens...
2017: PloS One
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