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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334226/loss-of-cannabinoid-cb-1-receptors-induces-cortical-migration-malformations-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility
#1
Javier Díaz-Alonso, Adán de Salas-Quiroga, Juan Paraíso-Luna, Daniel García-Rincón, Patricia P Garcez, Maddy Parsons, Clara Andradas, Cristina Sánchez, François Guillemot, Manuel Guzmán, Ismael Galve-Roperh
Neuronal migration is a fundamental process of brain development, and its disruption underlies devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. The transcriptional programs governing this process are relatively well characterized. However, how environmental cues instruct neuronal migration remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor is strictly required for appropriate pyramidal neuron migration in the developing cortex. Acute silencing of the CB 1 receptor alters neuronal morphology and impairs radial migration...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334139/environmental-filtering-drives-the-shape-and-breadth-of-the-seed-germination-niche-in-coastal-plant-communities
#2
Eduardo Fernández-Pascual, Adrián Pérez-Arcoiza, José Alberto Prieto, Tomás E Díaz
Background and Aims: A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the seed germination niche was conducted in coastal plant communities of western Europe. Two hypotheses were tested, that (1) the germination niche shape (i.e. the preference for a set of germination cues as opposed to another) would differ between beaches and cliffs to prevent seedling emergence in the less favourable season (winter and summer, respectively); and (2) the germination niche breadth (i.e. the amplitude of germination cues) would be narrower in the seawards communities, where environmental filtering is stronger...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330703/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-phosphatase-1-mkp-1-in-macrophage-biology-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-redox-regulated-master-controller-of-monocyte-function-and-macrophage-phenotype
#3
REVIEW
Hong Seok Kim, Reto Asmis
MAPK pathways play a critical role in the activation of monocytes and macrophages by pathogens, signaling molecules and environmental cues and in the regulation of macrophage function and plasticity. MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) has emerged as the main counter-regulator of MAPK signaling in monocytes and macrophages. Loss of MKP-1 in monocytes and macrophages in response to metabolic stress leads to dysregulation of monocyte adhesion and migration, and gives rise to dysfunctional, proatherogenic monocyte-derived macrophages...
March 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328991/pre-breeding-food-restriction-promotes-the-optimization-of-parental-investment-in-house-mice-mus-musculus
#4
Adam Dušek, Luděk Bartoš, František Sedláček
Litter size is one of the most reliable state-dependent life-history traits that indicate parental investment in polytocous (litter-bearing) mammals. The tendency to optimize litter size typically increases with decreasing availability of resources during the period of parental investment. To determine whether this tactic is also influenced by resource limitations prior to reproduction, we examined the effect of experimental, pre-breeding food restriction on the optimization of parental investment in lactating mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328177/maternal-vernalization-and-vernalization-pathway-genes-influence-progeny-seed-germination
#5
Gabriela A Auge, Logan K Blair, Hannah Neville, Kathleen Donohue
Different life stages frequently respond to the same environmental cue to regulate development so that each life stage is matched to its appropriate season. We investigated how independently each life stage can respond to shared environmental cues, focusing on vernalization, in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We first tested whether effects of rosette vernalization persisted to influence seed germination. To test whether genes in the vernalization flowering pathway also influence germination, we assessed germination of functional and nonfunctional alleles of these genes and measured their level of expression at different life stages in response to rosette vernalization...
March 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325211/stat-transcription-factors-in-t-cell-control-of-health-and-disease
#6
R Goswami, M H Kaplan
The Jak-STAT pathway is one of many pleiotropic signaling pathways that plays an important role in organismal development and in response to changing environmental cues. As a key signaling cascade for cytokines and growth factors, Jak-STAT plays central role in the innate and adaptive immune system. Cytokines control the stability, commitment, and maturation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, parts of the adaptive immune system that mediate immunity to pathogens and are linked to inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of Jak-STAT protein expression or function leads to autoimmunity, allergic diseases, and cancer...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321909/characterization-of-candidate-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-tea-geometrid-ectropis-obliqua-prout-lepidoptera-geometridae
#7
Liang Sun, Teng-Fei Mao, Yu-Xing Zhang, Jian-Jian Wu, Jia-He Bai, Ya-Nan Zhang, Xing-Chuan Jiang, Kun-Shan Yin, Yu-Yuan Guo, Yong-Jun Zhang, Qiang Xiao
Insects rely heavily on their sophisticated chemosensory systems to locate host plants and find conspecific mates. Although the molecular mechanisms of odorant recognition in many Lepidoptera species have been well explored, limited information has been reported on the geometrid moth Ectropis obliqua Prout, an economically important pest of tea plants. In the current study, we first attempted to identify and characterize the putative olfactory carrier proteins, including odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs)...
March 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321819/the-perceptual-basis-of-vast-space
#8
Roberta L Klatzky, William B Thompson, Jeanine K Stefanucci, Devin Gill, D Kevin McGee
"Vast" is a word often applied to environmental terrain that is perceived to have large spatial extent. This judgment is made even at viewing distances where traditional metric depth cues are not useful. This paper explores the perceptual basis of vast experience, including reliability and visual precursors. Experiment 1 demonstrated strong agreement in ratings of the spatial extent of two-dimensional (2D) scene images by participants in two countries under very different viewing conditions. Image categories labeled "vast" often exemplified scene attributes of ruggedness and openness (Oliva & Torralba, 2001)...
March 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320967/self-identity-reprogrammed-by-a-single-residue-switch-in-a-cell-surface-receptor-of-a-social-bacterium
#9
Pengbo Cao, Daniel Wall
The ability to recognize close kin confers survival benefits on single-celled microbes that live in complex and changing environments. Microbial kinship detection relies on perceptible cues that reflect relatedness between individuals, although the mechanisms underlying recognition in natural populations remain poorly understood. In myxobacteria, cells identify related individuals through a polymorphic cell surface receptor, TraA. Recognition of compatible receptors leads to outer membrane exchange among clonemates and fitness consequences...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320933/activin-a-co-opts-irf4-and-ahr-signaling-to-induce-human-regulatory-t-cells-that-restrain-asthmatic-responses
#10
Sofia Tousa, Maria Semitekolou, Ioannis Morianos, Aggelos Banos, Aikaterini I Trochoutsou, Tess M Brodie, Nikolaos Poulos, Konstantinos Samitas, Maria Kapasa, Dimitris Konstantopoulos, Giannis Paraskevopoulos, Mina Gaga, Catherine M Hawrylowicz, Federica Sallusto, Georgina Xanthou
Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells play a pivotal role in restraining human T-cell responses toward environmental allergens and protecting against allergic diseases. Still, the precise molecular cues that underlie their transcriptional and functional specification remain elusive. Here, we show that the cytokine activin-A instructs the generation of CD4(+) T cells that express the Tr1-cell-associated molecules IL-10, inducible T-Cell costimulator (ICOS), lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG-3), and CD49b, and exert strongly suppressive functions toward allergic responses induced by naive and in vivo-primed human T helper 2 cells...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320841/prefrontal-cortex-kca2-channels-regulate-mglu5-dependent-plasticity-and-extinction-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#11
Reginald Cannady, Justin T McGonigal, Ryan J Newsom, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass
Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu5 receptor activation can reduce KCa2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined KCa2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317367/-role-of-small-noncoding-rna-in-the-regulation-of-bacterial-virulence
#12
Wang Lu, Zheng Xin, Wang Shida, Li Jiyao, Xu Xin
In the long-term interaction between pathogens and host, the pathogens regulate the expression of related viru-lence genes to fit the host environment in response to the changes in the host microenvironment. Gene expression was believed to be controlled mainly at the level of transcription initiation by repressors or activators. Recent studies have revealed that small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are key regulators in bacterial pathogenesis. sRNA in bacteria is a noncoding RNA with length ranging from 50 to 500 nucleotides...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316133/hatching-date-variability-in-wild-populations-of-four-coexisting-species-of-african-annual-fishes
#13
Martin Reichard, Radim Blažek, Matej Polačik, Milan Vrtílek
BACKGROUND: Hatching is modulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Annual killifish are adapted to complete their entire life cycle in annually desiccating habitats. Spending most of their life in the embryonic stage, they have evolved adaptations to survive desiccated conditions and match their hatching with the unpredictable onset of the aquatic phase of the pool. We examined spatial and temporal synchrony of hatching in natural populations of four species of African annual killifish (genus Nothobranchius)...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315996/olfactory-preferences-of-the-parasitic-nematode-howardula-aoronymphium-and-its-insect-host-drosophila-falleni
#14
James A Cevallos, Ryo P Okubo, Steve J Perlman, Elissa A Hallem
Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective stage that searches for hosts. Olfaction plays an important role in this process, with nematodes navigating their environment using host-emitted and environmental olfactory cues. The interactions between parasitic nematodes and their hosts are also influenced by the olfactory behaviors of the host, since host olfactory preferences drive behaviors that may facilitate or impede parasitic infection. However, how olfaction shapes parasite-host interactions is poorly understood...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315697/the-role-of-the-tor-pathway-in-mediating-the-link-between-nutrition-and-longevity
#15
REVIEW
Oleh Lushchak, Olha Strilbytska, Veronika Piskovatska, Kenneth B Storey, Alexander Koliada, Alexander Vaiserman
The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates signals from extracellular and intracellular agents, such as growth factors, nutrients, mediators of energy balance, oxygen availability and other environmental cues. It allows the regulation of multiple cellular processes including protein and lipid synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy and metabolic processes. Being conserved across different phyla, TOR regulates longevity of various organisms in response to dietary conditions. In this review we described the main components of the TOR pathway and its upstream effectors and downstream processes in relation to aging...
March 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314174/key-developmental-transitions-during-flower-morphogenesis-and-their-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Doris Wagner
The arrangement of flowers on flowering stems called inflorescences contributes to the beauty of the natural world and enhances seed yield, impacting species survival and human sustenance. During the reproductive phase, annual/monocarpic plants like Arabidopsis and most crops form two types of lateral structures: indeterminate lateral inflorescences and determinate flowers. Their stereotypical arrangement on the primary inflorescence stem determines the species-specific inflorescence architecture. This architecture can be modulated in response to environmental cues to enhance reproductive success...
March 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303652/photoperiod-cues-and-patterns-of-genetic-variation-limit-phenological-responses-to-climate-change-in-warm-parts-of-species-range-modeling-diameter-growth-cessation-in-coast-douglas-fir
#17
Kevin R Ford, Constance A Harrington, J Bradley St Clair
The phenology of diameter-growth cessation in trees will likely play a key role in mediating species and ecosystem responses to climate change. A common expectation is that warming will delay cessation, but the environmental and genetic influences on this process are poorly understood. We modeled the effects of temperature, photoperiod and seed-source climate on diameter-growth cessation timing in coast Douglas-fir (an ecologically and economically vital tree) using high-frequency growth measurements across broad environmental gradients for a range of genotypes from different seed sources...
March 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300281/moral-hard-wiring-and-moral-enhancement
#18
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat...
March 16, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298224/transcriptional-reprogramming-in-yeast-using-dcas9-and-combinatorial-grna-strategies
#19
Emil D Jensen, Raphael Ferreira, Tadas Jakočiūnas, Dushica Arsovska, Jie Zhang, Ling Ding, Justin D Smith, Florian David, Jens Nielsen, Michael K Jensen, Jay D Keasling
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional reprogramming is a fundamental process of living cells in order to adapt to environmental and endogenous cues. In order to allow flexible and timely control over gene expression without the interference of native gene expression machinery, a large number of studies have focused on developing synthetic biology tools for orthogonal control of transcription. Most recently, the nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) has emerged as a flexible tool for controlling activation and repression of target genes, by the simple RNA-guided positioning of dCas9 in the vicinity of the target gene transcription start site...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292986/arginine-is-a-critical-substrate-for-the-pathogenesis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-burn-wound-infections
#20
Jake Everett, Keith Turner, Qiuxian Cai, Vernita Gordon, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra Rumbaugh
Environmental conditions affect bacterial behavior and can greatly influence the course of an infection. However, the environmental cues that elicit bacterial responses in specific infection sites are relatively unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and typically innocuous. However, it is also one of the most prevalent causes of fatal sepsis in burn wound patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental factors, specifically the availability of arginine, on the pathogenesis of P...
March 14, 2017: MBio
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