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Environmental cues

Harshada H Sant, Sanjay P Sane
Insect antennae are sensory organs of great importance because they can sense diverse environmental stimuli. In addition to serving as primary olfactory organs of insects, antennae also sense a wide variety of mechanosensory stimuli, ranging from low-frequency airflow or gravity cues to high-frequency antennal vibrations due to sound, flight or touch. The basal segments of the antennae house multiple types of mechanosensory structures that prominently include the sensory hair plates, or Böhm's bristles, which measure the gross extent of antennal movement, and a ring of highly sensitive scolopidial neurons, collectively called the Johnston's organs, which record subtle flagellar vibrations...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Marie-Laure Erffelinck, Alain Goossens
Plants are sessile organisms. Therefore, they developed the capacity to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic environmental stresses, for instance by producing a broad spectrum of bioactive specialized metabolites. In this defense response, the jasmonate phytohormones can instigate a signaling cascade that leads to the specific elicitation and reprograming of numerous metabolic pathways. Recent research progress has provided several insights into the regulatory networks of many specialized metabolic pathways, mainly at the transcriptional level...
June 15, 2018: Planta Medica
María Leiza Vitale, R-Marc Pelletier
The anterior pituitary regulates endocrine organs and physiological activities in the body. Environmental pollutants and drugs deleterious to the endocrine system may affect anterior pituitary activity through direct action on anterior pituitary cells. Within the gland, endocrine and folliculostellate cells are organized into and function as individual tridimensional networks, each network regulating its activity by coordinating the connected cells' responses to physiological or pathological cues. The gap junctions connecting endocrine cells and/or folliculostellate cells allow transmission of information among cells that is necessary for adequate network function...
June 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Emmanuelle Gouot, Wajid Bhat, Anne Rufiange, Eric Fournier, Eric Paquet, Amine Nourani
CK2 is an essential protein kinase implicated in various cellular processes. In this study, we address a potential role of this kinase in chromatin modulations associated with transcription. We found that CK2 depletion from yeast cells leads to replication-independent increase of histone H3K56 acetylation and global activation of H3 turnover in coding regions. This suggests a positive role of CK2 in maintenance/recycling of the histone H3/H4 tetramers during transcription. Interestingly, strand-specific RNA-seq analyses show that CK2 inhibits global cryptic promoters driving both sense and antisense transcription...
June 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Giuseppe Puglia, Angelino Carta, Roberta Bizzoca, Peter Toorop, Giovanni Spampinato, Salvatore Antonino Raccuia
Seed germination responsiveness to environmental cues is crucial for plant species living in changeable habitats and it can vary among populations within the same species as a result of adaptation or modulation to local climates. Here, we investigated the germination response to environmental cues of Sisymbrella dentata (L.) O.E. Schulz, an annual endemic to Sicily living in Mediterranean Temporary Ponds (MTP), a vulnerable ecosystem. Germination of the only two known populations, Gurrida and Pantano, was assessed over a broad range of conditions to understand the role of temperatures, nitrate, hormones (ABA and GA) and after-ripening in dormancy release in this species...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Raghuram Badmi, Arsheed Hussain Sheikh, Prakash Kumar Bhagat, Deepanjali Verma, Stanzin Noryang, Alok Krishna Sinha
Signalling pathways play vital roles as determinants of almost all the molecular processes inside a eukaryotic cell. They are more often considered to be the link between extracellular and intracellular environmental cues. Gene silencing pathways have emerged to be involved in regulation of stress responses and developmental processes. However, very little is known about the crosstalk between signalling and silencing pathways and their influence on each other. The present work describes the effects of general protein kinase inhibitors and specific mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors on the components of microRNA pathway in rice...
June 6, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Vanessa Zuzarte-Luís, Maria M Mota
Parasites undergo complex life cycles that comprise a wide variety of cellular differentiation events in different host compartments and transmission across multiple hosts. As parasites depend on host resources, it is not surprising they have developed efficient mechanisms to sense alterations and adapt to the available resources in a wide range of environments. Here we provide an overview of the nutritional needs of different parasites throughout their diverse life stages and highlight recent insights into strategies that both hosts and parasites have developed to meet these nutritional requirements needed for defense, survival, and replication...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Luming Yang, Hanqiang Liu, Jianyu Zhao, Yupeng Pan, Siyuan Cheng, Calvin D Lietzow, Changlong Wen, Xiaolan Zhang, Yiqun Weng
Plants employ tight genetic control to integrate intrinsic growth signals and environmental cues to enable organ growth to a defined size. Many genes contributing to cell proliferation and/or cell expansion and consequently organ size control have been identified, but the regulatory pathways are poorly understood. Here we have characterized a cucumber littleleaf (ll) mutant which exhibits smaller organ sizes but more lateral branches than the wildtype. The small organ size in ll was due to a reduction of both cell number and cell size...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hiroyuki Iguchi, Yusuke Yoshida, Kento Fujisawa, Hiroki Taga, Hiroya Yurimoto, Tokitaka Oyama, Yasuyoshi Sakai
KaiC protein is the pivotal component of the circadian clock in cyanobacteria. While KaiC family proteins are well conserved throughout divergent phylogenetic lineages, studies of the physiological roles of KaiC proteins from other microorganisms have been limited. We examined the role of the KaiC proteins, KaiC1 and KaiC2, in the methanol-utilizing bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Wild-type M. extorquens AM1 cells exhibited temperature-dependent UV resistance (TDR) under permissive growth temperatures (24-32°C)...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
P Doñate-Macián, J Jungfleisch, G Pérez-Vilaró, F Rubio-Moscardo, A Perálvarez-Marín, J Diez, M A Valverde
Ion channels are well placed to transduce environmental cues into signals used by cells to generate a wide range of responses, but little is known about their role in the regulation of RNA metabolism. Here we show that the TRPV4 cation channel binds the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3X and regulates its function. TRPV4-mediated Ca2+ influx releases DDX3X from the channel and drives DDX3X nuclear translocation, a process that involves calmodulin (CaM) and the CaM-dependent kinase II. Genetic depletion or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV4 diminishes DDX3X-dependent functions, including nuclear viral export and translation...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Silvia Pressel, Karen S Renzaglia, Richard S Dicky Clymo, Jeffrey G Duckett
Backgrounds and Aims: Because stomata in bryophytes occur on sporangia, they are subject to different developmental and evolutionary constraints from those on leaves of tracheophytes. No conclusive experimental evidence exists on the responses of hornwort stomata to exogenous stimulation. Methods : Responses of hornwort stomata to abscisic acid (ABA), desiccation, darkness and plasmolysis were compared with those in tracheophyte leaves. Potassium ion concentrations in the guard cells and adjacent cells were analysed by X-ray microanalysis, and the ontogeny of the sporophytic intercellular spaces was compared with those of tracheophytes by cryo-scanning electron microscopy...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Stine Kjaer Morthorst, Søren Tvorup Christensen, Lotte Bang Pedersen
Primary cilia are antenna-like sensory organelles that regulate a substantial number of cellular signalling pathways in vertebrates, both during embryonic development as well as in adulthood, and mutations in genes coding for ciliary proteins are causative of an expanding group of pleiotropic diseases known as ciliopathies. Cilia consist of a microtubule-based axoneme core, which is subtended by a basal body and covered by a bilayer lipid membrane of unique protein and lipid composition. Cilia are dynamic organelles, and the ability of cells to regulate ciliary protein and lipid content in response to specific cellular and environmental cues is crucial for balancing ciliary signalling output...
June 12, 2018: FEBS Journal
Richard Karban, John L Orrock
Recently plant biologists have documented that plants, like animals, engage in many activities that can be considered as behaviors, although plant biologists currently lack a conceptual framework to understand these processes. Borrowing the well-established framework developed by psychologists, we propose that plant behaviors can be constructively modeled by identifying four distinct components: 1) a cue or stimulus that provides information, 2) a judgment whereby the plant perceives and processes this informative cue, 3) a decision whereby the plant chooses among several options based on their relative costs and benefits, and 4) action...
June 12, 2018: Ecology
Antonio C Bianco, Rodrigo R da Conceição
Thyroid hormone signaling is customized in a time and cell-specific manner by the deiodinases, homodimeric thioredoxin fold containing selenoproteins. This ensures adequate T3 action in developing tissues, healthy adults and many disease states. D2 activates thyroid hormone by converting the pro-hormone T4 to T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. D2 expression is tightly regulated by transcriptional mechanisms triggered by endogenous as well as environmental cues. There is also an on/off switch mechanism that controls D2 activity that is triggered by catalysis and functions via D2 ubiquitination/deubiquitination...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lee Smith, Alexia Sawyer, Benjamin Gardner, Katri Seppala, Marcella Ucci, Alexi Marmot, Pippa Lally, Abi Fisher
Habitual behaviours are learned responses that are triggered automatically by associated environmental cues. The unvarying nature of most workplace settings makes workplace physical activity a prime candidate for a habitual behaviour, yet the role of habit strength in occupational physical activity has not been investigated. Aims of the present study were to: (i) document occupational physical activity habit strength; and (ii) investigate associations between occupational activity habit strength and occupational physical activity levels...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chi-Jan Lin, Ying-Lien Chen
Fungal species undergo many morphological transitions to adapt to changing environments, an important quality especially in fungal pathogens. For decades, Candida albicans has been one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, and recently, the prevalence of Candida tropicalis as a causative agent of candidiasis has increased. In C. albicans, the ability to switch between yeast and hyphal forms is thought to be a key virulence factor and is regulated by multiple signaling cascades—including the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA), calcineurin, high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways—upon receiving environmental cues...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Frédéric Bertucci, Hugo Jacob, Alexandre Mignucci, Camille Gache, Natacha Roux, Marc Besson, Cécile Berthe, Marc Metian, David Lecchini
Dory, the animated surgeonfish created by the Pixar Animation studios, famously suffered from short-term memory loss leading to many adventures. In reality, many fishes have excellent cognitive abilities and are able to learn and retain important information such as the identity of predators. However, if and how cognition can be affected by anthropogenically altered oceanic conditions is poorly understood. Here, we examine the effect of a widely used pesticide, chlorpyrifos, on the retention of acquired predator recognition in post-larval stage of the surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus...
June 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Christopher W Williams, Jyoti Iyer, Yan Liu, Kevin F O'Connell
CDK11, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been implicated in a diverse array of functions including transcription, RNA processing, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle assembly, centriole duplication and apoptosis. Despite its involvement in many essential functions, little is known about the requirements for CDK11 and its partner Cyclin L in a developing multicellular organism. Here we investigate the function of CDK11 and Cyclin L during development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms express two CDK11 proteins encoded by distinct loci: CDK-11...
June 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Stephanie R Ebner, Erin B Larson, Matthew C Hearing, Anna E Ingebretson, Mark J Thomas
Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine experienced mice with extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior show potentiation of synaptic strength at excitatory inputs onto NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Titilayo Tatiana Agbadjé, Matthew Menear, Michèle Dugas, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Samira Abbasgholizadeh Rahimi, Hubert Robitaille, Anik M C Giguère, François Rousseau, Brenda J Wilson, France Légaré
BACKGROUND: For pregnant women and their partners, the decision to undergo Down syndrome prenatal screening is difficult. Patient decision aids (PtDA) can help them make an informed decision. We aimed to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that would be useful in an intervention to promote the use of a PtDA for Down syndrome prenatal screening, and to identify which of these BCTs pregnant women found relevant and acceptable. METHODS: Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and the Theoretical Domains Framework, we conducted a qualitative descriptive study...
June 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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