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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917608/environmental-enrichment-in-the-absence-of-wheel-running-produces-beneficial-behavioural-and-anti-oxidative-effects-in-rats
#1
F Mármol, J Sánchez, M N Torres, V D Chamizo
The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals...
September 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916808/the-effects-of-domestication-and-ontogeny-on-cognition-in-dogs-and-wolves
#2
Michelle Lampe, Juliane Bräuer, Juliane Kaminski, Zsófia Virányi
Cognition is one of the most flexible tools enabling adaptation to environmental variation. Living close to humans is thought to influence social as well as physical cognition of animals throughout domestication and ontogeny. Here, we investigated to what extent physical cognition and two domains of social cognition of dogs have been affected by domestication and ontogeny. To address the effects of domestication, we compared captive wolves (n = 12) and dogs (n = 14) living in packs under the same conditions...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912440/the-generalization-of-auditory-accommodation-to-altered-spectral-cues
#3
Christopher J G Watson, Simon Carlile, Heather Kelly, Kapilesh Balachandar
The capacity of healthy adult listeners to accommodate to altered spectral cues to the source locations of broadband sounds has now been well documented. In recent years we have demonstrated that the degree and speed of accommodation are improved by using an integrated sensory-motor training protocol under anechoic conditions. Here we demonstrate that the learning which underpins the localization performance gains during the accommodation process using anechoic broadband training stimuli generalize to environmentally relevant scenarios...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912437/voice-selectivity-in-the-temporal-voice-area-despite-matched-low-level-acoustic-cues
#4
Trevor R Agus, Sébastien Paquette, Clara Suied, Daniel Pressnitzer, Pascal Belin
In human listeners, the temporal voice areas (TVAs) are regions of the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus that respond more to vocal sounds than a range of nonvocal control sounds, including scrambled voices, environmental noises, and animal cries. One interpretation of the TVA's selectivity is based on low-level acoustic cues: compared to control sounds, vocal sounds may have stronger harmonic content or greater spectrotemporal complexity. Here, we show that the right TVA remains selective to the human voice even when accounting for a variety of acoustical cues...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912063/differential-expression-by-chromatin-modifications-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-1-of-chorispora-bungeana-in-cold-stress
#5
Lijun Liu, Yuan Song, Jun Xu, Dongming Li, Gaopeng Li, Lizhe An
Epigenetic modifications regulate plant genes to cope with a variety of environmental stresses. Chorispora bungeana is an alpine subnival plant with strong tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, especially cold stress. In this study, we characterized the alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene from Chorispora bungeana, CbADH1, that is up-regulated in cold conditions. Overexpression of CbADH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana improved cold tolerance, as indicated by a decreased lethal temperature (LT50). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that histone H3 is removed from the promoter region and the middle-coding region of the gene...
September 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904778/the-influence-of-herbivory-and-weather-on-the-vital-rates-of-two-closely-related-cactus-species
#6
Kristen E Sauby, John Kilmer, Mary C Christman, Robert D Holt, Travis D Marsico
Herbivory has long been recognized as a significant driver of plant population dynamics, yet its effects along environmental gradients are unclear. Understanding how weather modulates plant-insect interactions can be particularly important for predicting the consequences of exotic insect invasions, and an explicit consideration of weather may help explain why the impact can vary greatly across space and time. We surveyed two native prickly pear cactus species (genus Opuntia) in the Florida panhandle, USA, and their specialist insect herbivores (the invasive South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, and three native insect species) for five years across six sites...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#7
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901565/review-article-next-generation-transformative-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#8
REVIEW
A J Czaja
BACKGROUND: Advances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology. AIM: To describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations. METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
September 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900140/seed-germination-of-caragana-species-from-different-regions-is-strongly-driven-by-environmental-cues-and-not-phylogenetic-signals
#9
Xiang-Wen Fang, Juan-Juan Zhang, Dang-Hui Xu, Jiayin Pang, Tian-Peng Gao, Chun-Hui Zhang, Feng-Min Li, Neil C Turner
Seed germination behavior is an important factor in the distribution of species. Many studies have shown that germination is controlled by phylogenetic constraints, however, it is not clear whether phylogenetic constraints or environmental cues explain seed germination of a genus from a common ancestor. In this study, seed germination under different temperature- and water-regimes [induced by different osmotic potentials of polyethylene glycol (PEG)] was investigated in the phylogenetically-related Caragana species that thrive in arid, semiarid, semihumid and humid environments...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#10
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898992/amphistomatic-leaf-surfaces-independently-regulate-gas-exchange-in-response-to-variations-in-evaporative-demand
#11
Freya Richardson, Timothy J Brodribb, Gregory J Jordan, David Whitehead
The occurrence of amphistomatic leaves (stomata on both surfaces) versus hypostomatic leaves (stomata limited to the lower or abaxial surface) has strong associations with environment. Amphistomy provides the advantage of higher conductance of CO2 for photosynthesis, however, unless the stomata on both leaf surfaces can be independently controlled in response to environmental cues, amphistomy may lead to inefficient gas exchange. While previous studies have found evidence that stomata can operate independently across and between surfaces of dorsiventral leaves, we investigate whether an independent stomatal response can be induced for isobilateral leaves by largely natural conditions...
July 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898670/shoot-root-communication-in-flowering-plants
#12
REVIEW
Donghwi Ko, Ykä Helariutta
As sessile organisms, terrestrial plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to coordinate the growth and development of two distinct systems, the shoot and the root, in response to environmental fluctuations. Adaptive systemic responses are accomplished by shoot-root communication, which involves diverse long-distance signalling molecules. During the last few decades, various genetic, biochemical, molecular, and grafting studies have identified multiple long-distance signalling molecules which are crucial for plants to adapt to external changes...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898669/molecular-mechanisms-of-root-gravitropism
#13
REVIEW
Shih-Heng Su, Nicole M Gibbs, Amy L Jancewicz, Patrick H Masson
Plant shoots typically grow against the gravity vector to access light, whereas roots grow downward into the soil to take up water and nutrients. These gravitropic responses can be altered by developmental and environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that govern the gravitropism of angiosperm roots, where a physical separation between sites for gravity sensing and curvature response has facilitated discovery. Gravity sensing takes place in the columella cells of the root cap, where sedimentation of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers a pathway that results in a relocalization to the lower side of the cell of PIN proteins, which facilitate efflux of the plant hormone auxin efflux...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894149/a-single-early-in-life-macrolide-course-has-lasting-effects-on-murine-microbial-network-topology-and-immunity
#14
Victoria E Ruiz, Thomas Battaglia, Zachary D Kurtz, Luc Bijnens, Amy Ou, Isak Engstrand, Xuhui Zheng, Tadasu Iizumi, Briana J Mullins, Christian L Müller, Ken Cadwell, Richard Bonneau, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Martin J Blaser
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children. Early childhood represents a dynamic period for the intestinal microbial ecosystem, which is readily shaped by environmental cues; antibiotic-induced disruption of this sensitive community may have long-lasting host consequences. Here we demonstrate that a single pulsed macrolide antibiotic treatment (PAT) course early in life is sufficient to lead to durable alterations to the murine intestinal microbiota, ileal gene expression, specific intestinal T-cell populations, and secretory IgA expression...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893860/coordination-between-differentially-regulated-circadian-clocks-generates-rhythmic-behavior
#15
Deniz Top, Michael W Young
Specialized groups of neurons in the brain are key mediators of circadian rhythms, receiving daily environmental cues and communicating those signals to other tissues in the organism for entrainment and to organize circadian physiology. In Drosophila, the "circadian clock" is housed in seven neuronal clusters, which are defined by their expression of the main circadian proteins, Period, Timeless, Clock, and Cycle. These clusters are distributed across the fly brain and are thereby subject to the respective environments associated with their anatomical locations...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893590/design-principles-of-electrical-synaptic-plasticity
#16
REVIEW
John O'Brien
Essentially all animals with nervous systems utilize electrical synapses as a core element of communication. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions between neurons, provide rapid, bidirectional communication that accomplishes tasks distinct from and complementary to chemical synapses. These include coordination of neuron activity, suppression of voltage noise, establishment of electrical pathways that define circuits, and modulation of high order network behavior. In keeping with the omnipresent demand to alter neural network function in order to respond to environmental cues and perform tasks, electrical synapses exhibit extensive plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893191/recent-expansion-and-adaptive-evolution-of-the-carcinoembryonic-antigen-family-in-bats-of-the-yangochiroptera-subgroup
#17
Robert Kammerer, Martin Mansfeld, Jana Hänske, Sophie Mißbach, Xiaocui He, Bernd Köllner, Susan Mouchantat, Wolfgang Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Expansions of gene families are predictive for ongoing genetic adaptation to environmental cues. We describe such an expansion of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family in certain bat families. Members of the CEA family in humans and mice are exploited as cellular receptors by a number of pathogens, possibly due to their function in immunity and reproduction. The CEA family is composed of CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and secreted pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892254/transcriptional-regulation-of-ectoine-catabolism-in-response-to-multiple-metabolic-and-environmental-cues
#18
Annina Schulz, Lucas Hermann, Sven-Andreas Freibert, Tobias Bönig, Tamara Hoffmann, Ramona Riclea, Jeroen S Dickschat, Johann Heider, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are effective microbial osmostress protectants, but can also serve as versatile nutrients for bacteria. We have studied the genetic regulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine import and catabolism in the marine Roseobacter species Ruegeria pomeroyi and identified three transcriptional regulators involved in these processes: the GabR/MocR-type repressor EnuR, the feast and famine-type regulator AsnC, and the two-component system NtrYX. The corresponding genes are widely associated with ectoine and hydroxyectoine uptake and catabolic gene clusters (enuR, asnC), and with microorganisms predicted to consume ectoines (ntrYX)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888695/characterization-of-seasonal-reproductive-and-stress-steroid-hormones-in-wild-radiated-tortoises-astrochelys-radiata
#19
Andrea F T Currylow, Tsilavo H Rafeliarisoa, Edward E Louis, Craig B Stanford, Soary T Randrianjafizanaka, Sarah M Chinn, Daniel E Crocker
The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887768/population-model-of-quorum-sensing-with-multiple-parallel-pathways
#20
Gaoyang Fan, Paul C Bressloff
Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication mechanism that uses signal-receptor binding to regulate gene expression based on cell density, resulting in group behaviors such as biofilm formation, bioluminescence and stress response. In certain bacterial species such as Vibrio harveyi, several parallel QS signaling pathways drive a single phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, which in turn regulates QS target genes. In this paper, we investigate the possible role of parallel signaling pathways by developing a mathematical model of QS in V...
September 8, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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