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Environmental cues

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168989/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-now-or-should-i-wait-and-see-influences-on-wildfire-evacuation-decisions
#1
Sarah McCaffrey, Robyn Wilson, Avishek Konar
As climate change has contributed to longer fire seasons and populations living in fire-prone ecosystems increase, wildfires have begun to affect a growing number of people. As a result, interest in understanding the wildfire evacuation decision process has increased. Of particular interest is understanding why some people leave early, some choose to stay and defend their homes, and others wait to assess conditions before making a final decision. Individuals who tend to wait and see are of particular concern given the dangers of late evacuation...
November 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168417/a-dna-segment-encoding-the-anticodon-stem-loop-of-trna-determines-the-specific-recombination-of-integrative-conjugative-elements-in-acidithiobacillus-species
#2
Andrés Castillo, Mario Tello, Kenneth Ringwald, Lillian G Acuña, Raquel Quatrini, Omar Orellana
Horizontal gene transfer is crucial for the adaptation of microorganisms to environmental cues. The acidophilic, bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encodes an integrative-conjugative genetic element (ICEAfe1) inserted in the gene encoding a tRNA(Ala). This genetic element is actively excised from the chromosome upon induction of DNA damage. A similar genetic element (ICEAcaTY.2) is also found in an equivalent position in the genome of Acidithiobacillus caldus. The local genomic context of both mobile genetic elements is highly syntenous and the cognate integrases are well conserved...
November 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167374/fmrfamide-like-peptides-expand-the-behavioral-repertoire-of-a-densely-connected-nervous-system
#3
James Siho Lee, Pei-Yin Shih, Oren N Schaedel, Porfirio Quintero-Cadena, Alicia K Rogers, Paul W Sternberg
Animals, including humans, can adapt to environmental stress through phenotypic plasticity. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can adapt to harsh environments by undergoing a whole-animal change, involving exiting reproductive development and entering the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. The dauer is a dispersal stage with dauer-specific behaviors for finding and stowing onto carrier animals, but how dauers acquire these behaviors, despite having a physically limited nervous system of 302 neurons, is poorly understood...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166242/dynamism-of-an-astrocyte-in-vivo-perspectives-on-identity-and-function
#4
Kira E Poskanzer, Anna V Molofsky
Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting ways but without fully considering their unique biology. From this perspective, we explore the reasons that astrocytes remain enigmatic, arguing that their responses to neuronal and environmental cues shape form and function in dynamic ways...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164236/posttranscriptional-regulation-of-loxl1-expression-via-alternative-splicing-and-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-as-an-adaptive-stress-response
#5
Daniel Berner, Matthias Zenkel, Francesca Pasutto, Ursula Hoja, Panah Liravi, Gabriele C Gusek-Schneider, Friedrich E Kruse, Johannes Schödel, Andre Reis, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
Purpose: Alternative mRNA splicing coupled to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a common mRNA surveillance pathway also known to dynamically modulate gene expression in response to cellular stress. Here, we investigated the involvement of this pathway in the regulation of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) expression in response to pseudoexfoliation (PEX)-associated pathophysiologic factors. Methods: Transcript levels of LOXL1 isoforms were determined in ocular tissues obtained from donor eyes without and with PEX syndrome...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161429/crosstalk-between-the-microbiome-and-epigenome-messages-from-bugs
#6
Yufeng Qin, Paul A Wade
Mammals exist in a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to have broad impacts on host health and disease. As omics-based technologies have matured, the potential mechanisms by which the microbiome affects host physiology are being addressed. The gut microbiome, which provides environmental cues, can modify host cell responses to stimuli through alterations in the host epigenome and, ultimately, gene expression. Increasing evidence highlights microbial generation of bioactive compounds that impact the transcriptional machinery in host cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161270/tracking-urban-human-activity-from-mobile-phone-calling-patterns
#7
Daniel Monsivais, Asim Ghosh, Kunal Bhattacharya, Robin I M Dunbar, Kimmo Kaski
Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#8
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158330/regulation-of-sucrose-transporters-and-phloem-loading-in-response-to-environmental-cues
#9
Qiyu Xu, Siyuan Chen, Yunjuan Ren, Shaolin Chen, Johannes Liesche
Sucrose transporters (SUTs) play a key role in the allocation and partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon in plants. While a function could be assigned to many members of the SUT family, almost no information is available on their regulation. Here, the transcriptional regulation of SUTs in response to various environmental stimuli in the leaves of five dicots, Arabidopsis, soy bean, potato, tomato and poplar, and four monocots, maize, rice, wheat and barley, was investigated. Extensive data on expression of SUTs in relation to changes of environmental conditions were obtained through a global analysis of 168 transcriptomics data sets...
November 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158126/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-an-arboreal-mammal-to-smoke-and-charcoal-ash-substrate
#10
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
The recent observation that torpor plays a key role in post-fire survival has been mainly attributed to the reduced food resources after fires. However, some of these adjustments can be facilitated or amplified by environmental changes associated with fires, such as the presence of a charcoal-ash substrate. In a previous experiment on a small terrestrial mammal the presence of charcoal and ash linked to food restriction intensified torpor use. However, whether fire cues also act as a trigger of torpor use when food is available and whether they affect other species including arboreal mammals remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154757/macrophage-polarization-and-meta-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Chuan Li, Maria M Xu, Kepeng Wang, Adam J Adler, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Chronic overnutrition and obesity induces low-grade inflammation throughout the body. Termed "meta-inflammation," this chronic state of inflammation is mediated by macrophages located within the colon, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A sentinel orchestrator of immune activity and homeostasis, macrophages adopt variable states of activation as a function of time and environmental cues. Meta-inflammation phenotypically skews these polarization states and has been linked to numerous metabolic disorders. The past decade has revealed several key regulators of macrophage polarization, including the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) family, and the interferon regulatory factors...
November 3, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154364/non-contingent-exposure-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence-recruits-mir-218-to-regulate-dcc-expression-in-the-vta
#12
Santiago Cuesta, José Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Steven Silvestrin, Dominique Nouel, Angélica Torres-Berrio, Lauren M Reynolds, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Cecilia Flores
The development of the dopamine input to the medial prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence and is a process that is vulnerable to disruption by stimulant drugs such as amphetamine. We have previously linked the amphetamine-induced disruption of dopamine connectivity and prefrontal cortex maturation during adolescence to the downregulation of the Netrin-1 receptor, DCC, in dopamine neurons. However, how DCC expression in dopamine neurons is itself regulated is completely unknown. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation of mRNA translation and stability is a prominent mechanism linking environmental events to changes in protein expression...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153923/macrophages-sensing-oxidized-damps-reprogram-their-metabolism-to-support-redox-homeostasis-and-inflammation-through-a-tlr2-syk-ceramide-dependent-mechanism
#13
Vlad Serbulea, Clint M Upchurch, Katelyn W Ahern, Gael Bories, Paxton Voigt, Dory E DeWeese, Akshaya K Meher, Thurl E Harris, Norbert Leitinger
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages control tissue homeostasis and inflammation by sensing and responding to environmental cues. However, the metabolic adaptation of macrophages to oxidative tissue damage and its translation into inflammatory mechanisms remains enigmatic. METHODS: Here we identify the critical regulatory pathways that are induced by endogenous oxidation-derived DAMPs (oxidized phospholipids, OxPL) in vitro, leading to formation of a unique redox-regulatory metabolic phenotype (Mox), which is strikingly different from conventional classical or alternative macrophage activation...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150271/xenohormesis-in-early-life-new-avenues-of-research-to-explore-anti-aging-strategies-through-the-maternal-diet
#14
Philippe de Medina
Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146769/the-interaction-of-path-integration-and-terrestrial-visual-cues-in-navigating-desert-ants-what-can-we-learn-from-path-characteristics
#15
Cornelia Buehlmann, A Sofia D Fernandes, Paul Graham
Ant foragers make use of multiple navigational cues to navigate through the world and the combination of innate navigational strategies and the learning of environmental information is the secret of their navigational success. We present here detailed information about the paths of Cataglyphis fortis desert ants navigating by an innate strategy, namely path integration. Firstly, we observe that the ants' walking speed decreases significantly along their homing paths, such that they slow down just before reaching the goal, and maintain a slower speed during subsequent search paths...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144996/new-roles-and-controls-of-mast-cells
#16
REVIEW
Eric Espinosa, Salvatore Valitutti
Mast cells are innate immune cells implicated in immune surveillance and defense. They are filled with secretory granules where a vast array of molecules endowed with multiple biological activities are stored. The process of granule secretion, named degranulation, is a tightly controlled biological phenomenon that allows mast cells to rapidly and efficiently release bioactive mediators in response to extracellular stimuli. MC degranulation allows fighting pathogens, limiting envenomation and contributes to tissue homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144457/a-ubiquitin-dependent-signalling-axis-specific-for-alkbh-mediated-dna-dealkylation-repair
#17
Joshua R Brickner, Jennifer M Soll, Patrick M Lombardi, Cathrine B Vågbø, Miranda C Mudge, Clement Oyeniran, Renana Rabe, Jessica Jackson, Meagan E Sullender, Elyse Blazosky, Andrea K Byrum, Yu Zhao, Mark A Corbett, Jozef Gécz, Michael Field, Alessandro Vindigni, Geir Slupphaug, Cynthia Wolberger, Nima Mosammaparast
DNA repair is essential to prevent the cytotoxic or mutagenic effects of various types of DNA lesions, which are sensed by distinct pathways to recruit repair factors specific to the damage type. Although biochemical mechanisms for repairing several forms of genomic insults are well understood, the upstream signalling pathways that trigger repair are established for only certain types of damage, such as double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks. Understanding the upstream signalling events that mediate recognition and repair of DNA alkylation damage is particularly important, since alkylation chemotherapy is one of the most widely used systemic modalities for cancer treatment and because environmental chemicals may trigger DNA alkylation...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143605/impact-of-the-7-bp-deletion-in-hvga20ox2-gene-on-agronomic-important-traits-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#18
Serafima Teplyakova, Marina Lebedeva, Nadezhda Ivanova, Valentina Horeva, Nina Voytsutskaya, Olga Kovaleva, Elena Potokina
BACKGROUND: Alike to Reduced height-1 (Rht-1) genes in wheat and the semi dwarfing (sd-1) gene in rice, the sdw1/denso locus involved in the metabolism of the GA, was designated as the 'Green Revolution' gene in barley. The recent molecular characterization of the candidate gene HvGA20ox2 for sdw1/denso locus allows to estimate the impact of the functional polymorphism of this gene on the variation of agronomically important traits in barley. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of the 7-bp deletion in exon 1 of HvGA20ox2 gene (sdw1...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141911/transcriptional-integration-of-mitogenic-and-mechanical-signals-by-myc-and-yap
#19
Ottavio Croci, Serena De Fazio, Francesca Biagioni, Elisa Donato, Marieta Caganova, Laura Curti, Mirko Doni, Silvia Sberna, Deborah Aldeghi, Chiara Biancotto, Alessandro Verrecchia, Daniela Olivero, Bruno Amati, Stefano Campaner
Mammalian cells must integrate environmental cues to determine coherent physiological responses. The transcription factors Myc and YAP-TEAD act downstream from mitogenic signals, with the latter responding also to mechanical cues. Here, we show that these factors coordinately regulate genes required for cell proliferation. Activation of Myc led to extensive association with its genomic targets, most of which were prebound by TEAD. At these loci, recruitment of YAP was Myc-dependent and led to full transcriptional activation...
October 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141582/a-novel-interaction-between-kinase-activities-in-regulation-of-cilia-formation
#20
Nicole DeVaul, Katerina Koloustroubis, Rong Wang, Ann O Sperry
BACKGROUND: The primary cilium is an extension of the cell membrane that encloses a microtubule-based axoneme. Primary cilia are essential for transmission of environmental cues that determine cell fate. Disruption of primary cilia function is the molecular basis of numerous developmental disorders. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms governing their assembly and disassembly are just beginning to be understood. Cilia growth and disassembly are essential events when cells exit and reenter into the cell cycle...
November 15, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
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