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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674564/observing-the-cell-in-its-native-state-imaging-subcellular-dynamics-in-multicellular-organisms
#1
Tsung-Li Liu, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Daniel E Milkie, Ved Singh, Kai Wang, Ian A Swinburne, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Zach M Collins, Tom W Hiscock, Jamien Shea, Abraham Q Kohrman, Taylor N Medwig, Daphne Dambournet, Ryan Forster, Brian Cunniff, Yuan Ruan, Hanako Yashiro, Steffen Scholpp, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Dirk Hockemeyer, David G Drubin, Benjamin L Martin, David Q Matus, Minoru Koyama, Sean G Megason, Tom Kirchhausen, Eric Betzig
True physiological imaging of subcellular dynamics requires studying cells within their parent organisms, where all the environmental cues that drive gene expression, and hence the phenotypes that we actually observe, are present. A complete understanding also requires volumetric imaging of the cell and its surroundings at high spatiotemporal resolution, without inducing undue stress on either. We combined lattice light-sheet microscopy with adaptive optics to achieve, across large multicellular volumes, noninvasive aberration-free imaging of subcellular processes, including endocytosis, organelle remodeling during mitosis, and the migration of axons, immune cells, and metastatic cancer cells in vivo...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674130/volatiles-as-inducers-and-suppressors-of-plant-defense-and-immunity-origins-specificity-perception-and-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Matthias Erb
Volatiles from attacked plants, microbes and herbivores can enhance plant defenses. However, the absence of volatiles rather than their presence has sometimes been associated with enhanced defense, suggesting that volatiles may also act as defense suppressors. Recent work provides a potential mechanistic explanation for these observations by showing that volatile cues can modulate different hormonal pathways, including jasmonate (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and auxin (IAA) signaling. Many of these pathways interact with each other through crosstalk...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669514/identification-of-two-different-chemosensory-pathways-in-representatives-of-the-genus-halomonas
#3
Ana Florencia Gasperotti, María Victoria Revuelta, Claudia Alicia Studdert, María Karina Herrera Seitz
BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Halomonas are salt-tolerant organisms that have a versatile metabolism and can degrade a variety of xenobiotic compounds, utilizing them as their sole carbon source. In this study, we examined the genome of a Halomonas isolate from a hydrocarbon-contaminated site to search for chemosensory genes that might be responsible for the observed chemotactic behavior of this organism as well as for other responses to environmental cues. RESULTS: Using genome-wide comparative tools, our isolate was identified as a strain of Halomonas titanicae (strain KHS3), together with two other Halomonas strains with available genomes that had not been previously identified at a species level...
April 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668260/rational-design-of-semiconductor-nanostructures-for-functional-subcellular-interfaces
#4
Ramya Parameswaran, Bozhi Tian
One of the fundamental questions guiding research in the biological sciences is how cellular systems process complex physical and environmental cues and communicate with each other across multiple length scales. Importantly, aberrant signal processing in these systems can lead to diseases that can have devastating impacts on human lives. Biophysical studies in the past several decades have demonstrated that cells can respond to not only biochemical cues but also mechanical and electrical ones. Thus, the development of new materials that can both sense and modulate all of these pathways is necessary...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667328/insights-into-the-regulation-of-cbf-cold-signaling-in-plants
#5
REVIEW
Jingyan Liu, Yiting Shi, Shuhua Yang
Cold temperatures, a major abiotic stress, threaten the growth and development of plants worldwide. To cope with this adverse environmental cue, plants from temperate climates have evolved an array of sophisticated mechanisms to acclimate to cold periods, increasing their ability to tolerate freezing stress. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in determining the molecular mechanisms underpinning cold acclimation following the identification of several pivotal components, including candidates for cold sensors, protein kinases, and transcription factors...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666586/ecological-and-phylogenetic-relationships-shape-the-peripheral-olfactory-systems-of-highly-specialized-gall-midges-cecidomiiydae
#6
Béla P Molnár, Tina Boddum, Sharon R Hill, Bill S Hansson, Ylva Hillbur, Göran Birgersson
Insects use sensitive olfactory systems to detect relevant host volatiles and avoid unsuitable hosts in a complex environmental odor landscape. Insects with short lifespans, such as gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), are under strong selection pressure to detect and locate suitable hosts for their offspring in a short period of time. Ephemeral gall midges constitute excellent models for investigating the role of olfaction in host choice, host shift, and speciation. Midges mate near their site of emergence and females migrate in order to locate hosts for oviposition, thus females are expected to be more responsive to olfactory cues emitted by the host compared to males...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664571/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-persistent-infection-and-cancer-surveillance
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Gebhardt, Umaimainthan Palendira, David C Tscharke, Sammy Bedoui
A large proportion of memory T cells disseminated throughout the body are non-recirculating cells whose maintenance and function is regulated by tissue-specific environmental cues. These sessile cells are referred to as tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells and similar populations of non-recirculating cells also exist among unconventional T cells and innate lymphocyte cells. The pool of TRM cells is highly diverse with respect to anatomical positioning, phenotype, molecular regulation and effector function...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663982/nicotine-lozenges-in-the-relief-of-behaviorally-provoked-craving
#8
Mitchell Nides, Gilbert Marava Shanga, Amanda Bishop, William D Becker
OBJECTIVES: Environmental cues may precipitate nicotine cravings in smokers. We present 2 studies exploring the efficacy of nicotine mini lozenges to reduce nicotine craving in smokers following behavioral provocation. METHODS: Healthy smokers aged ≥18 years enrolled. In Study 1, participants were stratified by number of cigarettes smoked daily; Study 2 enrolled only heavy smokers. After an abstinence period, participants engaged in behavioral provocation to induce nicotine craving before receiving a nicotine mini lozenge (Study 1: 1...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663674/gaba-is-an-inhibitory-neurotransmitter-in-the-neural-circuit-regulating-metamorphosis-in-a-marine-snail
#9
Dhani Biscocho, Jayce G Cook, Joshua Long, Nishant Shah, Esther M Leise
The marine mud snail, Tritia (=Ilyanassa) obsoleta, displays a biphasic life cycle. During the initial phase of early development, embryos hatch from benthic egg capsules to become weakly swimming veliger larvae. In the second phase, adult T. obsoleta are facultative carnivores and major agents of community disturbance. Metamorphosis is the irreversible developmental event that links these two life history stages. When physiologically competent, larvae can respond to appropriate environmental cues by settling onto their mudflat habitat and transforming themselves into miniature adult snails...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663651/engineered-natural-and-synthetic-polymer-surfaces-induce-nuclear-deformation-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#10
Ezgi Antmen, Menekse Ermis, Utkan Demirci, Vasif Hasirci
Cell-substrate interactions involve constant probing of microenvironment by cells. One of the responses of cells to environmental cues is to change the conformation of their cytoplasm and nucleus. We hypothesized that surface chemistry and topography could be engineered to make these differences significant enough. When designing the substrates that would accentuate these differences, we prepared surfaces carrying cell adhesive biological cues arranged in specific patterns. Collagen type I and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were used to represent substrates with biological cues and those without, and these materials were decorated with four square prism micropillars with different dimensions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663603/crowding-shifts-the-fmn-recognition-mechanism-of-riboswitch-aptamer-from-conformational-selection-to-induced-fit
#11
Ambadas Rode, Tamaki Endoh, Naoki Sugimoto
In bacteria, the binding between riboswitch aptamer domain and ligand is regulated by environmental cues, such as low Mg2+ in macrophages during pathogenesis to ensure spatiotemporal expression of virulence genes. We investigated binding between the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch aptamer and its anionic ligand in the presence of molecular crowding agent without Mg2+ ion, which mimics pathogenic conditions. Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic analyses under the crowding revealed more dynamic conformational rearrangements of the FMN riboswitch aptamer compared to dilute Mg2+-containing solution...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661859/mitochondria-and-the-dynamic-control-of-stem-cell-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Pawel Lisowski, Preethi Kannan, Barbara Mlody, Alessandro Prigione
The maintenance of cellular identity requires continuous adaptation to environmental changes. This process is particularly critical for stem cells, which need to preserve their differentiation potential over time. Among the mechanisms responsible for regulating cellular homeostatic responses, mitochondria are emerging as key players. Given their dynamic and multifaceted role in energy metabolism, redox, and calcium balance, as well as cell death, mitochondria appear at the interface between environmental cues and the control of epigenetic identity...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659511/quorum-sensing-and-quorum-quenching-in-agrobacterium-a-go-no-go-system
#13
REVIEW
Yves Dessaux, Denis Faure
The pathogen Agrobacterium induces gall formation on a wide range of dicotyledonous plants. In this bacteria, most pathogenicity determinants are borne on the tumour inducing (Ti) plasmid. The conjugative transfer of this plasmid between agrobacteria is regulated by quorum sensing (QS). However, processes involved in the disturbance of QS also occur in this bacteria under the molecular form of a protein, TraM, inhibiting the sensing of the QS signals, and two lactonases BlcC (AttM) and AiiB that degrade the acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) QS signal...
April 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644786/potential-role-of-the-pancreatic-hormone-insulin-in-resetting-human-peripheral-clocks
#14
Jun Kajimoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Mammalian circadian rhythms are phase-adjusted and amplified by external cues such as light and food. While the light input pathway via the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced circadian resetting remains undefined, particularly in humans. Animal studies have indicated that insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is secreted rapidly in response to feeding, is an input factor for a few peripheral clocks, such as liver and adipose tissue. In this study, using plucked and cultured hair follicles as a representative human peripheral clock, we examined the effect of insulin on circadian characteristics of clock gene expression...
April 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643462/environment-dependent-striatal-gene-expression-in-the-bachd-rat-model-for-huntington-disease
#15
Arianna Novati, Thomas Hentrich, Zinah Wassouf, Jonasz J Weber, Libo Yu-Taeger, Nicole Déglon, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Julia M Schulze-Hentrich
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene which results in progressive neurodegeneration in the striatum, cortex, and eventually most brain areas. Despite being a monogenic disorder, environmental factors influence HD characteristics. Both human and mouse studies suggest that mutant HTT (mHTT) leads to gene expression changes that harbor potential to be modulated by the environment. Yet, the underlying mechanisms integrating environmental cues into the gene regulatory program have remained largely unclear...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643393/on-the-wrong-track-ocean-acidification-attracts-larval-fish-to-irrelevant-environmental-cues
#16
Tullio Rossi, Jennifer C A Pistevos, Sean D Connell, Ivan Nagelkerken
Population replenishment of marine life largely depends on successful dispersal of larvae to suitable adult habitat. Ocean acidification alters behavioural responses to physical and chemical cues in marine animals, including the maladaptive deterrence of settlement-stage larval fish to odours of preferred habitat and attraction to odours of non-preferred habitat. However, sensory compensation may allow fish to use alternative settlement cues such as sound. We show that future ocean acidification reverses the attraction of larval fish (barramundi) to their preferred settlement sounds (tropical estuarine mangroves)...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626353/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-maladaptive-eating-in-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-or-obesity
#17
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Kathryn E Smith, Ross D Crosby, Hope K Boyd, Elizabeth Dougherty, Scott G Engel, Alissa Haedt-Matt
OBJECTIVES: Contextual factors related to maladaptive eating behavior in youth with overweight/obesity are poorly understood. This pilot study sought to elucidate immediate internal and external cues related to perceptions of overeating and loss of control (LOC) over eating in a heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity assessed in their natural environments. METHOD: Community-based youth [N = 40; 55% female (n = 22)], aged 8-14 y (M age = 11...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625658/quorum-sensing-a-less-known-mode-of-communication-among-fungi
#18
REVIEW
Sajad Ahmad Padder, Rajendra Prasad, Abdul Haseeb Shah
Quorum sensing (QS), a density-dependent signaling mechanism of microbial cells, involves an exchange and sense of low molecular weight signaling compounds called autoinducers. With the increase in population density, the autoinducers accumulate in the extracellular environment and once their concentration reaches a threshold, many genes are either expressed or repressed. This cell density-dependent signaling mechanism enables single cells to behave as multicellular organisms and regulates different microbial behaviors like morphogenesis, pathogenesis, competence, biofilm formation, bioluminescence, etc guided by environmental cues...
May 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623078/physical-cues-controlling-seasonal-immune-allocation-in-a-natural-piscine-model
#19
Alexander Stewart, Pascal I Hablützel, Hayley V Watson, Martha Brown, Ida M Friberg, Joanne Cable, Joseph A Jackson
Seasonal patterns in immunity are frequently observed in vertebrates but are poorly understood. Here, we focused on a natural piscine model, the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), and asked how seasonal immune allocation is driven by physical variables (time, light, and heat). Using functionally-relevant gene expression metrics as a reporter of seasonal immune allocation, we synchronously sampled fish monthly from the wild (two habitats), and from semi-natural outdoors mesocosms (stocked from one of the wild habitats)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620560/unique-autonomic-responses-to-pain-in-yoga-practitioners
#20
Valerie Cotton, Lucie A Low, Chantal Villemure, M Catherine Bushnell
OBJECTIVES: Autonomic nervous system activity is associated with neurobehavioral aspects of pain. Yogis use breathing, relaxation and mindfulness to tolerate pain, which could influence autonomic responses. To evaluate how the link between autonomic responses and pain is altered by other factors, we compared perceptual and autonomic responses to pain between yogis and controls. METHODS: Nineteen yogis and 15 controls rated warm and painfully hot stimuli (1-cm thermode on calf), with visual anticipatory cues indicating certainly painful, certainly non-painful or uncertainly either painful or non-painful...
April 3, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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