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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638093/fatty-acid-composition-and-phospholipid-types-used-in-infant-formulas-modifies-the-establishment-of-human-gut-bacteria-in-germ-free-mice
#1
Rikke Guldhammer Nejrup, Tine Rask Licht, Lars Ingvar Hellgren
Human milk fat contains high concentrations of medium-chained fatty acids (MCFA) and triacylglycerols emulsified by a sphingomyelin-rich phospholipid membrane (milk phospholipids, MPL). Infant formula comprises mainly long-chained fatty acids (LCFA) emulsified with dairy proteins and soy lecithin (SL) lacking sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin content and saturation level of phospholipids affect the gut lipase activity, which alters the concentrations of lipid hydrolysis products in ileum and colon, and hereby putatively affects the competitive advantage of specific gut bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633842/effects-of-multi-frequency-ultrasound-pretreatment-under-low-power-density-on-the-enzymolysis-and-the-structure-characterization-of-defatted-wheat-germ-protein
#2
Xue Yang, Yunliang Li, Suyun Li, Ayobami Olayemi Oladejo, Yucheng Wang, Shanfen Huang, Cunshan Zhou, Yang Wang, Li Mao, Yanyan Zhang, Haile Ma, Xiaofei Ye
The effects of ultrasonic frequency mode, power density, pretreatment time and other parameters under low power density on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of defatted wheat germ protein (DWGP) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of DWGP hydrolysate were studied in this research. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra, free sulfhydryl (SH), disulfide bond (SS), surface hydrophobicity and hydrophobic protein content of ultrasound-pretreated protein and hydrophobic amino acid (HAA) content of alcalase-hydrolysate of DWGP were measured under optimized ultrasonic condition...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629511/microbiota-regulates-visceral-pain-in-the-mouse
#3
Pauline Luczynski, Monica Tramullas, Maria Viola, Fergus Shanahan, Gerard Clarke, Siobhain O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The perception of visceral pain is a complex process involving the spinal cord and higher order brain structures. Increasing evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a key regulator of brain and behavior, yet it remains to be determined if gut bacteria play a role in visceral sensitivity. We used germ-free mice (GF) to assess visceral sensitivity, spinal cord gene expression and pain-related brain structures. GF mice displayed visceral hypersensitivity accompanied by increases in Toll-like receptor and cytokine gene expression in the spinal cord, which were normalized by postnatal colonization with microbiota from conventionally colonized (CC)...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#4
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620867/gut-microbiome-and-bone-to-build-destroy-or-both
#5
REVIEW
Jing Yan, Julia F Charles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota can be considered a hidden organ that plays essential roles in host homeostasis. Exploration of the effects of microbiota on bone has just begun. Complimentary studies using germ-free mice, antibiotic, and probiotic treatments reveal a complicated relationship between microbiota and bone. Here, we review recent reports addressing the effect of gut microbiota on bone health, discuss potential reasons for discrepant findings, and explore potential mechanisms for these effects...
June 15, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617811/genetic-structural-and-chemical-insights-into-the-dual-function-of-grasp55-in-germ-cell-golgi-remodeling-and-jam-c-polarized-localization-during-spermatogenesis
#6
Amandine Cartier-Michaud, Anne-Laure Bailly, Stéphane Betzi, Xiaoli Shi, Jean-Claude Lissitzky, Ana Zarubica, Arnauld Sergé, Philippe Roche, Adrien Lugari, Véronique Hamon, Florence Bardin, Carine Derviaux, Frédérique Lembo, Stéphane Audebert, Sylvie Marchetto, Bénédicte Durand, Jean-Paul Borg, Ning Shi, Xavier Morelli, Michel Aurrand-Lions
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process that is regulated by adhesive interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. Germ cells express the Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C, encoded by Jam3), which localizes to germ/Sertoli cell contacts. JAM-C is involved in germ cell polarity and acrosome formation. Using a proteomic approach, we demonstrated that JAM-C interacted with the Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa (GRASP55, encoded by Gorasp2) in developing germ cells. Generation and study of Gorasp2-/- mice revealed that knock-out mice suffered from spermatogenesis defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614211/mixed-gonadal-germ-cell-tumor-composed-of-a-spermatocytic-tumor-like-component-and-germinoma-arising-in-gonadoblastoma-in-a-phenotypic-woman-with-a-46-xx-peripheral-karyotype-report-of-the-first-case
#7
Alejandro A Gru, Eli S Williams, Dengfeng Cao
We report a unique case of gonadal mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) composed of a predominantly spermatocytic tumor (ST)-like component and a minor component of germinoma arising in gonadoblastoma in a phenotypic woman with a 46, XX peripheral karotype. The patient was a 24-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 1) found to have a 7 cm pelvic mass during routine obstetric ultrasound examination at 20 weeks gestational age. She underwent a left salpingo-gonadectomy at gestational age 23 and 2/7 weeks. She recovered well and delivered a healthy baby at full term...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613837/artificial-off-riboswitches-that-downregulate-internal-ribosome-entry-without-hybridization-switches-in-a-eukaryotic-cell-free-translation-system
#8
Atsushi Ogawa, Hiroki Masuoka, Tsubasa Ota
We constructed novel artificial riboswitches that function in a eukaryotic translation system (wheat germ extract), by rationally implanting an in vitro-selected aptamer into the intergenic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of Plautia stali intestine virus. These eukaryotic OFF-riboswitches (OFF-eRSs) ligand-dose-dependently downregulate IRES-mediated translation without hybridization switches, which typical riboswitches utilize for gene regulation. The hybridization-switch-free mechanism not only allows for easy design but also requires less energy for regulation, resulting in a higher switching efficiency than hybridization-switch-based OFF-eRSs provide...
June 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604122/blood-stage-malaria-vaccines-post-genome-strategies-for-the-identification-of-novel-vaccine-candidates
#9
Edward H Ntege, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Hikaru Nagaoka, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596199/mediastinal-seminoma-presenting-with-superior-vena-cava-syndrome
#10
Amanda Wanous, Ian R McPhail, J Fernando Quevedo, Nicole P Sandhu
We present a rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome (SVC) in a previously healthy male aged 31 years. Malignancy was suspected due to unintentional weight loss and childhood exposure to radioactive fallout from a nuclear facility accident. A very large anterior mediastinal mass was identified and demonstrated to be an extragonadal seminoma. Extragonadal germ cell tumours are rare tumours with a high potential for cardiovascular, pulmonary and vascular sequelae. Studies have documented an increased risk of developing seminoma in patients with radioactive exposure...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595107/application-of-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-to-the-metabolic-phenotyping-of-rodent-brain-extracts-a-metabonomic-study-of-gut-microbial-influence-on-host-brain-metabolism
#11
J R Swann, I Garcia-Perez, V Braniste, I D Wilson, J E Sidaway, J K Nicholson, S Pettersson, E Holmes
(1)H NMR Spectroscopy has been applied to determine the neurochemical profiles of brain extracts from the frontal cortex and hippocampal regions of germ free and normal mice and rats. The results revealed a number of differences between germ free (GF) and conventional (CV) rats or specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice with microbiome-associated metabolic variation found to be both species- and region-dependent. In the mouse, the GF frontal cortex contained lower amounts of creatine, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), glycerophosphocholine and lactate, but greater amounts of choline compared to that of specific pathogen free (SPF) mice...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592385/nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-containing-protein-2-nod2-modulates-t1dm-susceptibility-by-gut-microbiota
#12
Yang-Yang Li, James A Pearson, Chen Chao, Jian Peng, Xiaojun Zhang, Zhiguang Zhou, Yu Liu, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (Nod2) is an innate immune receptor. To investigate the role of Nod2 in susceptibility to the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), we generated Nod2(-/-) non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The Nod2(-/-)NOD mice had different composition of the gut microbiota compared to Nod2(+/+)NOD mice and were significantly protected from diabetes, but only when housed separately from Nod2(+/+)NOD mice. This suggested that T1DM susceptibility in Nod2(-/-)NOD mice is dependent on the alteration of gut microbiota, which modulated the frequency and function of IgA-secreting B-cells and IL-10 promoting T-regulatory cells...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588016/commensal-microbes-provide-first-line-defense-against-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#13
Simone Becattini, Eric R Littmann, Rebecca A Carter, Sohn G Kim, Sejal M Morjaria, Lilan Ling, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Emily Fontana, Ying Taur, Ingrid M Leiner, Eric G Pamer
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis and chorioamnionitis and is associated with high mortality. Immunocompetent humans and animals, however, can tolerate high doses of L. monocytogenes without developing systemic disease. The intestinal microbiota provides colonization resistance against many orally acquired pathogens, and antibiotic-mediated depletion of the microbiota reduces host resistance to infection. Here we show that a diverse microbiota markedly reduces Listeria monocytogenes colonization of the gut lumen and prevents systemic dissemination...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586297/fecal-microbiota-variation-across-the-lifespan-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-healthy%C3%A2-laboratory-rat
#14
Burkhardt Flemer, Nadia Gaci, Guillaume Borrel, Ian R Sanderson, Prem P Chaudhary, William Tottey, Paul W O'Toole, Jean-François Brugere
Laboratory rats are commonly used in life science research as a model for human biology and disease, but the composition and development of their gut microbiota during life is poorly understood. We determined the faecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 weeks to 2 years of age, kept under controlled environmental and dietary conditions. Additionally, we determined faecal short-chain fatty acid profiles, and we compared the rat faecal microbiota with that of mice and humans...
June 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579615/type-3-innate-lymphoid-cell-derived-lymphotoxin-prevents-microbiota-dependent-inflammation
#15
Yuan Zhang, Tae-Jin Kim, Joanna A Wroblewska, Vera Tesic, Vaibhav Upadhyay, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Alexei V Tumanov, Hong Tang, Xiaohuan Guo, Haidong Tang, Yang-Xin Fu
Splenomegaly is a well-known phenomenon typically associated with inflammation. However, the underlying cause of this phenotype has not been well characterized. Furthermore, the splenomegaly phenotype seen in lymphotoxin (LT) signaling-deficient mice is characterized by increased numbers of splenocytes and splenic neutrophils. Splenomegaly, as well as the related phenotype of increased lymphocyte counts in non-lymphoid tissues, is thought to result from the absence of secondary lymphoid tissues in LT-deficient mice...
June 5, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576260/regulation-of-bone-mass-by-the-gut-microbiota-is-dependent-on-nod1-and-nod2-signaling
#16
Claes Ohlsson, Giulia Nigro, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Fredrik Bäckhed, Philippe Sansonetti, Klara Sjögren
Germ-free (GF) mice have increased bone mass that is normalized by colonization with gut microbiota (GM) from conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. To determine if innate immune signaling pathways mediated the effect of the GM, we studied the skeleton of GF and CONV-R mice with targeted inactivation of MYD88, NOD1 or NOD2. In contrast to WT and Myd88(-/-) mice, cortical bone thickness in mice lacking Nod1 or Nod2 was not increased under GF conditions. The expression of Tnfα and the osteoclastogenic factor Rankl in bone was reduced in GF compared to CONV-R WT mice but not in Nod1(-/-) or Nod2(-/-) mice indicating that the effect of the GM to increase Tnfα and Rankl in bone and to reduce bone mass is dependent on both NOD1 and NOD2 signaling...
July 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572286/gut-microbiota-regulate-hepatic-von-willebrand-factor-synthesis-and-arterial-thrombus-formation-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#17
Sven Jäckel, Klytamnistra Kiouptsi, Maren Lillich, Tim Hendrikx, Avinash Khandagale, Bettina Kollar, Nives Hörmann, Cora Reiss, Saravanan Subramaniam, Eivor Wilms, Katharina Ebner, Marie-Luise von Brühl, Philipp Rausch, John F Baines, Sandra Haberichter, Bernhard Lämmle, Christoph J Binder, Kerstin Jurk, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Steffen Massberg, Ulrich Walter, Wolfram Ruf, Christoph Reinhardt
The symbiotic gut microbiota plays pivotal roles in host physiology and the development of cardiovascular diseases, but microbiota-triggered pattern recognition signaling mechanisms impacting thrombosis are poorly defined. Here, we show that germ-free and Toll-like receptor (Tlr) 2-deficient mice have reduced thrombus growth following carotid artery injury relative to conventionally raised controls. Germ-free Tlr2(-/-) and wild-type mice were indistinguishable, but colonization with microbiota restored a significant difference in thrombus growth between genotypes...
June 1, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570279/optimized-multiplex-immunofluorescence-single-cell-analysis-reveals-tuft-cell-heterogeneity
#18
Eliot T McKinley, Yunxia Sui, Yousef Al-Kofahi, Bryan A Millis, Matthew J Tyska, Joseph T Roland, Alberto Santamaria-Pang, Christina L Ohland, Christian Jobin, Jeffrey L Franklin, Ken S Lau, Michael J Gerdes, Robert J Coffey
Intestinal tuft cells are a rare, poorly understood cell type recently shown to be a critical mediator of type 2 immune response to helminth infection. Here, we present advances in segmentation algorithms and analytical tools for multiplex immunofluorescence (MxIF), a platform that enables iterative staining of over 60 antibodies on a single tissue section. These refinements have enabled a comprehensive analysis of tuft cell number, distribution, and protein expression profiles as a function of anatomical location and physiological perturbations...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567648/autophosphorylation-assays-using-plant-receptor-kinases-synthesized-in-cell-free-systems
#19
Keiichirou Nemoto, Akira Nozawa, Satoshi Yamanaka, Shunsuke Nomura, Kohki Kido, Tatsuya Sawasaki
The wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system has a significant advantage for high-throughput production of eukaryotic multidomain proteins in a folded state. In this chapter, we describe two kinds of methods for performing autophosphorylation assay of plant receptor kinases (PRKs) by using the wheat cell-free system. One is an in vitro kinase assay performed using biotin-streptavidin affinity purification technology, and the other is a luminescence-based high-throughput assay for autophosphorylation analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567641/cell-free-synthesis-of-plant-receptor-kinases
#20
Akira Nozawa, Keiichirou Nemoto, Shunsuke Nomura, Satoshi Yamanaka, Kohki Kido, Tatsuya Sawasaki
The wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system has been used as a eukaryotic protein production system since it was first reported in 1964. Although initially the productivity of this system was not very high, it has now become one of the most versatile protein production systems, thanks to the enhancements made by several groups. In this chapter, we report a protein production method for plant receptor kinases using the wheat cell-free system. We describe a method for the preparation of a cell-free extract from wheat germ, the split-primer PCR method for preparation of transcription templates, and the bilayer cell-free protein synthesis method...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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