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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104889/a-peptide-hormone-required-for-casparian-strip-diffusion-barrier-formation-in-arabidopsis-roots
#1
Takuya Nakayama, Hidefumi Shinohara, Mina Tanaka, Koki Baba, Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi, Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
Plants achieve mineral ion homeostasis by means of a hydrophobic barrier on endodermal cells called the Casparian strip, which restricts lateral diffusion of ions between the root vascular bundles and the soil. We identified a family of sulfated peptides required for contiguous Casparian strip formation in Arabidopsis roots. These peptide hormones, which we named Casparian strip integrity factor 1 (CIF1) and CIF2, are expressed in the root stele and specifically bind the endodermis-expressed leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase GASSHO1 (GSO1)/SCHENGEN3 and its homolog, GSO2...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104617/staphylococcus-aureus-pathogenesis-in-diverse-host-environments
#2
Divya Balasubramanian, Lamia Harper, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an eminent human pathogen that can colonize the human host and cause severe, life-threatening illnesses. This bacterium can reside in and infect a wide range of host tissues, ranging from superficial surfaces like the skin to deeper tissues such as in the gastrointestinal tract, heart and bones. Due to its multifaceted lifestyle, S. aureus uses complex regulatory networks to sense diverse signals that enable it to adapt to different environments and modulate virulence. In this mini-review, we explore well-characterized environmental and host cues that S...
January 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103523/anthropogenic-chemical-cues-can-alter-the-swimming-behaviour-of-juvenile-stages-of-a-temperate-fish
#3
Carlos Díaz-Gil, Lucy Cotgrove, Sarah Louise Smee, David Simón-Otegui, Hilmar Hinz, Amalia Grau, Miquel Palmer, Ignacio A Catalán
Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress...
January 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103497/host-microbiota-interactions-epigenomic-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Vivienne Woo, Theresa Alenghat
The coevolution of mammalian hosts and their commensal microbiota has led to the development of complex symbiotic relationships between resident microbes and mammalian cells. Epigenomic modifications enable host cells to alter gene expression without modifying the genetic code, and therefore represent potent mechanisms by which mammalian cells can transcriptionally respond, transiently or stably, to environmental cues. Advances in genome-wide approaches are accelerating our appreciation of microbial influences on host physiology, and increasing evidence highlights that epigenomics represent a level of regulation by which the host integrates and responds to microbial signals...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103403/a-possible-role-for-ft-encoding-genes-in-interpreting-environmental-and-internal-cues-affecting-olive-olea-europaea-l-flower-induction
#5
Amnon Haberman, Ortal Bakhshian, Sergio Cerezo-Medina, Judith Paltiel, Chen Adler, Giora Ben-Ari, Jose Angel Mercado, Fernando Pliego-Alfaro, Shimon Lavee, Alon Samach
Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred in late winter...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103315/multiple-acid-sensors-control-helicobacter-pylori-colonization-of-the-stomach
#6
Julie Y Huang, Emily Goers Sweeney, Karen Guillemin, Manuel R Amieva
Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#7
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100803/a-new-cue-for-torpor-induction-charcoal-ash-and-smoke
#8
Clare Stawski, Julia Nowack, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
Recent work has shown that the use of torpor for energy conservation increases after forest fires in heterothermic mammals, probably in response to the reduction of food. However, the specific environmental cues for this increased torpor expression remain unknown. It is possible that smoke and the novel substrate of charcoal and ash act as signals for an impending period of starvation requiring torpor. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the combined cues of smoke, a charcoal/ash substrate and food shortage will enhance torpor expression in a small forest-dwelling marsupial, the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), because like other animals that live in fire-prone habitats they must effectively respond to fires to ensure survival...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099867/th17-cells-require-you-to-chew-before-you-swallow
#9
Marc Veldhoen
How immunity is regulated at distinct epithelial tissues that vary in microbial occupancy and environmental and tissue specific cues isn't clear. Dutzan et al. (2017) report that mechanical-derived signals, not those from micro-organisms, are key to maintaining interleukin-17-expressing T helper (Th17) cells at the oral epithelia.
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098350/endogenous-circadian-rhythms-in-pigment-composition-induce-changes-in-photochemical-efficiency-in-plant-canopies
#10
José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G Alday, Günter Hoch, Damien Landais, Alexandru Milcu, David T Tissue, Jordi Voltas, Arthur Gessler, Jacques Roy, Víctor Resco de Dios
There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis that becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant. We studied whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation, and whether pigment oscillations lead to rhythmic changes in photochemical efficiency. To address these questions, canopies of bean and cotton were maintained, after an entrainment phase, under constant (light or darkness) conditions for 30-48 h...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098283/high-precision-localized-proton-gradients-and-fluxes-generated-by-a-microelectrode-device-induce-differential-growth-behaviors-of-pollen-tubes
#11
Chengzhi Hu, Hannes Vogler, Marianne Aellen, Naveen Shamsudhin, Bumjin Jang, Jan T Burri, Nino Läubli, Ueli Grossniklaus, Salvador Pané, Bradley J Nelson
Pollen tubes are tip-growing plant cells that deliver the sperm cells to the ovules for double fertilization of the egg cell and the endosperm. Various directional cues can trigger the reorientation of pollen tube growth direction on their passage through the female tissues. Among the external stimuli, protons serve an important, regulatory role in the control of pollen tube growth. The generation of local guidance cues has been challenging when investigating the mechanisms of perception and processing of such directional triggers in pollen tubes...
January 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#12
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095718/key-players-associated-with-tuberization-in-potato-potential-candidates-for-genetic-engineering
#13
Som Dutt, Anshul Sharma Manjul, Pinky Raigond, Brajesh Singh, Sundaresha Siddappa, Vinay Bhardwaj, Prashant G Kawar, Virupakshagouda U Patil, Hemant Balasaheb Kardile
Tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a complex biological phenomenon which is affected by several environmental cues, genetic factors and plant nutrition. Understanding the regulation of tuber induction is essential to devise strategies to improve tuber yield and quality. It is well established that short-day photoperiods promote tuberization, whereas long days and high-temperatures inhibit or delay tuberization. Worldwide research on this complex biological process has yielded information on the important bio-molecules (proteins, RNAs, plant growth regulators) associated with the tuberization process in potato...
January 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095623/xenopus-as-a-model-for-studies-in-mechanical-stress-and-cell-division
#14
REVIEW
G A Stooke-Vaughan, L A Davidson, S Woolner
We exist in a physical world, and cells within biological tissues must respond appropriately to both environmental forces and forces generated within the tissue to ensure normal development and homeostasis. Cell division is required for normal tissue growth and maintenance, but both the direction and rate of cell division must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases of over-proliferation such as cancer. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues can cause mitotic entry and orient the mitotic spindle, suggesting that physical force could play a role in patterning tissue growth...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093475/hippocampal-contribution-to-context-encoding-across-development-is-disrupted-following-early-life-adversity
#15
Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly Sambrook, Maya Rosen, Mary K Askren, Katie A McLaughlin
: Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N=60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089516/environmental-geometry-aligns-the-hippocampal-map-during-spatial-reorientation
#16
Alex T Keinath, Joshua B Julian, Russell A Epstein, Isabel A Muzzio
When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089431/adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-show-selective-impairments-in-time-based-and-self-initiated-prospective-memory-self-report-and-clinical-evidence
#17
James H Smith-Spark, Adam P Zięcik, Christopher Sterling
BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) would seem to be impaired in dyslexia but evidence is currently limited in scope. AIMS: There is a need, therefore, firstly, to explore PM under controlled conditions using a broader range of PM tasks than used previously and, secondly, to determine whether objectively measured and self-reported PM problems can be found in the same individuals with dyslexia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The responses of 30 adults with dyslexia were compared with those of 30 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia on a self-report and a clinical measure of PM...
January 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#18
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088696/cell-selective-proteomics-for-biological-discovery
#19
REVIEW
Shannon E Stone, Weslee S Glenn, Graham D Hamblin, David A Tirrell
Cells alter the proteome to respond to environmental and developmental cues. Global analysis of proteomic responses is of limited value in heterogeneous environments, where there is no 'average' cell. Advances in sequencing, protein labeling, mass spectrometry, and data analysis have fueled recent progress in the investigation of specific subpopulations of cells in complex systems. Here we highlight recently developed chemical tools that enable cell-selective proteomic analysis of complex biological systems, from bacterial pathogens to whole animals...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077718/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#20
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage-specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein that is expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane and can mediate some of these signals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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