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amniotic flanges

Pierre Charon
Anencephaly, frequent and severe congenital malformation (around 1% childbirth) is know since highest antiquity, but often confused with acephaly. Its existence during Egyptian Antiquity is demonstrated by observation, by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, of an anencephalous foetus mummy. The first detailed anatomical observations are those of Morgagni, from 1742 to 1762, that is to E.G.S-H., as naturalist but as a doctor, we owe the crucial progress during the 19th century. As anatomist, by fine and meticulous observation of cranio-spinal skeleton, he shows persistency of all osseous pieces, distorted but preserving all their connexions: this brings him to create a fist nomenclature and a first classification...
July 2004: Histoire des Sciences M├ędicales
K C Oberg, A E Robles, C A Ducsay, C R Rasi, G A Rouse, B J Childers, M L Evans, W M Kirsch, R A Hardesty
Current protocols for fetal surgery require cesarean section and partial fetal extraction, both of which impart significant risks to the mother and fetus. Endoscopic fetal surgery is less invasive and will likely reduce some of these risks, but the technical difficulties and feasibility in a primate model have yet to be explored fully. Four pregnant baboons (95 days gestation) were anesthetized, their uteruses exposed via an abdominal incision, and blunt-tipped flanged endoscopic ports inserted. Amniotic fluid was removed, and warmed saline was infused to dilate the uterus...
April 1999: Surgical Endoscopy
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