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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325746/dietary-emulsifiers-directly-alter-human-microbiota-composition-and-gene-expression-ex-vivo-potentiating-intestinal-inflammation
#1
Benoit Chassaing, Tom Van de Wiele, Jana De Bodt, Massimo Marzorati, Andrew T Gewirtz
OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including IBD and metabolic syndrome. Administration of substances that alter microbiota composition, including the synthetic dietary emulsifiers polysorbate 80 (P80) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), can promote such inflammatory disorders. However, that inflammation itself impacts microbiota composition has obfuscated defining the extent to which these compounds or other substances act directly upon the microbiota versus acting on host parameters that promote inflammation, which subsequently reshapes the microbiota...
March 21, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320888/mutual-reinforcement-of-pathophysiological-host-microbe-interactions-in-intestinal-stasis-models
#2
Ketrija Touw, Daina L Ringus, Nathaniel Hubert, Yunwei Wang, Vanessa A Leone, Anuradha Nadimpalli, Betty R Theriault, Yong E Huang, Johnathan D Tune, Paul B Herring, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, Eugene B Chang
Chronic diseases arise when there is mutual reinforcement of pathophysiological processes that cause an aberrant steady state. Such a sequence of events may underlie chronic constipation, which has been associated with dysbiosis of the gut. In this study we hypothesized that assemblage of microbial communities, directed by slow gastrointestinal transit, affects host function in a way that reinforces constipation and further maintains selection on microbial communities. In our study, we used two models - an opioid-induced constipation model in mice, and a humanized mouse model where germ-free mice were colonized with stool from a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in humans...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318108/neonatal-mono-colonization-of-germ-free-mice-with-lactobacillus-casei-enhances-casein-immunogenicity-after-oral-sensitization-to-cow-s-milk
#3
Matieny Aicha Maiga, Stéphanie Morin, Hervé Bernard, Sylvie Rabot, Karine Adel -Patient, Stéphane Hazebrouck
SCOPE: Food allergy is an increasing global health problem and perinatal administration of probiotic bacteria is currently under investigation in order to prevent the development of allergic diseases. Here, we investigated the impact of neonatal mono-colonization of mice with Lactobacillus casei BL23 on an oral sensitization to cow's milk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mono-colonized (LC) mice were obtained by inoculating L. casei to germ-free (GF) parents. Nine-week-old GF, LC and conventional (CV) mice were orally sensitized to cow's milk with cholera toxin as adjuvant...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304416/gynecologic-malignancies-in-pregnancy-balancing-fetal-risks-with-oncologic-safety
#4
Christina N Cordeiro, Mary L Gemignani
Importance: Cancer occurs in 0.05% to 0.1% of all pregnancies. Despite literature reporting good oncologic and fetal outcomes in women treated for cancer during pregnancy, as many as 44% of gynecologists would offer termination, and 37% would not administer chemotherapy or radiotherapy in pregnancy. Objectives: The aims of this study were to summarize current recommendations for the treatment of cervical and ovarian cancers in pregnancy and to review updates on existing knowledge regarding the safety of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments in pregnancy, including both oncologic and fetal outcomes...
March 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298158/intake-of-saffron-reduces-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#5
Apurva Koul, Suresh K Abraham
Saffron (SAF), the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus is commonly used for flavouring and coloring food. Studies on bioactivity of SAF have demonstrated its in vivo antioxidant activity. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of SAF intake on γ-radiation (RAD) induced: (a) chromosomal damage, (b) oxidative stress in liver and brain and (c) histopathological effects in the intestinal cells and male germ cells in mice. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of SAF was used for the experiments. Our preliminary cell-free DNA nicking assay using pBR322 DNA revealed protective effects of freeze-dried SAF extract against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296565/maternal-microbiota-and-antibodies-as-advocates-of-neonatal-health
#6
Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Tobias Fuhrer, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero
Mammalian body surfaces are inhabited by vast numbers of microbes, the commensal microbiota, which help the host to digest food, provide nutrients, and mature its immune system. For a long time, postnatal colonization was believed to be the main stimulus for microbial-induced immune development. Using a model of reversible colonization of germ-free mice during gestation, we recently showed that the microbial shaping of the neonatal immune system begins even before birth through molecular signals derived from the microbiota of the mother...
March 1, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296551/the-ameliorative-effects-of-vinpocetine-on-apoptosis-and-hsp-70-expression-in-testicular-torsion-in-rats
#7
M F Sönmez, Ş Ozdemir, M Guzel, E Kaymak
Vinpocetine is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of vinpocetine on torsion/detorsion (T/D) induced testicular damage, HSP-70 expression and germ cell apoptosis in rats. Sixty Wistar albino adult male rats were divided into five groups of 12. The groups comprised a control group, a sham treated group, a T/D group, a vinpocetine treated group, and a T/D plus vinpocetine treated group. The left testis of each rat was subjected to unilateral torsion followed by detorsion after 2 h...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296054/modified-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-for-postchemotherapy-residual-tumor-a-long-term-update
#8
Jane S Cho, Hristos Z Kaimakliotis, K Clint Cary, Timothy A Masterson, Stephen Beck, Richard Foster
OBJECTIVES: To update previously reported outcomes of modified template postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in appropriately selected patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT). Our previous report was criticized for short follow-up. Herein, we provide a long-term update on this cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with normal serum markers after cisplatin-based chemotherapy and residual retroperitoneal tumor underwent modified PC-RPLND between 1991 and 2004...
March 13, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290517/sensitivity-to-oxazolone-induced-dermatitis-is-transferable-with-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#9
Line Fisker Zachariassen, Lukasz Krych, Kåre Engkilde, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Witold Kot, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Axel Kornerup Hansen
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) has been associated with gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis in humans, indicating a causative role of GM in AD etiology. Furthermore, the GM strongly correlates to essential disease parameters in the well-known oxazolone-induced mouse model of AD. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to transfer both a high-responding and a low-responding AD phenotype with GM from conventional mice to germ-free mice. The mice inoculated with the high-responding GM had significantly higher clinical score, increased ear thickness, and increased levels of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 compared to the mice inoculated with the low-responding GM...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288099/nlrp12-attenuates-colon-inflammation-by-maintaining-colonic-microbial-diversity-and-promoting-protective-commensal-bacterial-growth
#10
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery, Agnieszka D Truax, W June Brickey, Christopher D Packey, Nitsan Maharshak, Glenn K Matsushima, Scott E Plevy, Vincent B Young, R Balfour Sartor, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammatory bowel diseases involve the dynamic interaction of host genetics, the microbiome and inflammatory responses. Here we found lower expression of NLRP12 (which encodes a negative regulator of innate immunity) in human ulcerative colitis, by comparing monozygotic twins and other patient cohorts. In parallel, Nlrp12 deficiency in mice caused increased basal colonic inflammation, which led to a less-diverse microbiome and loss of protective gut commensal strains (of the family Lachnospiraceae) and a greater abundance of colitogenic strains (of the family Erysipelotrichaceae)...
March 13, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275154/a-member-of-the-gut-mycobiota-modulates-host-purine-metabolism-exacerbating-colitis-in-mice
#11
Tyson R Chiaro, Ray Soto, W Zac Stephens, Jason L Kubinak, Charisse Petersen, Lasha Gogokhia, Rickesha Bell, Julio C Delgado, James Cox, Warren Voth, Jessica Brown, David J Stillman, Ryan M O'Connell, Anne E Tebo, June L Round
The commensal microbiota has an important impact on host health, which is only beginning to be elucidated. Despite the presence of fungal, archaeal, and viral members, most studies have focused solely on the bacterial microbiota. Antibodies against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are found in some patients with Crohn's disease (CD), suggesting that the mycobiota may contribute to disease severity. We report that S. cerevisiae exacerbated intestinal disease in a mouse model of colitis and increased gut barrier permeability...
March 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270952/predictive-value-of-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-on-the-prognosis-of-germ-cell-testicular-tumors
#12
Deniz Bolat, Özgü Aydoğdu, Salih Polat, Serkan Yarımoğlu, İbrahim Halil Bozkurt, Tarık Yonguç, Volkan Şen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on germ cell testicular tumors (GCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of 53 patients who underwent inguinal orchiectomy were analyzed retrospectively. NLR was calculated from the preoperative complete blood cell counts. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to find the threshold values for NLR. Correlations between cancer-specific survival (CSS) and progression-free survival (PFS) and NLR were evaluated...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261273/capacity-of-human-dental-follicle-cells-to-differentiate-into-neural-cells-in-vitro
#13
Shingo Kanao, Naomi Ogura, Kosuke Takahashi, Ko Ito, Masaaki Suemitsu, Kayo Kuyama, Toshirou Kondoh
The dental follicle is an ectomesenchymal tissue surrounding the developing tooth germ. Human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) have the capacity to commit to differentiation into multiple cell types. Here we investigated the capacity of hDFCs to differentiate into neural cells and the efficiency of a two-step strategy involving floating neurosphere-like bodies for neural differentiation. Undifferentiated hDFCs showed a spindle-like morphology and were positive for neural markers such as nestin, β-III-tubulin, and S100β...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261212/%C3%AE-2%C3%A2-1-fructans-modulate-the-immune-system-in-vivo-in-a-microbiota-dependent-and%C3%A2-independent-fashion
#14
Floris Fransen, Neha M Sahasrabudhe, Marlies Elderman, Margaret Bosveld, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Theo Borghuis, Ben Kousemaker, Simon Winkel, Christa van der Gaast-de Jongh, Marien I de Jonge, Mark V Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Henk A Schols, Paul de Vos
It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary fibers contribute to immunity, but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here, we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251905/transplantation-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-alters-gut-function-and-behavior-in-recipient-mice
#15
Giada De Palma, Michael D J Lynch, Jun Lu, Vi T Dang, Yikang Deng, Jennifer Jury, Genevieve Umeh, Pedro M Miranda, Marc Pigrau Pastor, Sacha Sidani, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Vivek Philip, Peter G McLean, Moreno-Gabriel Hagelsieb, Michael G Surette, Gabriela E Bergonzelli, Elena F Verdu, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Josh D Neufeld, Stephen M Collins, Premysl Bercik
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by altered gut function and often is accompanied by comorbid anxiety. Although changes in the gut microbiota have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role for commensal gut bacteria in IBS, we colonized germ-free mice with the fecal microbiota from healthy control individuals or IBS patients with diarrhea (IBS-D), with or without anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior in the transplanted mice...
March 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251033/impaired-inactivation-of-digestive-proteases-the-possible-key-factor-for-the-high-susceptibility-of-germ-free-and-antibiotic-treated-animals-to-gut-epithelial-injury
#16
REVIEW
Xiaofa Qin
Recent study shows that germ-free and antibiotic-treated animals are highly susceptible to gut epithelial injury. This paper addresses that impaired inactivation of digestive proteases may be the key factor for the increased susceptibility.
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242905/wheat-germ-stabilization-by-infrared-radiation
#17
Renato D Gili, Pablo M Palavecino, M Cecilia Penci, Marcela L Martinez, Pablo D Ribotta
Wheat germ has an important enzymatic activity, being lipases the enzymes which cause the highest impact in the reduction of shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of infrared radiation on wheat germ stabilization in an attempt to extend the shelf life. The effects of treatment time, gap (sample distance to IR emitters) and infrared radiation intensity on wheat germ were analyzed through response surface methodology. Final moisture content, final temperature, color of germ and germ oil quality parameters: free fatty acid content changes and total tocopherol content were the responses evaluated using a Box-Behnken design...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240974/reduced-and-compressed-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-intermediate-risk-extracranial-malignant-germ-cell-tumors-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#18
Furqan Shaikh, John W Cullen, Thomas A Olson, Farzana Pashankar, Marcio H Malogolowkin, James F Amatruda, Doojduen Villaluna, Mark Krailo, Deborah F Billmire, Frederick J Rescorla, Rachel A Egler, Bryan J Dicken, Jonathan H Ross, Marc Schlatter, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, A Lindsay Frazier
Purpose To investigate whether event-free survival (EFS) can be maintained among children and adolescents with intermediate-risk (IR) malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) if the administration of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (PEb) is reduced from four to three cycles and compressed from 5 to 3 days per cycle. Patients and Methods In a phase 3, single-arm trial, patients with IR MGCT (stage II-IV testicular, II-III ovarian, I-II extragonadal, or stage I gonadal tumors with subsequent recurrence) received three cycles of PEb...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240438/feeder-independent-canine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-maintained-under-serum-free-conditions
#19
Toshiya Nishimura, Shingo Hatoya, Ryoji Kanegi, Daluthgamage Pasty Himali Wijesekera, Kousuke Sanno, Erina Tanaka, Kikuya Sugiura, Noritoshi Kawate, Hiromitsu Tamada, Hiroshi Imai, Toshio Inaba
Canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) are an attractive source for regenerative veterinary medicine, and may also serve as a disease model for human regenerative medicine. Extending the application of ciPSCs from bench to bedside, however, requires the resolution of many issues. We generated ciPSCs expressing doxycycline-inducible murine Oct3/4 (Pou5f1), Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, which were introduced using lentiviral vectors. The resultant ciPSCs required doxycycline to proliferate in the undifferentiated state...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#20
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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