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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644721/small-gtpases-in-plant-biotic-interactions
#1
Claudio Rivero, Soledad Traubenik, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Antonio Blanco
The superfamily of small monomeric GTPases originated in a common ancestor of eukaryotic multicellular organisms and, since then, it has evolved independently in each lineage to cope with the environmental challenges imposed by their different life styles. Members of the small GTPase family function in the control of vesicle trafficking, cytoskeleton rearrangements and signaling during crucial biological processes, such as cell growth and responses to environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of these small GTPases in the pathogenic and symbiotic interactions established by plants with microorganisms present in their nearest environment, in which membrane trafficking is crucial along the different steps of the interaction, from recognition and signal transduction to nutrient exchange...
June 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#2
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642244/investigation-of-protein-synthesis-in-drosophila-larvae-using-puromycin-labelling
#3
Lisa P Deliu, Abhishek Ghosh, Savraj S Grewal
Translational control of gene expression is an important regulator of growth, homeostasis and aging in Drosophila The ability to measure changes in protein synthesis in response to genetic and environmental cues is therefore important in studying these processes. Here we describe a simple and cost effective approach to assay protein synthesis in Drosophila larval cells and tissues. The method is based on the incorporation of puromycin into nascent peptide chains. Using an ex vivo approach, we label newly synthesized peptides in larvae with puromycin and then measure levels of new protein synthesis using an anti-puromycin antibody...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638805/increased-zinc-availability-enhances-initial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
Lindsey R Brown, Rachel C Caulkins, Tyler E Schartel, Jason W Rosch, Erin S Honsa, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Sean Cherry, Justin A Thornton
Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637875/coupled-feedback-loops-control-the-stimulus-dependent-dynamics-of-the-yeast-transcription-factor-msn2
#5
Yanfei Jiang, Zohreh AkhavanAghdam, Lev S Tsimring, Nan Hao
Information about environmental stimuli often can be encoded by the dynamics of signaling molecules or transcription factors. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, different types of stresses induce distinct nuclear translocation dynamics of the general stress-responsive transcription factor Msn2, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using deterministic and stochastic modeling, we reproduced in silico the different dynamic responses of Msn2 to glucose limitation and osmotic stress observed in vivo and found that a positive feedback loop on protein kinase A mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 is coupled with a negative feedback loop to generate the characteristic pulsatile dynamics of Msn2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637859/seeds-integrate-biological-information-about-conspecific-and-allospecific-neighbours
#6
Akira Yamawo, Hiromi Mukai
Numerous organisms integrate information from multiple sources and express adaptive behaviours, but how they do so at different developmental stages remains to be identified. Seeds, which are the embryonic stage of plants, need to make decisions about the timing of emergence in response to environmental cues related to survival. We investigated the timing of emergence of Plantago asiatica (Plantaginaceae) seed while manipulating the presence of Trifolium repens seed and the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634307/prefrontal-neurons-encode-a-solution-to-the-credit-assignment-problem
#7
Wael F Asaad, Peter M Lauro, János A Perge, Emad N Eskandar
To adapt successfully to our environments, we must use the outcomes of our choices to guide future behavior. Critically, we must be able to correctly assign credit for any particular outcome to the causal features which preceded it. In some cases, the causal features may be immediately evident, whereas in others they may be separated in time or intermingled with irrelevant environmental stimuli, creating a potentially nontrivial credit assignment problem. We examined the neuronal representation of information relevant for credit assignment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) of two male rhesus macaques performing a task that elicited key aspects of this problem...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#8
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631993/ovarian-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-and-female-germline-stem-cells
#9
Tomotsune Ameku, Yuto Yoshinari, Ruriko Fukuda, Ryusuke Niwa
The germline stem cells (GSCs) are critical for gametogenesis throughout the adult life. Stem cell identity is maintained by local signals from a specialized microenvironment called the niche. However, it is unclear how systemic signals regulate stem cell activity in response to environmental cues. In our previous article, we reported that mating stimulates GSC proliferation in female Drosophila. The mating-induced GSC proliferation is mediated by ovarian ecdysteroids, whose biosynthesis is positively controlled by Sex peptide signaling...
February 8, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630932/differential-intron-retention-in-jumonji-chromatin-modifier-genes-is-implicated-in-reptile-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#10
Ira W Deveson, Clare E Holleley, James Blackburn, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, John S Mattick, Paul D Waters, Arthur Georges
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630321/how-selective-severing-by-katanin-promotes-order-in-the-plant-cortical-microtubule-array
#11
Eva E Deinum, Simon H Tindemans, Jelmer J Lindeboom, Bela M Mulder
Plant morphogenesis requires differential and often asymmetric growth. A key role in controlling anisotropic expansion of individual cells is played by the cortical microtubule array. Although highly organized, the array can nevertheless rapidly change in response to internal and external cues. Experiments have identified the microtubule-severing enzyme katanin as a central player in controlling the organizational state of the array. Katanin action is required both for normal alignment and the adaptation of array orientation to mechanical, environmental, and developmental stimuli...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630254/reward-selectively-modulates-the-lingering-neural-representation-of-recently-attended-objects-in-natural-scenes
#12
Clayton Hickey, Marius Peelen
Theories of reinforcement learning and approach behaviour suggest that reward can increase the perceptual salience of environmental stimuli, ensuring that potential predictors of outcome are noticed in the future. But outcome commonly follows visual processing of the environment, occurring even when potential reward cues have long disappeared. How can reward feedback retroactively cause now-absent stimuli to become attention-drawing in the future? One possibility is that reward and attention interact to prime lingering visual representations of attended stimuli that sustain through the interval separating stimulus and outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629641/multiple-ways-of-bes1-bzr1-degradation-to-decode-distinct-developmental-and-environmental-cues-in-plants
#13
Mengran Yang, Xuelu Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628608/tcp4-dependent-induction-of-constans-transcription-requires-gigantea-in-photoperiodic-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#14
Akane Kubota, Shogo Ito, Jae Sung Shim, Richard S Johnson, Yong Hun Song, Ghislain Breton, Greg S Goralogia, Michael S Kwon, Dianne Laboy Cintrón, Tomotsugu Koyama, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Jose L Pruneda-Paz, Steve A Kay, Michael J MacCoss, Takato Imaizumi
Photoperiod is one of the most reliable environmental cues for plants to regulate flowering timing. In Arabidopsis thaliana, CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor plays a central role in regulating photoperiodic flowering. In contrast to posttranslational regulation of CO protein, still little was known about CO transcriptional regulation. Here we show that the CINCINNATA (CIN) clade of class II TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1/ CYCLOIDEA/ PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR (TCP) proteins act as CO activators. Our yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that class II CIN-TCPs, including TCP4, bind to the CO promoter...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628257/contrasting-gene-expression-programs-correspond-with-predator-induced-phenotypic-plasticity-within-and-across-generations-in-daphnia
#15
Nicole R Hales, Drew R Schield, Audra L Andrew, Daren C Card, Matthew R Walsh, Todd A Castoe
Research has shown that a change in environmental conditions can alter the expression of traits during development (i.e., 'within-generation phenotypic plasticity') as well as induce heritable phenotypic responses that persist for multiple generations (i.e., 'transgenerational plasticity'). It has long been assumed that shifts in gene expression are tightly linked to observed trait responses at the phenotypic level. Yet, the manner in which organisms couple within- and trans-generational plasticity at the molecular level is unclear...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628237/wing-phosphorylation-is-a-major-functional-determinant-of-the-lrs14-type-biofilm-and-motility-regulator-abfr1-in-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#16
Lingling Li, Ankan Banerjee, Lisa Franziska Bischof, Hassan Ramadan Maklad, Lena Hoffmann, Anna-Lena Henche, Fabian Veliz, Wolfgang Bildl, Uwe Schulte, Alvaro Orell, Lars-Oliver Essen, Eveline Peeters, Sonja-Verena Albers
In response to a variety of environmental cues, prokaryotes can switch between a motile and a sessile, biofilm-forming mode of growth. The regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying this switch are largely unknown in archaea but involve small winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins of the archaea-specific Lrs14 family. Here, we study the Lrs14 member AbfR1 of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Small-angle X-ray scattering data are presented, which are consistent with a model of dimeric AbfR1 in which dimerization occurs via an antiparallel coiled coil as suggested by homology modeling...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628111/interaction-of-reactive-astrocytes-with-type-i-collagen-induces-astrocytic-scar-formation-through-the-integrin-n-cadherin-pathway-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiromi Kumamaru, Kazuya Yokota, Takeyuki Saito, Ken Kijima, Shingo Yoshizaki, Katsumi Harimaya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Seiji Okada
Central nervous system (CNS) injury transforms naive astrocytes into reactive astrocytes, which eventually become scar-forming astrocytes that can impair axonal regeneration and functional recovery. This sequential phenotypic change, known as reactive astrogliosis, has long been considered unidirectional and irreversible. However, we report here that reactive astrocytes isolated from injured spinal cord reverted in retrograde to naive astrocytes when transplanted into a naive spinal cord, whereas they formed astrocytic scars when transplanted into injured spinal cord, indicating the environment-dependent plasticity of reactive astrogliosis...
June 19, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624517/intra-accumbal-blockade-of-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptors-impairs-learning-but-not-retention-of-conditioned-relief
#18
Jorge R Bergado Acosta, Miriam Schneider, Markus Fendt
Humans and animals are able to associate an environmental cue with the feeling of relief from an aversive event, a phenomenon called relief learning. Relief from an aversive event is rewarding and a relief-associated cue later induces an attenuation of the startle magnitude or approach behavior. Previous studies demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is essential for relief learning. Here, we asked whether accumbal cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are involved in relief learning. In rats, we injected the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) directly into the nucleus accumbens at different time points during a relief learning experiment...
June 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623270/behavioural-and-physiological-responses-to-prey-related-cues-reflect-higher-competitiveness-of-invasive-vs-native-ladybirds
#19
Gabriele Rondoni, Fulvio Ielo, Carlo Ricci, Eric Conti
Understanding the traits that might be linked with biological invasions represents a great challenge for preventing non-target effects on local biodiversity. In predatory insects, the ability to exploit habitats for oviposition and the physiological response to prey availability differs between species. Those species that respond more readily to environmental changes may confer to their offspring a competitive advantage over other species. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the invasive Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) makes better use of information from a plant-prey (Vicia faba - Aphis fabae) system compared to the native Oenopia conglobata...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622973/maternal-programming-of-sex-specific-responses-to-predator-odor-stress-in-adult-rats
#20
Sophie St-Cyr, Sameera Abuaish, Shathveekan Sivanathan, Patrick O McGowan
Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor...
June 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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