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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734216/releasing-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-from-expanded-polystyrenes-in-seawater-field-and-laboratory-experiments
#1
Manviri Rani, Won Joon Shim, Mi Jang, Gi Myung Han, Sang Hee Hong
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a major component of marine debris globally. Recently, hazardous hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) were detected in EPS buoys used for aquaculture farming. Subsequently, enrichment of HBCDDs was found in nearby marine sediments and mussels growing on EPS buoys. It was suspected that EPS buoys and their debris might be sources of HBCDDs. To confirm this, the release of HBCDDs from EPS spherules detached from a buoy to seawater was investigated under field (open sea surface and closed outdoor chambers with sun exposure and in the dark) and laboratory (particle-size) conditions...
July 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725418/development-of-an-automated-method-of-detecting-stereotyped-feeding-events-in-multisensor-data-from-tagged-rorqual-whales
#2
Ann N Allen, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Ari S Friedlaender, John Calambokidis
The introduction of animal-borne, multisensor tags has opened up many opportunities for ecological research, making previously inaccessible species and behaviors observable. The advancement of tag technology and the increasingly widespread use of bio-logging tags are leading to large volumes of sometimes extremely detailed data. With the increasing quantity and duration of tag deployments, a set of tools needs to be developed to aid in facilitating and standardizing the analysis of movement sensor data. Here, we developed an observation-based decision tree method to detect feeding events in data from multisensor movement tags attached to fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus)...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725378/ecological-role-of-vertebrate-scavengers-in-urban-ecosystems-in-the-uk
#3
Richard Inger, Daniel T C Cox, Esra Per, Briony A Norton, Kevin J Gaston
Recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. A growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. An increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered environments, contain significant wildlife populations, and so animal carcasses...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722627/evaluation-of-malaria-screening-during-pregnancy-with-rapid-diagnostic-tests-performed-by-community-health-workers-in-burkina-faso
#4
Esmée Ruizendaal, Henk D F H Schallig, Susana Scott, Maminata Traore-Coulibaly, John Bradley, Palpouguini Lompo, Natama H Magloire, Ousmane Traore, Innocent Valea, Susan Dierickx, Koiné M Drabo, Franco Pagnoni, Umberto d' Alessandro, Halidou Tinto, Petra F Mens
One of the current strategies to prevent malaria in pregnancy is intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). However, in order for pregnant women to receive an adequate number of SP doses, they should attend a health facility on a regular basis. In addition, SP resistance may decrease IPTp-SP efficacy. New or additional interventions for preventing malaria during pregnancy are therefore warranted. Because it is known that community health workers (CHWs) can diagnose and treat malaria in children, in this study screening and treatment of malaria in pregnancy by CHWs was evaluated as an addition to the regular IPTp-SP program...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722314/prospective-motion-correction-using-coil-mounted-cameras-cross-calibration-considerations
#5
Julian Maclaren, Murat Aksoy, Melvyn B Ooi, Benjamin Zahneisen, Roland Bammer
PURPOSE: Optical prospective motion correction substantially reduces sensitivity to motion in neuroimaging of human subjects. However, a major barrier to clinical deployment has been the time-consuming cross-calibration between the camera and MRI scanner reference frames. This work addresses this challenge. METHODS: A single camera was mounted onto the head coil for tracking head motion. Two new methods were developed: (1) a rapid calibration method for camera-to-scanner cross-calibration using a custom-made tool incorporating wireless active markers, and (2) a calibration adjustment method to compensate for table motion between scans...
July 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721422/towards-on-site-analysis-of-complex-matrices-by-solid-phase-microextraction-transmission-mode-coupled-to-a-portable-mass-spectrometer-via-direct-analysis-in-real-time
#6
Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Tijana Vasiljevic, Emanuela Gionfriddo, Miao Yu, Janusz Pawliszyn
On-site screening for target analytes in complex matrices, such as biofluids and food specimens, not only requires reliable and portable analytical instrumentation, but also solvent-free and easy-to-use sampling/sample preparation approaches that allow analytes of interest to be isolated from such matrices. The integration of sampling devices with field deployable instruments should be as efficient as possible, and should aim to provide rapid, precise, and accurate results that enable quick on-site decision...
July 19, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719277/reducing-uncertainty-for-acute-febrile-illness-in-resource-limited-settings-the-current-diagnostic-landscape
#7
Matthew L Robinson, Yukari C Manabe
AbstractDiagnosing the cause of acute febrile illness in resource-limited settings is important-to give the correct antimicrobials to patients who need them, to prevent unnecessary antimicrobial use, to detect emerging infectious diseases early, and to guide vaccine deployment. A variety of approaches are yielding more rapid and accurate tests that can detect more pathogens in a wider variety of settings. After decades of slow progress in diagnostics for acute febrile illness in resource-limited settings, a wave of converging advancements will enable clinicians in resource-limited settings to reduce uncertainty for the diagnosis of acute febrile illness...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716703/bridge-to-surgery-best-practice-protocol-derived-from-early-clinical-experience-with-the-bridge-occlusion-balloon
#8
Bruce L Wilkoff, Charles Kennergren, Charles J Love, Steven P Kutalek, Laurence M Epstein, Roger Carrillo
A league of physicians at the Eleventh Annual Lead Management Symposium in Miami, Florida developed an expert opinion and federated agreement on a best practice protocol for Bridge™ Occlusion Balloon (Bridge) deployment for patients undergoing transvenous cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) lead extraction based on early clinical experience with the balloon. Injury to the superior vena cava (SVC) is a rare, but a serious complication of transvenous lead extraction. Bridge is designed to provide temporary endovascular occlusion of the SVC...
July 14, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704959/cross-deployment-networking-and-systematic-performance-analysis-of-underwater-wireless-sensor-networks
#9
Zhengxian Wei, Min Song, Guisheng Yin, Hongbin Wang, Xuefei Ma, Houbing Song
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have become a new hot research area. However, due to the work dynamics and harsh ocean environment, how to obtain an UWSN with the best systematic performance while deploying as few sensor nodes as possible and setting up self-adaptive networking is an urgent problem that needs to be solved. Consequently, sensor deployment, networking, and performance calculation of UWSNs are challenging issues, hence the study in this paper centers on this topic and three relevant methods and models are put forward...
July 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702608/point-of-care-testing-applications-of-3d-printing
#10
REVIEW
Ho Nam Chan, Ming Jun Andrew Tan, Hongkai Wu
Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices fulfil a critical need in the modern healthcare ecosystem, enabling the decentralized delivery of imperative clinical strategies in both developed and developing worlds. To achieve diagnostic utility and clinical impact, POCT technologies are immensely dependent on effective translation from academic laboratories out to real-world deployment. However, the current research and development pipeline is highly bottlenecked owing to multiple restraints in material, cost, and complexity of conventionally available fabrication techniques...
July 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698057/membrane-trafficking-in-plant-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Yangnan Gu, Raul Zavaliev, Xinnian Dong
Plants employ sophisticated mechanisms to interact with pathogenic as well as beneficial microbes. Of those, membrane trafficking is key in establishing the rapid and precise response. Upon interaction with pathogenic microbes, surface-localized immune receptors undergo endocytosis for signal transduction and activity regulation while cell wall components, antimicrobial compounds, and defense proteins are delivered to pathogen invasion sites through polarized secretion. To sustain mutualistic associations, host cells also reprogram the membrane trafficking system to accommodate invasive structures of symbiotic microbes...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693453/an-account-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-nigeria-implications-and-lessons-learnt
#12
Akaninyene Otu, Soter Ameh, Egbe Osifo-Dawodu, Enoma Alade, Susan Ekuri, Jide Idris
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686407/rapid-large-scale-assembly-and-pattern-transfer-of-one-dimensional-gold-nanorod-superstructures
#13
Rana Ashkar, Michael J A Hore, Xingchen Ye, Bharath Natarajan, Nicholas J Greybush, Thomas Lam, Cherie R Kagan, Christopher B Murray
The utility of gold nanorods for plasmonic applications largely depends on the relative orientation and proximity of the nanorods. Though side-by-side or chainlike nanorod morphologies have been previously demonstrated, a simple reliable method to obtain high-yield oriented gold nanorod assemblies remains a significant challenge. We present a facile, scalable approach which exploits meniscus drag, evaporative self-assembly, and van der Waals interactions to precisely position and orient gold nanorods over macroscopic areas of 1D nanostructured substrates...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684610/rapid-accurate-point-of-care-tests-combining-diagnostics-and-antimicrobial-resistance-prediction-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-mycoplasma-genitalium
#14
Syed Tariq Sadiq, Fulvia Mazzaferri, Magnus Unemo
In addition to inadequate access to early diagnosis and treatment with antimicrobial agents for patients and sexual contacts, management and control of STIs is significantly challenged by emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly for STIs such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium This is further compounded by use of nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis, resulting in reduced phenotypic AMR testing for N. gonorrhoeae and absence or suboptimal AMR surveillance for guiding treatment of both STIs in many settings...
July 6, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678471/origin-of-structural-evolution-in-capacity-degradation-for-overcharged-nmc622-via-operando-coupled-investigation
#15
Qi Wang, Chong-Heng Shen, Shou-Yu Shen, Yue-Feng Xu, Chen-Guang Shi, Ling Huang, Jun-Tao Li, Shi-Gang Sun
The nickel-rich layered oxide materials have been selected as promising cathode materials for the next generation lithium ion batteries because of their large capacity and comparably high operating voltage. However, at high voltage (beyond 4.30 V vs Li/Li+), the members of this family are all suffering from a rapid capacity decay, which was commonly concerned with crystal lattice distortion and related cation disordering. In this work, the quasi-spherical Ni-rich layered LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (QS-NMC622) material was successfully synthesized through the carbonate co-precipitation method...
July 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672701/translocation-of-isotopically-distinct-macroalgae-a-route-to-low-cost-biomonitoring
#16
Darren R Gröcke, Blanca Racionero-Gómez, James W Marschalek, H Chris Greenwell
Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in macroalgae are often used to identify sources of nitrogenous pollution in fluvial and estuarine settings. This approach assumes that the macroalgal δ(15)N is representative of the sources of the pollution averaged over a timespan in the order of days to weeks. The preferential uptake of a particular nitrogen compound or potential for fractionation in the water column or during uptake and assimilation by the macroalgae could make this assumption invalid. Laboratory studies were therefore performed to investigate the uptake and assimilation of both nitrate and ammonium at a variety of concentrations using the vegetative (non-fertile) tips of the brown macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus...
June 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671160/placement-of-tracheobronchial-silicone-y-stents-multicenter-experience-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Karan Madan, Vallandramam Pattabhiraman, Ravindra Mehta, Rajiv Goyal, Jayachandra Akkaraju, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) near the tracheal carina requires placement of Y-shaped stents. Herein, we describe our multicenter experience with the placement of Dumon silicone Y-stents. We also conduct a systematic review for studies describing the deployment of airway silicone Y-stents. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive subjects who underwent placement of silicone Y-stents. The clinical details including the underlying diagnosis, indication for the placement of silicone Y-stents, success of stent placement, and follow-up are presented...
July 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667440/-surgical-treatment-of-aortic-valve-stenosis
#18
O J Liakopoulos, J Merkle, T Wahlers, Y-H Choi
Surgical aortic valve replacement still represents the gold standard in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. In addition to conventional aortic valve replacement by mechanical or biological prostheses via a median sternotomy, novel approaches including minimally invasive strategies and new devices, such as so-called rapid deployment prostheses, are becoming increasingly more established. Autologous replacement strategies including the Ross and the Ozaki procedures have evolved into reliable options at selected centers of excellence...
June 30, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664540/maintenance-diets-following-rapid-weight-loss-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-pilot-1-year-clinical-trial
#19
Elizabeth A Cayanan, Nathaniel S Marshall, Camilla M Hoyos, Craig L Phillips, Yasmina Serinel, Keith K H Wong, Brendon J Yee, Ronald R Grunstein
Very low energy diets (VLED) appear to be the most efficacious dietary-based obesity reduction treatments in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, effective weight loss maintenance strategies remain untested in this condition. Our study aimed to assess the feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of two common maintenance diets during a 10-month follow-up period after rapid weight loss using a 2-month VLED. In this two-arm, single-centre, open-label pilot trial, obese adult OSA patients received a 2-month VLED before being allocated to either the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating diet (AGHE) or a low glycaemic index high-protein diet (LGHP)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662099/intratumoural-production-of-tnf%C3%AE-by-bacteria-mediates-cancer-therapy
#20
Carola Murphy, Elizabeth Rettedal, Panos Lehouritis, Ciarán Devoy, Mark Tangney
Systemic administration of the highly potent anticancer therapeutic, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) induces high levels of toxicity and is responsible for serious side effects. Consequently, tumour targeting is required in order to confine this toxicity within the locality of the tumour. Bacteria have a natural capacity to grow within tumours and deliver therapeutic molecules in a controlled fashion. The non-pathogenic E. coli strain MG1655 was investigated as a tumour targeting system in order to produce TNFα specifically within murine tumours...
2017: PloS One
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