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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535339/ecophysiological-examination-of-the-lake-erie-microcystis-bloom-in-2014-linkages-between-biology-and-the-water-supply-shutdown-of-toledo-ohio
#1
Morgan Michelle Steffen, Timothy W Davis, Robert Michael McKay, George S Bullerjahn, Lauren E Krausfeldt, Joshua M A Stough, Michelle L Neitzey, Naomi E Gilbert, Gregory L Boyer, Thomas H Johengen, Duane C Gossiaux, Ashley M Burtner, Danna Palladino, Mark Rowe, Gregory J Dick, Kevin Meyer, Shawn Levy, Braden Boone, Richard Stumpf, Timothy Wynne, Paul V Zimba, Danielle B Gutierrez, Steven W Wilhelm
Annual cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis have occurred in western Lake Erie (USA/Canada) during summer months since 1995. The production of toxins by bloom-forming cyanobacteria can lead to drinking water crises, such as the one experienced by the city of Toledo in August of 2014, when the city was rendered without drinking water for > 2 days. It is important to understand the conditions and environmental cues that were driving this specific bloom to provide a scientific framework for management of future bloom events...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533900/control-of-gene-expression-through-the-nonsense-mediated-rna-decay-pathway
#2
REVIEW
Andrew Nickless, Julie M Bailis, Zhongsheng You
Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) was originally discovered as a cellular surveillance pathway that safeguards the quality of mRNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells. In its canonical function, NMD prevents translation of mutant mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs) by targeting them for degradation. However, recent studies have shown that NMD has a much broader role in gene expression by regulating the stability of many normal transcripts. In this review, we discuss the function of NMD in normal physiological processes, its dynamic regulation by developmental and environmental cues, and its association with human disease...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532548/mtorc1-in-agrp-neurons-integrates-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-food-related-cues-in-the-modulation-of-adaptive-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#3
Luke K Burke, Tamana Darwish, Althea R Cavanaugh, Sam Virtue, Emma Roth, Joanna Morro, Shun-Mei Liu, Jing Xia, Jeffrey W Dalley, Keith Burling, Streamson Chua, Toni Vidal-Puig, Gary J Schwartz, Clémence Blouet
Energy dissipation through interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis is an important contributor to adaptive energy expenditure. However, it remains unresolved how acute and chronic changes in energy availability are detected by the brain to adjust iBAT activity and maintain energy homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that AGRP inhibitory tone to iBAT represents an energy-sparing circuit that integrates environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability. We establish a role for the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling pathway within AGRP neurons in the detection of environmental food cues and internal signals of energy availability, and in the bi-directional control of iBAT thermogenesis during nutrient deficiency and excess...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526851/characterization-of-trpa-channels-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera-involvement-of-thermally-activated-trpa1-in-thermotaxis-in-marine-planktonic-larvae
#4
Shigeru Saito, Gen Hamanaka, Narudo Kawai, Ryohei Furukawa, Jun Gojobori, Makoto Tominaga, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Yoko Satta
The vast majority of marine invertebrates spend their larval period as pelagic plankton and are exposed to various environmental cues. Here we investigated the thermotaxis behaviors of the bipinnaria larvae of the starfish, Patiria pectinifera, in association with TRPA ion channels that serve as thermal receptors in various animal species. Using a newly developed thermotaxis assay system, we observed that P. pectinifera larvae displayed positive thermotaxis toward high temperatures, including toward temperatures high enough to cause death...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524869/characterising-and-predicting-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-an-8-year-amplicon-sequencing-time-course
#5
Nicolas Tromas, Nathalie Fortin, Larbi Bedrani, Yves Terrat, Pedro Cardoso, David Bird, Charles W Greer, B Jesse Shapiro
Cyanobacterial blooms occur in lakes worldwide, producing toxins that pose a serious public health threat. Eutrophication caused by human activities and warmer temperatures both contribute to blooms, but it is still difficult to predict precisely when and where blooms will occur. One reason that prediction is so difficult is that blooms can be caused by different species or genera of cyanobacteria, which may interact with other bacteria and respond to a variety of environmental cues. Here we used a deep 16S amplicon sequencing approach to profile the bacterial community in eutrophic Lake Champlain over time, to characterise the composition and repeatability of cyanobacterial blooms, and to determine the potential for blooms to be predicted based on time course sequence data...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#6
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522307/using-temporal-self-regulation-theory-to-understand-healthy-and-unhealthy-eating-intentions-and-behaviour
#7
Rachel Evans, Paul Norman, Thomas L Webb
OBJECTIVES: The present research investigated whether Temporal Self-Regulation Theory (TST) can be used to help understand healthy and unhealthy eating intentions and behaviour. DESIGN: A prospective design with two waves of data collection one week apart. METHOD: An online survey measured the key components of TST (i.e., connectedness, timing and valence beliefs, intentions, past behaviour, habit strength, perceived environmental cues, and self-control) with respect to eating fruit and vegetables (F&V; N = 133) or unhealthy snacks (N = 125)...
May 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521766/the-histone-h3-variant-h3-3-regulates-gene-body-dna-methylation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Heike Wollmann, Hume Stroud, Ramesh Yelagandula, Yoshiaki Tarutani, Danhua Jiang, Li Jing, Bhagyshree Jamge, Hidenori Takeuchi, Sarah Holec, Xin Nie, Tetsuji Kakutani, Steven E Jacobsen, Frédéric Berger
BACKGROUND: Gene bodies of vertebrates and flowering plants are occupied by the histone variant H3.3 and DNA methylation. The origin and significance of these profiles remain largely unknown. DNA methylation and H3.3 enrichment profiles over gene bodies are correlated and both have a similar dependence on gene transcription levels. This suggests a mechanistic link between H3.3 and gene body methylation. RESULTS: We engineered an H3.3 knockdown in Arabidopsis thaliana and observed transcription reduction that predominantly affects genes responsive to environmental cues...
May 18, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521336/chemical-ecology-of-antibiotic-production-by-actinomycetes
#9
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520976/pattern-formation-in-multiphase-models-of-chemotactic-cell-aggregation
#10
J E F Green, J P Whiteley, J M Oliver, H M Byrne, S L Waters
We develop a continuum model for the aggregation of cells cultured in a nutrient-rich medium in a culture well. We consider a 2D geometry, representing a vertical slice through the culture well, and assume that the cell layer depth is small compared with the typical lengthscale of the culture well. We adopt a continuum mechanics approach, treating the cells and culture medium as a two-phase mixture. Specifically, the cells and culture medium are treated as fluids. Additionally, the cell phase can generate forces in response to environmental cues, which include the concentration of a chemoattractant that is produced by the cells within the culture medium...
May 16, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514627/what-kind-of-maternal-effects-can-be-selected-for-in-fluctuating-environments
#11
Stephen R Proulx, Henrique Teotónio
Just as phenotypic plasticity can evolve when developing individuals get informational cues about their future adult environment, deterministic maternal effects, where offspring trait values depend on the maternal environment, can evolve when mothers gain reliable information about the environments their offspring will face. Randomizing maternal effects (a type of diversifying bet hedging), where offspring trait values are randomized, can evolve by natural selection even when information about future environments is unavailable...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513846/a-calmodulin-like-protein-regulates-plasmodesmal-closure-during-bacterial-immune-responses
#12
Bo Xu, Cécilia Cheval, Anuphon Laohavisit, Bradleigh Hocking, David Chiasson, Tjelvar S G Olsson, Ken Shirasu, Christine Faulkner, Matthew Gilliham
Plants sense microbial signatures via activation of pattern recognition receptors (PPRs), which trigger a range of cellular defences. One response is the closure of plasmodesmata, which reduces symplastic connectivity and the capacity for direct molecular exchange between host cells. Plasmodesmal flux is regulated by a variety of environmental cues but the downstream signalling pathways are poorly defined, especially the way in which calcium regulates plasmodesmal closure. Here, we identify that closure of plasmodesmata in response to bacterial flagellin, but not fungal chitin, is mediated by a plasmodesmal-localized Ca(2+) -binding protein Calmodulin-like 41 (CML41)...
May 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512473/vitamin-c-in-stem-cell-biology-impact-on-extracellular-matrix-homeostasis-and-epigenetics
#13
REVIEW
Cristina D'Aniello, Federica Cermola, Eduardo Jorge Patriarca, Gabriella Minchiotti
Transcription factors and signaling molecules are well-known regulators of stem cell identity and behavior; however, increasing evidence indicates that environmental cues contribute to this complex network of stimuli, acting as crucial determinants of stem cell fate. l-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C (VitC)) has gained growing interest for its multiple functions and mechanisms of action, contributing to the homeostasis of normal tissues and organs as well as to tissue regeneration. Here, we review the main functions of VitC and its effects on stem cells, focusing on its activity as cofactor of Fe(+2)/αKG dioxygenases, which regulate the epigenetic signatures, the redox status, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, depending on the enzymes' subcellular localization...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507241/an-amino-acid-substitution-in-rna-polymerase-that-inhibits-the-utilization-of-an-alternative-sigma-factor
#14
Anna F Wang Erickson, Padraig Deighan, Cinthia P Garcia, Robert O J Weinzierl, Ann Hochschild, Richard Losick
Sigma (σ) factors direct gene transcription by binding to and determining the promoter recognition specificity of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in bacteria. Genes transcribed under the control of alternative sigma factors allow cells to respond to stress and undergo developmental processes such as sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, in which gene expression is controlled by a cascade of alternative sigma factors. Binding of sigma factors to RNA polymerase depends on the coiled-coil (or clamp helices) motif of the β' subunit...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504266/low-phosphate-activates-stop1-almt1-to-rapidly-inhibit-root-cell-elongation
#15
Coline Balzergue, Thibault Dartevelle, Christian Godon, Edith Laugier, Claudia Meisrimler, Jean-Marie Teulon, Audrey Creff, Marie Bissler, Corinne Brouchoud, Agnès Hagège, Jens Müller, Serge Chiarenza, Hélène Javot, Noëlle Becuwe-Linka, Pascale David, Benjamin Péret, Etienne Delannoy, Marie-Christine Thibaud, Jean Armengaud, Steffen Abel, Jean-Luc Pellequer, Laurent Nussaume, Thierry Desnos
Environmental cues profoundly modulate cell proliferation and cell elongation to inform and direct plant growth and development. External phosphate (Pi) limitation inhibits primary root growth in many plant species. However, the underlying Pi sensory mechanisms are unknown. Here we genetically uncouple two Pi sensing pathways in the root apex of Arabidopsis thaliana. First, the rapid inhibition of cell elongation in the transition zone is controlled by transcription factor STOP1, by its direct target, ALMT1, encoding a malate channel, and by ferroxidase LPR1, which together mediate Fe and peroxidase-dependent cell wall stiffening...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#16
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502661/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction-in-fish
#17
Noriko Wakisaka, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, Tetsuya Koide, Miwa Masuda, Towako Hiraki-Kajiyama, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Nucleotides released from food sources into environmental water are supposed to act as feeding cues for many fish species. However, it remains unknown how fish can sensitively detect those nucleotides. Here we discover a novel olfactory mechanism for ATP sensing in zebrafish. Upon entering into the nostril, ATP is efficiently converted into adenosine through enzymatic reactions of two ecto-nucleotidases expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Adenosine subsequently activates a small population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a novel adenosine receptor A2c that is unique to fishes and amphibians...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494739/gene-delivery-particle-engineering-strategies-for-shape-dependent-targeting-of-cells-and-tissues
#18
Kristen Lynn Kozielski, Metin Sitti
Successful gene delivery requires overcoming both systemic and intracellular obstacles before the nucleic acid cargo can successfully reach its tissue and subcellular target location. Non-viral mechanisms to enable targeting while avoiding off-target delivery have arisen via biological, chemical, and physical engineering strategies. Herein we will discuss the physical parameters in particle design that promote tissue- and cell-targeted delivery of genetic cargo. We will discuss systemic concerns, such as circulation, tissue localization, and clearance, as well as cell-scale obstacles, such as cellular uptake and nucleic acid packaging...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493325/developmental-ecology-of-annual-killifish-millerichthys-robustus-cyprinodontiformes-cynolebiidae
#19
REVIEW
Omar Domínguez-Castanedo, Stefano Valdesalici, Ana María Rosales-Torres
Populations of annual killifishes persist in temporary water bodies over the dry season through the expression of diapause in their drought resistant embryos. Environmental cues may influence expression of the diapause phenotype during embryonic incubation. Millerichthys robustus is the only annual killifish distributed in North America. The aim of this review is to analyze the ecology of M. robustus development and to contrast this with that of annual killifishes in austral locations. The temporary water bodies inhabited M...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492416/cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-prevents-the-reinstatement-but-not-acquisition-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#20
Xin Zhao, Li Yao, Fang Wang, Han Zhang, Li Wu
The cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) signaling is strongly linked to conditioned rewarding effects of opiates. Learned associations between environmental contexts and discrete cues and drug use play an important role in the maintenance and/or relapse of morphine addiction. Although previous studies suggest that context-dependent morphine treatment alters endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, the role of endocannabinoid in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and reinstatement remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
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