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Liver cancer immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902383/-bcgitis-with-involvement-of-lung-liver-and-bone-marrow%C3%A2-after-immunotherapy-of-urothelial-cancer
#1
Hilte Friederike Geerdes-Fenge, Franziska Stubbe, Micha Löbermann, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Erbersdobler, Emil Christian Reisinger
Medical history A 77-year-old patient with transurethral resection of a bladder tumor was transferred due to persistent fever and progressive dyspnea despite antibiotic therapy for suspected urinary tract infection. Repeating the medical history revealed that a BCG immunotherapy of his non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma was performed the day before fever developed. Therefore, BCGitis was suspected. Examinations Laboratory parameters showed pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, eleveated C-reactive protein and hypoxemia...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893935/tumour-virus-vaccines-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#2
REVIEW
Margaret Stanley
Two of the most important human oncogenic viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982; vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective, resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Nonetheless, HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/2007...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867968/advances-and-future-directions-in-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Ashil J Gosalia, Paul Martin, Patricia D Jones
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Liver transplant is considered the gold standard for curative therapy for HCC when patients are not candidates for surgical resection or ablation. Because a subset of patients with HCC have a survival rate with liver transplantation that is comparable to that of cirrhotic patients without tumors, the organ allocation system allows for increased priority for transplant in potential recipients within the Milan criteria...
July 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858473/molecular-targeted-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-melanoma-via-dual-targeting-nanoparticles-delivering-small-interfering-rna-to-tumor-associated-macrophages
#4
Yuan Qian, Sha Qiao, Yanfeng Dai, Guoqiang Xu, Bolei Dai, Lisen Lu, Xiang Yu, Qingming Luo, Zhihong Zhang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. Targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs to the tumor-promoting M2-like TAMs is challenging. Here, we developed M2-like TAM dual-targeting nanoparticles (M2NPs), whose structure and function were controlled by α-peptide (a scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) targeting peptide) linked with M2pep (an M2 macrophage binding peptide). By loading anti-colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (anti-CSF-1R) small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the M2NPs, we developed a molecular-targeted immunotherapeutic approach to specifically block the survival signal of M2-like TAMs and deplete them from melanoma tumors...
September 6, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854942/the-biology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-implications-for-genomic-and-immune-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Galina Khemlina, Sadakatsu Ikeda, Razelle Kurzrock
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It is highly refractory to most systemic therapies. Recently, significant progress has been made in uncovering genomic alterations in HCC, including potentially targetable aberrations. The most common molecular anomalies in this malignancy are mutations in the TERT promoter, TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, ARID1A, CDKN2A and CCND1 genes. PTEN loss at the protein level is also frequent. Genomic portfolios stratify by risk factors as follows: (i) CTNNB1 with alcoholic cirrhosis; and (ii) TP53 with hepatitis B virus-induced cirrhosis...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839988/prognostic-significance-of-sites-of-extrathoracic-metastasis-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
James E Bates, Michael T Milano
BACKGROUND: Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to have a poor prognosis despite recent advances in both targeted radiotherapy methodologies such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and immunotherapies. The impact of location of metastatic disease in patients with NSCLC has not been investigated; we aimed to investigate this using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS: We included 39,910 patients from the SEER database treated for M1b NSCLC from 2010-2013...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829572/immunomodulatory-therapy-of-inflammatory-liver-disease-using-selectin-binding-glycopolymers
#7
Matthias Bartneck, Christopher Thorsten Schlößer, Matthias Barz, Rudolf Zentel, Christian Trautwein, Twan Lammers, Frank Tacke
Immunotherapies have the potential to significantly advance treatment of inflammatory disease and cancer, which are in large parts driven by immune cells. Selectins control the first step in immune cell adhesion and extravasation, thereby guiding leukocyte trafficking to tissue lesions. We analyzed four different highly specific selectin-binding glycopolymers, based on linear poly(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (PHPMA) polymers. These glycopolymers contain either the tetrasaccharide sialyl-Lewis(X) (SLe(X)), or the individual carbohydrates fucose, galactose, and sialic acids mimicking the complex SLe(X) binding motive...
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829195/how-and-when-adjuvant-treatment-should-be-intensified-in-stage-iii-colorectal-cancers
#8
Khalil Saleh, Nadine Khalife-Saleh, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Georges Chahine
The adjuvant chemotherapy (FOLFOX) represents the standard of care in stage III colon cancer with some exceptions in old patients. Adjuvant treatment must also be discussed in high-risk stage II colon cancer. However, 40-50% of patients develop disease recurrence after curative R0 surgical resection. The liver was the most common site of recurrence followed by peritoneum. Although adjuvant chemotherapy improved disease-free survival and overall survival, 5-year overall survival remains less than 55% in stage III colon cancer...
August 22, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826269/determination-of-temperature-distribution-in-tissue-for-interstitial-cancer-photothermal-therapy
#9
Shaojie Liu, Austin Doughty, Connor West, Zhilie Tang, Feifan Zhou, Wei R Chen
BACKGROUND: Temperature increase in tumor tissue during photothermal therapy (PTT) is a significant factor in determining the outcomes of the treatment. Therefore, controlling and optimizing temperature distribution in target tissue is crucial for PTT. In this study, we developed a unique ex vivo device to study the temperature distribution during PTT to be used as a guide for the desired photothermal effects for cancer treatment. METHODS: Bovine liver tissue buried inside agarose gel served as a phantom tumor surrounded by normal tissue...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818953/new-horizons-for-precision-medicine-in-biliary-tract-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Juan W Valle, Angela Lamarca, Lipika Goyal, Jorge Barriuso, Andrew X Zhu
Biliary tract cancers (BTC), including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, are poor-prognosis and low-incidence cancers, although the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising. A minority of patients present with resectable disease but relapse rates are high; benefit from adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Cisplatin/gemcitabine combination chemotherapy has emerged as the reference first-line treatment regimen; there is no standard second-line therapy. Selected patients may be suitable for liver-directed therapy (e...
September 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809532/transient-and-local-expression-of-chemokine-and-immune-checkpoint-traps-to-treat-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Lei Miao, Jingjing Li, Qi Liu, Richard Feng, Manisit Das, C Michael Lin, Tyler J Goodwin, Oleksandra Dorosheva, Rihe Liu, Leaf Huang
Pancreatic tumors are known to be resistant to immunotherapy due to the extensive immune suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). We hypothesized that CXCL12 and PD-L1 are two key molecules controlling the immunosuppressive TME. Fusion proteins, called traps, designed to bind with these two molecules with high affinity (Kd = 4.1 and 0.22 nM, respectively) were manufactured and tested for specific binding with the targets. Plasmid DNA encoding for each trap was formulated in nanoparticles and intravenously injected to mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic cancer...
August 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807210/personalized-treatment-in-patients-with-colorectal-liver-metastases
#12
Dimitrios Moris, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Precision Medicine Initiative is a new research effort aiming to offer personalized treatment in many diseases, including cancer. The aim of the present article is to offer novel insights about the role of personalized treatment in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). METHODS: A review of the literature regarding personalized medicine and colorectal liver metastases was performed mainly in the MEDLINE/PubMed database. RESULTS: Surgical resection remains the only hope for cure of CRLM...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803798/radiosynthesis-and-preclinical-pet-evaluation-of-89-zr-nivolumab-bms-936558-in-healthy-non-human-primates
#13
Erin L Cole, Joonyoung Kim, David J Donnelly, R Adam Smith, Daniel Cohen, Virginie Lafont, Paul E Morin, Richard Y-C Huang, Patrick L Chow, Wendy Hayes, Samuel Bonacorsi
Cancer immunotherapy, unlike traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic treatments, engages the immune system to identify cancer cells and stimulate immune responses. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) protein is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that seek out and destroy cancer cells. Multiple cancer types express and upregulate the Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 2 (PD-L2) which bind to PD-1 as an immune escape mechanism. Nivolumab is a fully human IgG4 anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for treatment of multiple cancer types...
August 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780700/natural-killer-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-status-and-perspectives-for-future-immunotherapeutic-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Min Yu, Zonghai Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. In the last few years, treatments for HCC have significantly improved from a mere surgical resection to a series of minimally invasive therapies and targeted drugs. However, recurrence frequently occurs even upon curative therapeutics, and drug therapies generally produce disappointing results, with the overall prognosis dismal. This challenging clinical scenario warrants new effective and life-prolonging strategies for patients with HCC...
August 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763861/-a-bioinformatics-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-associated-with-liver-cancer
#15
W X Bai, J Gao, C Qian, X Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate differentially expressed genes associated with liver cancer using bioinformatics methods, and to screen out molecular markers for early diagnosis of liver cancer and potential molecular targets for immunotherapy. Methods: The microarray data associated with liver cancer were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. JMP software was used for correlation analysis of GSE datasets, Limma program in R language was used to screen out differentially expressed genes, and the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed for differentially expressed genes...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754304/a-natural-ccr2-antagonist-relieves-tumor-associated-macrophage-mediated-immunosuppression-to-produce-a-therapeutic-effect-for-liver-cancer
#16
Wenbo Yao, Qian Ba, Xiaoguang Li, Huiliang Li, Shoude Zhang, Ya Yuan, Feng Wang, Xiaohua Duan, Jingquan Li, Weidong Zhang, Hui Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor in the digestive tract with limited therapeutic choices. Although sorafenib, an orally administered multikinase inhibitor, has produced survival benefits for patients with advanced HCC, favorable clinical outcomes are limited due to individual differences and resistance. The application of immunotherapy, a promising approach for HCC is urgently needed. Macrophage infiltration, mediated by the CCL2/CCR2 axis, is a potential immunotherapeutic target. Here, we report that a natural product from Abies georgei, named 747 and related in structure to kaempferol, exhibits sensitivity and selectivity as a CCR2 antagonist...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748573/a-novel-humanized-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-r2-monoclonal-antibody-induces-apoptotic-and-autophagic-cell-death
#17
Longfei Chen, Yuhe Qiu, Zhenliang Hao, Jiong Cai, Shuyong Zhang, Yanxin Liu, Dexian Zheng
It is well known that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/TNFSF10) is specifically expressed in various tumor cells, but less or no expression in most normal tissues and cells. While TRAIL engages with its native death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) or 2 (TRAIL-R2), usually elicits the tumor cell death by apoptosis. In this study, we report that a novel humanized monoclonal antibody against TRAIL-R2 (named as zaptuzumab) well remain the biological activity of the parental mouse antibody AD5-10 inducing cell death in various cancer cells, but little effect on normal cells...
September 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732877/enhanced-antitumor-activity-of-gemcitabine-by-polysaccharide-induced-nk-cell-activation-and-immune-cytotoxicity-reduction-in-vitro-vivo
#18
Xin Xie, Yiran Zhou, Xue Wang, Jian Guo, Jingwen Li, Hongye Fan, Jie Dou, Baiyong Shen, Changlin Zhou
The polysaccharide SEP has been reported to activate NK and T cells via TLR2/4. Here, the combination of gemcitabine (GEM) and SEP against HepG-2 was investigated. SEP apparently enhanced antitumor activity of gemcitabine against liver cancer through stimulating NKG2D and DAP10/Akt pathway to activate NK cells. The NKG2D upregulation could improve the sensitivity of NK-92 cells targeting to its ligand MICA expressed on HepG-2 cells. Meanwhile, GEM up-regulated MICA expression and attenuated soluble MICA secretion through inhibiting ADAM10 expression, which in turn enhanced the cytotoxicity of NK-92 cells against cancer cells...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725431/angiosarcoma-treated-successfully-with-anti-pd-1-therapy-a-case-report
#19
Simran Sindhu, Lana H Gimber, Lee Cranmer, Ali McBride, Andrew S Kraft
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcomas are tumors of malignant endothelial origin that have a poor prognosis with a five-year survival of less than 40%. These tumors can be found in all age groups, but are more common in older patients; with the cutaneous form most common in older white men. Combined modality therapy including surgery and radiation appears to have a better outcome than each modality alone. When metastatic, agents such as liposomal doxorubicin, paclitaxel and ifosfamide have activity but it is short-lived and not curative...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724802/partially-exhausted-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-predict-response-to-combination-immunotherapy
#20
Kimberly Loo, Katy K Tsai, Kelly Mahuron, Jacqueline Liu, Mariela L Pauli, Priscila M Sandoval, Adi Nosrati, James Lee, Lawrence Chen, Jimmy Hwang, Lauren S Levine, Matthew F Krummel, Alain P Algazi, Michael D Alvarado, Michael D Rosenblum, Adil I Daud
BACKGROUND: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibition activates partially exhausted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (peCTLs) and induces tumor regression. We previously showed that the peCTL fraction predicts response to anti-PD-1 monotherapy. Here, we sought to correlate peCTL and regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) levels with response to combination immunotherapy, and with demographic/disease characteristics, in metastatic melanoma patients. METHODS: Pretreatment melanoma samples underwent multiparameter flow cytometric analysis...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
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