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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545126/pheromone-sensing-neurons-regulate-peripheral-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Rosalind Hussey, Jon Stieglitz, Jaleh Mesgarzadeh, Tiffany T Locke, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Supriya Srinivasan
It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544901/alkaline-electrochemical-advanced-oxidation-process-for-chromium-oxidation-at-graphitized-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#2
Yudong Xue, Shili Zheng, Zhi Sun, Yi Zhang, Wei Jin
Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for chromium oxidation and Cr-contaminated waste disposal were reported in this study. The highly graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes g-MWCNTs modified electrode was prepared for the in-situ electrochemical generation of HO2(-). RRDE test results illustrated that g-MWCNTs exhibited much higher two-electron oxygen reduction activity than other nanocarbon materials with peak current density of 1.24 mA cm(-2), %HO2(-) of 77.0% and onset potential of -0...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544753/no-association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-radiographic-hand-osteoarthritis-data-from-the-framingham-study
#3
Mette P Strand, Tuhina Neogi, Jingbo Niu, David T Felson, Ida K Haugen
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with hand OA using longitudinal data from the Framingham study. METHODS: In our cross-sectional analyses we included 1089 persons (age 50-75 years), of whom 785 had 7-year longitudinal radiographs. Of these, 586 with no hand OA at baseline were included in analyses on hand OA incidence. We explored associations between and MetS and its components (central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, triglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein) and radiographic hand OA (defined as ≥2 interphalangeal joints with Kellgren-Lawrence grade≥2) using logistic regression analyses with adjustment for age, sex and body mass index (BMI)...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544690/deficiency-of-complement-1r-subcomponent-in-early-onset-sle-role-for-disease-modifying-alleles-in-a-monogenic-disease
#4
Erkan Demirkaya, Qing Zhou, Carolyne K Smith, Michael J Ombrello, Natalie Deuitch, Wanxia L Tsai, Patrycja Hoffmann, Elaine F Remmers, Masaki Takeuchi, Yong Hwan Park, JaeJin Chae, Kenan Barut, Dogan Simsek, Amra Adrovic, Sezgin Sahin, Salim Caliskan, Settara C Chandrasekharappa, Sarfaraz A Hasni, Amanda K Ombrello, Massimo Gadina, Daniel L Kastner, Mariana J Kaplan, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Ivona Aksentijevich
OBJECTIVE: To identify a genetic cause of early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large consanguineous family from Turkey and to study the mechanisms of disease. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and SNP array genotyping in affected and unaffected family members. Protein studies, gene expression, cytokine profiling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and presence of low-density granulocytes were evaluated in patient primary cells and serum samples...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544617/defect-laden-mose2-quantum-dots-made-by-turbulent-shear-mixing-as-enhanced-electrocatalysts
#5
Chongyang Zhu, Yuan Huang, Feng Xu, Peng Gao, Binghui Ge, Jing Chen, Haibo Zeng, Eli Sutter, Peter Sutter, Litao Sun
A high density of edge sites and other defects can significantly improve the catalytic activity of layered 2D materials. Herein, this study demonstrates a novel top-down strategy to maximize catalytic edge sites of MoSe2 by breaking up bulk MoSe2 into quantum dots (QDs) via "turbulent shear mixing" (TSM). The ultrasmall size of the MoSe2 QDs provides a high fraction of atoms in reactive edge sites, thus significantly improving the catalytic activities. The violent TSM further introduces abundant defects as additional active sites for electrocatalytic reactions...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544505/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-gold-shell-growth-onto-polymer-microcapsules-to-control-shell-thickness
#6
Alison Louise Tasker, James Hitchcock, Elaine Alice Baxter, Olivier Cayre, Simon Biggs
Polymer microcapsules have been used commercially for decades, however they have an inherent flaw which renders them impractical as a carrier of small, volatile molecules. The porous nature of the polymer shell allows for diffusion of the encapsulated molecules into the bulk. The use of metal shells is an innovative way to prevent undesired loss of small molecules from the core of microcapsules, however it is important, particularly when using expensive metals to ensure that the resulting shell is as thin as possible...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544472/engineering-muscle-cell-alignment-through-3d-bioprinting
#7
Pamela Mozetic, Sara Maria Giannitelli, Manuele Gori, Marcella Trombetta, Alberto Rainer
Processing of hydrogels represents a main challenge for the prospective application of additive manufacturing (AM) to soft tissue engineering. Furthermore, direct manufacturing of tissue precursors with a cell density similar to native tissues has the potential to overcome the extensive in vitro culture required for conventional cell-seeded scaffolds seeking to fabricate constructs with tailored structural and functional properties. In this work, we present a simple AM methodology that exploits the thermoresponsive behavior of a block copolymer (Pluronic®) as a means to obtain good shape retention at physiological conditions and to induce cellular alignment...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544446/a-dual-function-na2-so4-template-directed-formation-of-cathode-materials-with-a-high-content-of-sulfur-nanodots-for-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#8
Chong Luo, Wei Lv, Yaqian Deng, Guangmin Zhou, Zheng-Ze Pan, Shuzhang Niu, Baohua Li, Feiyu Kang, Quan-Hong Yang
The sulfur content in carbon-sulfur hybrid using the melt-diffusion method is normally lower than 70 wt%, which greatly decreases the energy density of the cathode in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here, a scalable method inspired by the commercialized production of Na2 S is used to prepare a hierarchical porous carbon-sulfur hybrid (denoted HPC-S) with high sulfur content (≈85 wt%). The HPC-S is characterized by the structure of sulfur nanodots naturally embedded in a 3D carbon network. The strategy uses Na2 SO4 as the starting material, which serves not only as the sulfur precursor but also as a salt template for the formation of the 3D carbon network...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544445/morphology-and-structure-engineering-in-nanofiber-reactor-tubular-hierarchical-integrated-networks-composed-of-dual-phase-octahedral-comn2-o4-carbon-nanofibers-for-water-oxidation
#9
Han Zhu, Danni Yu, Songge Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Wenbo Wu, Meng Wan, Lina Wang, Ming Zhang, Mingliang Du
1D hollow nanostructures combine the advantages of enhanced surface-to-volume ratio, short transport lengths, and efficient 1D electron transport, which can provide more design ideas for the preparation of highly active oxygen evolution (OER) electrocatalysts. A unique architecture of dual-phase octahedral CoMn2 O4 /carbon hollow nanofibers has been prepared via a two-step heat-treatment process including preoxidation treatment and Ostwald ripening process. The hollow and porous structures provide interior void spaces, large exposed surfaces, and high contact areas between the nanofibers and electrolyte and the morphology can be engineered by adjusting the heating conditions...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544425/free-standing-holey-ni-oh-2-nanosheets-with-enhanced-activity-for-water-oxidation
#10
Xiangkai Kong, Changlin Zhang, Sang Youp Hwang, Qianwang Chen, Zhenmeng Peng
Electrochemical water oxidation is the key technology in water-splitting reactions and rechargeable metal-air batteries, which is very attractive for renewable energy conversion and storage. Replacement of precious catalysts with cost-effective and highly active alternatives is still a great challenge. Herein, based on theoretical predictions, holey structures are designed and fabricated on the free-standing conventional 2D OER catalyst. By well-controlled defects engineering, uniform tiny holes are created on the free-standing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets via a sol-gel method, with the embedded Zn components as the template for holes production...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544255/a-new-polyoxometalate-pom-based-composite-%C3%AF-fabrication-through-pom-assisted-polymerization-of-dopamine-and-properties-as-anode-materials-for-high-performance-lithium-ion-battery
#11
Yan-Hong Ding, Jun Peng, Shifa-Ullah Khan, Yue Yuan
Organic substrates are indispensable to fabricate multi-functional polyoxometalate (POM)-based composites for various application fields. A new Molybdovanadophosphoric heteropolyacid (PMo10V2)-based polydopamine (PDA) composite (PMo10V2/PDA) has been firstly synthesized through a facile in-situ polymerization method under hydrothermal conditions without adding extra buffer solution. The obtained PMo10V2/PDA composite shows homogeneous microsphere morphology. By utilizing the adhesive ability of PDA, the composite can be used as an anode material without additional binder for rechargeable lithium ion batteries...
May 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544112/a-cost-efficient-bifunctional-ultrathin-nanosheets-array-for-electrochemical-overall-water-splitting
#12
Ying Zhang, Qi Shao, Yecan Pi, Jun Guo, Xiaoqing Huang
The design of cost-efficient earth-abundant catalysts with superior performance for the electrochemical water splitting is highly desirable. Herein, a general strategy for fabricating superior bifunctional water splitting electrodes is reported, where cost-efficient earth-abundant ultrathin Ni-based nanosheets arrays are directly grown on nickel foam (NF). The newly created Ni-based nanosheets@NF exhibit unique features of ultrathin building block, 3D hierarchical structure, and alloy effect with the optimized Ni5 Fe layered double hydroxide@NF (Ni5 Fe LDH@NF) exhibiting low overpotentials of 210 and 133 mV toward both oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction at 10 mA cm(-2) in alkaline condition, respectively...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543856/experimental-charge-density-from-electron-microscopic-maps
#13
Jimin Wang
The charge density (CD) distribution of an atom is the difference per unit volume between the positive charge of its nucleus and the distribution of the negative charges carried by the electrons that are associated with it. The CDs of the atoms in macromolecules are responsible for their electrostatic potential (ESP) distributions, which can now be visualized using cryo-electron microscopy at high resolution. CD maps can be recovered from experimental ESP density maps using the negative Laplacian operation...
May 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543827/estimations-of-linkage-disequilibrium-effective-population-size-and-roh-based-inbreeding-coefficients-in-spanish-churra-sheep-using-imputed-high-density-snp-genotypes
#14
P K Chitneedi, J J Arranz, A Suarez-Vega, E García-Gámez, B Gutiérrez-Gil
In this study, the availability of the Ovine HD SNP BeadChip (HD-chip) and the development of an imputation strategy provided an opportunity to further investigate the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) at short distances in the genome of the Spanish Churra dairy sheep breed. A population of 1686 animals, including 16 rams and their half-sib daughters, previously genotyped for the 50K-chip, was imputed to the HD-chip density based on a reference population of 335 individuals. After assessing the imputation accuracy for beagle v4...
May 22, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543566/preventing-recurrent-ankle-sprains-is-the-use-of-an-app-more-cost-effective-than-a-printed-booklet-results-of-a-rct
#15
M Van Reijen, I Vriend, W van Mechelen, E A Verhagen
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent ankle sprains can be reduced by following a neuromuscular training (NMT) program via a printed Booklet or a mobile application. Regarding the high incidence of ankle sprains, cost-effectiveness regarding implementation can have a large effect on total societal costs. DESIGN: In this economic analysis we evaluated whether the method of implementing a proven effective NMT program by using an App or a Booklet resulted in differences in injury incidence rates leading to costs and hence to differences in cost-effectiveness...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543273/differential-dispersal-and-the-allee-effect-create-power-law-behavior-distribution-of-spot-infestations-during-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#16
James A Powell, Martha J Garlick, Barbara J Bentz, Nicholas Friedenberg
Mountain pine beetles (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) are aggressive insects attacking Pinus host trees. Pines use defensive resin to overwhelm attackers, creating an Allee effect requiring beetles to attack en masse to successfully reproduce. MPB kill hosts, leaving observable, dying trees with red needles. Landscape patterns of infestation depend on MPB dispersal, which decreases with host density. Away from contiguously impacted patches (low beetle densities), infestations are characterized by apparently random spots (of 1-10 trees)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543135/bone-mineral-density-testing-and-bisphosphonate-and-oestrogen-prescribing-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-utilization-the-impact-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-boxed-warning
#17
E Eworuke, V Popat, D G Moeny
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) prevents follicular maturation and ovulation, resulting in oestrogen deficiency. Oestrogen deficiency is particularly concerning as it is associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mass. Widespread use of concurrent oestrogen or bisphosphonates with DMPA has been observed in a previous single-centre US study. The authors also reported that more than half of obstetrician-gynaecologists ordered BMD testing solely due to DMPA...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543050/effects-of-carrot-pomace-powder-and-a-mixture-of-pectin-and-xanthan-on-the-quality-of-gluten-free-batter-and-cakes
#18
Mahsa Majzoobi, Zahra Vosooghi Poor, Gholamreza Mesbahi, Jalal Jamalian, Asgar Farahnaky
Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is a valuable by-product of carrot processing containing nutrients and fibre and can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of CPP (0, 10, 20 and 30%) and a mixture of hydrocolloids (HC) including pectin and xanthan (1.5% of each) on the quality of batter and gluten-free cakes. With increasing the level of CPP and inclusion of HC the viscosity of the batter increased significantly from 87 mPas for the control to > 7000 mPas for 30%CCP+HC sample...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542805/downregulation-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-by-glucocorticoids-a-randomized-study-on-hdl
#19
Jorien Werumeus Buning, Lidya G Dimova, Frank G Perton, Uwe J F Tietge, André P van Beek, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is not decreased in hypercortisolism despite high triglycerides, which may be ascribed to effects on the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) pathway. We explored if CETP mRNA expression is modulated by glucocorticoid treatment in vitro. Effects of doubling the hydrocortisone (HCT) replacement dose on plasma CETP activity and HDL characteristics were tested in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human THP-1 macrophages were incubated with corticosterone in vitro in the presence or absence of a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, followed by determination of CETP mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542651/cellular-migration-transition-and-interaction-during-regeneration-of-the-sponge-hymeniacidon-heliophila
#20
Cristiano C Coutinho, Ivone de Andrade Rosa, John Douglas de Oliveira Teixeira, Leonardo R Andrade, Manoel Luis Costa, Claudia Mermelstein
Sponges have a high capacity for regeneration and this process improves biomass production in some species, thus contributing to a solution for the biomass supply problem for biotechnological applications. The aim of this work is to characterize the dynamics of cell behavior during the initial stages of sponge regeneration, using bright-field microscopy, confocal microscopy and SEM. We focused on the first 20 h of regeneration, during which blastema formation and epithelium initialization occur. An innovative sponge organotypic culture of the regenerating internal region is described and investigated by confocal microscopy, cell transplantation and vital staining...
2017: PloS One
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