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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647389/improving-abnormality-detection-on-chest-radiography-using-game-like-reinforcement-mechanics
#1
Po-Hao Chen, Howard Roth, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Alexander T Ruutiainen, Warren Gefter, Tessa S Cook
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Despite their increasing prevalence, online textbooks, question banks, and digital references focus primarily on explicit knowledge. Implicit skills such as abnormality detection require repeated practice on clinical service and have few digital substitutes. Using mechanics traditionally deployed in video games such as clearly defined goals, rapid-fire levels, and narrow time constraints may be an effective way to teach implicit skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created a freely available, online module to evaluate the ability of individuals to differentiate between normal and abnormal chest radiographs by implementing mechanics, including instantaneous feedback, rapid-fire cases, and 15-second timers...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646519/the-association-of-health-literacy-with-preventable-ed-visits-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Meenakshi P Balakrishnan, Jill Boylston Herndon, Jingnan Zhang, Thomas Payton, Jonathan Shuster, Donna L Carden
BACKGROUND: Policy-makers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of health literacy and preventable ED visits...
June 24, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645319/architectural-frameworks-defining-the-structures-for-implementing-learning-health-systems
#3
Lysanne Lessard, Wojtek Michalowski, Michael Fung-Kee-Fung, Lori Jones, Agnes Grudniewicz
BACKGROUND: The vision of transforming health systems into learning health systems (LHSs) that rapidly and continuously transform knowledge into improved health outcomes at lower cost is generating increased interest in government agencies, health organizations, and health research communities. While existing initiatives demonstrate that different approaches can succeed in making the LHS vision a reality, they are too varied in their goals, focus, and scale to be reproduced without undue effort...
June 23, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644395/optical-tracking-and-digital-quantification-of-beating-behavior-in-bioengineered-human-cardiac-organoids
#4
Mahesh Devarasetty, Steven Forsythe, Thomas D Shupe, Shay Soker, Colin E Bishop, Anthony Atala, Aleksander Skardal
Organoid and organ-on-a-chip technologies are rapidly advancing towards deployment for drug and toxicology screening applications. Liver and cardiac toxicities account for the majority of drug candidate failures in human trials. Liver toxicity generally produces liver cell death, while cardiac toxicity causes adverse changes in heart beat kinetics. In traditional 2D cultures, beating kinetics can be measured by electrode arrays, but in some 3D constructs, quantifying beating kinetics can be more challenging...
June 23, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636355/semisynthetic-flavone-derived-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#5
Shuimu Lin, Jun-Jie Koh, Thet Tun Aung, Wan Ling Wendy Sin, Fanghui Lim, Lin Wang, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Lei Zhou, Donald T H Tan, Derong Cao, Roger W Beuerman, Li Ren, Shouping Liu
A new series of semisynthetic flavone-based small molecules mimicking antimicrobial peptides has been designed from natural icaritin to combat drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Compound 6 containing two arginine residues exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA, and very low toxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a high selectivity of more than 511, comparable to that of several membrane-active antibiotics in clinical trials. Our data show for the first time that icaritin derivatives effectively kill bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632597/leadership-communication-and-negotiation-across-a-diverse-workforce-an-aoa-critical-issues-symposium
#6
Denis R Clohisy, Michael J Yaszemski, Joanne Lipman
The current workforce in the United States is rapidly changing and is increasingly inclusive of individuals from a broad range of ages, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds. Engaging and leading a diverse workforce creates great opportunities for innovation and adaptation in our evolving medical economic and clinical care delivery environment. For optimal engagement of employees and partners, orthopaedic surgeons must develop the necessary skills for executing change inside complex organizations and across teams composed of a variety of providers and skilled workers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632343/dispersal-isolation-and-diversification-with-continued-gene-flow-in-an-andean-tropical-dry-forest
#7
R Toby Pennington, Matt Lavin
The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630353/evaluation-of-a-proposal-for-reliable-low-cost-grid-power-with-100-wind-water-and-solar
#8
Christopher T M Clack, Staffan A Qvist, Jay Apt, Morgan Bazilian, Adam R Brandt, Ken Caldeira, Steven J Davis, Victor Diakov, Mark A Handschy, Paul D H Hines, Paulina Jaramillo, Daniel M Kammen, Jane C S Long, M Granger Morgan, Adam Reed, Varun Sivaram, James Sweeney, George R Tynan, David G Victor, John P Weyant, Jay F Whitacre
A number of analyses, meta-analyses, and assessments, including those performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency, have concluded that deployment of a diverse portfolio of clean energy technologies makes a transition to a low-carbon-emission energy system both more feasible and less costly than other pathways. In contrast, Jacobson et al. [Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA, Cameron MA, Frew BA (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(49):15060-15065] argue that it is feasible to provide "low-cost solutions to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of WWS [wind, water and solar power] across all energy sectors in the continental United States between 2050 and 2055", with only electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630037/a-mobile-app-for-the-self-management-of-type-1-diabetes-among-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Shivani Goyal, Caitlin A Nunn, Michael Rotondi, Amy B Couperthwaite, Sally Reiser, Angelo Simone, Debra K Katzman, Joseph A Cafazzo, Mark R Palmert
BACKGROUND: While optimal blood glucose control is known to reduce the long-term complications associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus, adolescents often struggle to achieve their blood glucose targets. However, their strong propensity toward technology presents a unique opportunity for the delivery of novel self-management interventions. To support type 1 diabetes self-management in this population, we developed the diabetes self-management app bant, which included wireless blood glucose reading transfer, out-of-range blood glucose trend alerts, coaching around out-of-range trend causes and fixes, and a point-based incentive system...
June 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628619/south-african-ebola-diagnostic-response-in-sierra-leone-a-modular-high-biosafety-field-laboratory
#10
Janusz T Paweska, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Gunther H Meier, Chantel le Roux, Ousman S Conteh, Alan Kemp, Cardia Fourie, Prabha Naidoo, Serisha Naicker, Phumza Ohaebosim, Nadia Storm, Orienka Hellferscee, Lisa K Ming Sun, Busisiwe Mogodi, Nishi Prabdial-Sing, Desiree du Plessis, Deidre Greyling, Shayne Loubser, Mark Goosen, Stewart D McCulloch, Terence P Scott, Alexandra Moerdyk, Wesley Dlamini, Kelfala Konneh, Idrissa L Kamara, Dauda Sowa, Samuel Sorie, Brima Kargbo, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624265/the-neuroscience-of-understanding-the-emotions-of-others
#11
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
We cannot help but impute emotions to the behaviors of others, and constantly infer not only what others are feeling, but also why they feel that way. The comprehension of other people's emotional states is computationally complex and difficult, requiring the flexible, context-sensitive deployment of cognitive operations that encompass rapid orienting to, and recognition of, emotionally salient cues; classification of emotions into culturally-learned categories; and using an abstract theory of mind to reason about what caused the emotion, what future actions the person might be planning, and what we should do next in response...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621574/endovascular-plug-for-internal-carotid-artery-occlusion-in-the-management-of-a-cavernous-pseudoaneurysm-with-bifrontal-subdural-empyema-technical-note
#12
Sunil Manjila, Gagandeep Singh, Obinna Ndubuizu, Zoe Jones, Daniel P Hsu, Alan R Cohen
The authors demonstrate the use of an endovascular plug in securing a carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in an emergent setting requiring craniotomy for a concurrent subdural empyema. They describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with sinusitis and bifrontal subdural empyema who underwent transsphenoidal exploration at an outside hospital. An injury to the right cavernous segment of the ICA caused torrential epistaxis. Bleeding was successfully controlled by inflating a Foley balloon catheter within the sphenoid sinus, and the patient was transferred to the authors' institution...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617686/imaging-adult-patients-with-coarctation-of-the-aorta
#13
Akanksha N Thakkar, Ponraj Chinnadurai, C Huie Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of current recommendations and techniques used to image coarctations of the aorta. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging of coarctation of the aorta in adults is moving away from conventional techniques such as echocardiography and invasive angiography. Echocardiography may assist in making the diagnosis but is limited in its ability to quantify the severity of coarctations. Current guidelines recommend that every patient with a coarctation must undergo a computed tomography (CT) or MRI scan for accurate delineation of morphology...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616186/at-sea-distribution-and-habitat-use-in-king-penguins-at-sub-antarctic-marion-island
#14
Pierre Pistorius, Mark Hindell, Robert Crawford, Azwianewi Makhado, Bruce Dyer, Ryan Reisinger
King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615157/designing-prototyping-and-evaluating-digital-mindfulness-applications-a-case-study-of-mindful-breathing-for-stress-reduction
#15
Bin Zhu, Anders Hedman, Shuo Feng, Haibo Li, Walter Osika
BACKGROUND: During the past decade, there has been a rapid increase of interactive apps designed for health and well-being. Yet, little research has been published on developing frameworks for design and evaluation of digital mindfulness facilitating technologies. Moreover, many existing digital mindfulness applications are purely software based. There is room for further exploration and assessment of designs that make more use of physical qualities of artifacts. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to develop and test a new physical digital mindfulness prototype designed for stress reduction...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609698/clinical-screening-of-paraquat-in-plasma-samples-using-capillary-electrophoresis-with-contactless-conductivity-detection-towards-rapid-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-treatment-of-acute-paraquat-poisoning-in-vietnam
#16
Anh Phuong Vu, Thi Ngan Nguyen, Thi Trang Do, Thu Ha Doan, Tran Hung Ha, Thi Thao Ta, Hung Long Nguyen, Peter C Hauser, Thi Anh Huong Nguyen, Thanh Duc Mai
The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600797/the-novel-nitric-oxide-donor-pdno-attenuates-ovine-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-renal-failure
#17
Kristofer F Nilsson, John Sandin, Lars E Gustafsson, Robert Frithiof
BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury in intensive care and surgery. Recently, novel organic mononitrites of 1,2-propanediol (PDNO) were synthesized and shown to rapidly and controllably deploy nitric oxide in the circulation when administered intravenously. We hypothesized that intravenous infusion of PDNO during renal ischemia reperfusion would improve post-ischemic renal function and microcirculation. METHODS: Sixteen sheep were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and surgically instrumented...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594385/review-of-sers-substrates-for-chemical-sensing
#18
REVIEW
Pamela A Mosier-Boss
The SERS effect was initially discovered in the 1970s. Early research focused on understanding the phenomenon and increasing enhancement to achieve single molecule detection. From the mid-1980s to early 1990s, research started to move away from obtaining a fundamental understanding of the phenomenon to the exploration of analytical applications. At the same time, significant developments occurred in the field of photonics that led to the advent of inexpensive, robust, compact, field-deployable Raman systems...
June 8, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589023/measuring-manipulating-and-exploiting-behaviours-of-adult-mosquitoes-to-optimise-malaria-vector-control-impact
#19
Gerry F Killeen, John M Marshall, Samson S Kiware, Andy B South, Lucy S Tusting, Prosper P Chaki, Nicodem J Govella
Residual malaria transmission can persist despite high coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS), because many vector mosquitoes evade them by feeding on animals, feeding outdoors, resting outdoors or rapidly exiting from houses after entering them. However, many of these behaviours that render vectors resilient to control with IRS and LLINs also make them vulnerable to some emerging new alternative interventions. Furthermore, vector control measures targeting preferred behaviours of mosquitoes often force them to express previously rare alternative behaviours, which can then be targeted with these complementary new interventions...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584057/an-rnai-based-high-throughput-screening-assay-to-identify-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication
#20
Subhanita Ghosh, Abhinav Kaushik, Sachin Khurana, Aditi Varshney, Avishek Kumar Singh, Pradeep Dahiya, Jitendra K Thakur, Shiv Kumar Sarin, Dinesh Gupta, Pawan Malhotra, Sunil K Mukherjee, Raj K Bhatnagar
Persistent or chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus represents one of the most common viral diseases in humans. The hepatitis B virus deploys the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein (HBx) as a suppressor of host defenses consisting of RNAi-based silencing of viral genes. Because of its critical role in countering host defenses, HBx represents an attractive target for antiviral drugs. Here, we developed and optimized a loss-of-function screening procedure, which identified a potential pharmacophore that abrogated HBxs RNAi suppression activity...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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