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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715393/generation-and-long-term-maintenance-of-nerve-free-hydra
#1
Cassidy M Tran, Sharon Fu, Trevor Rowe, Eva-Maria S Collins
The interstitial cell lineage of Hydra includes multipotent stem cells, and their derivatives: gland cells, nematocytes, germ cells, and nerve cells. The interstitial cells can be eliminated through two consecutive treatments with colchicine, a plant-derived toxin that kills dividing cells, thus erasing the potential for renewal of the differentiated cells that are derived from the interstitial stem cells. This allows for the generation of Hydra that lack nerve cells. A nerve-free polyp cannot open its mouth to feed, egest, or regulate osmotic pressure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714953/gut-microbiota-is-critical-for-the-induction-of-chemotherapy-induced-pain
#2
Shiqian Shen, Grewo Lim, Zerong You, Weihua Ding, Peigen Huang, Chongzhao Ran, Jason Doheny, Peter Caravan, Samuel Tate, Kun Hu, Hyangin Kim, Michael McCabe, Bo Huang, Zhongcong Xie, Douglas Kwon, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
Chemotherapy-induced pain is a dose-limiting condition that affects 30% of patients undergoing chemotherapy. We found that gut microbiota promotes the development of chemotherapy-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced in germ-free mice and in mice pretreated with antibiotics. Restoring the microbiota of germ-free mice abrogated this protection. These effects appear to be mediated, in part, by TLR4 expressed on hematopoietic cells, including macrophages.
July 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714029/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-5%C3%A2-ht-expression-m2-macrophage-abundance-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Serotonin (5‑hydroxytryptamine; 5‑HT) may be a key player in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the GI immune system. In the present study, the effect of gut microbiota on the association between GI motility, and 5‑HT expression and macrophage abundance in the GI tract was examined. Germ‑free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen‑free mice and their GI tissues were evaluated 4 weeks later. The expression of 5‑HT and mannose receptor (MR) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and GI transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713378/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-gender-specific-differences-in-immunity
#4
Floris Fransen, Adriaan A van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Ben Meijer, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast-de Jongh, Huub F Savelkoul, Marien I de Jonge, Marijke M Faas, Mark V Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Sahar El Aidy, Paul de Vos
Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF) animals of the same or opposing gender. We demonstrate that microbiota-independent gender differences in immunity are already present in GF mice. In particular, type I interferon signaling was enhanced in the intestine of GF females...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713337/the-s-layer-associated-serine-protease-homolog-prtx-impacts-cell-surface-mediated-microbe-host-interactions-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#5
Brant R Johnson, Sarah O'Flaherty, Yong Jun Goh, Ian Carroll, Rodolphe Barrangou, Todd R Klaenhammer
Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S-) layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs). Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711712/ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-microemulsion-based-transdermal-delivery-of-e-coli-specific-t4-bacteriophage-a-rationale-approach-to-treat-bacterial-infection
#6
Vaibhav Rastogi, Pragya Yadav, Anurag Verma, Jayanta K Pandit
This study is focused on the development and evaluation of transdermal delivery of E. coli-specific T4 bacteriophages both ex-vivo and in-vivo using microemulsion as delivery carrier in eradicating the infection caused by E. coli. Microemulsions were prepared by mixing selected oil, surfactants and aqueous phase containing bacteriophages. The formulations were subjected to physicochemical characterization, ex-vivo and in-vivo permeation, stability studies, histological and immunofluorescence examination. The colloidal system exhibits a uniform size distribution, of finite size (150-320nm)...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708055/prion-disease-pathogenesis-in-the-absence-of-the-commensal-microbiota
#7
Barry M Bradford, Laura Tetlow, Neil A Mabbott
Prion diseases are a unique group of transmissible, typically sub-acute, neurodegenerative disorders. During central nervous system (CNS) prion disease, the microglia become activated and are thought to provide a protective response by scavenging and clearing prions. The mammalian intestine is host to a large burden of commensal micro-organisms, especially bacteria, termed the microbiota. The commensal microbiota has beneficial effects on host health, including through the metabolism of essential nutrients, regulation of host development and protection against pathogens...
July 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705398/very-long-chain-aldehydes-induce-appressorium-formation-in-ascospores-of-the-wheat-powdery-mildew-fungus-blumeria-graminis
#8
Mo Zhu, Markus Riederer, Ulrich Hildebrandt
Asexually produced conidia of the wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) are known to perceive cuticular very-long-chain aldehydes as signal substances strongly stimulating germination and differentiation of infection structures in a concentration- and chain-length-dependent manner. Conidial germination and appressorium formation are widely prevented by the presence of free water on the host surface. However, sexually produced ascospores can differentiate immersed in water. Applying a Formvar(®)-based in vitro-system showed that ascospore appressorium formation was strongly induced by the presence of wheat leaf cuticular wax...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704648/diabetes-enhances-il-17-expression-and-alters-the-oral-microbiome-to-increase-its-pathogenicity
#9
E Xiao, Marcelo Mattos, Gustavo Henrique Apolinário Vieira, Shanshan Chen, Jôice Dias Corrêa, Yingying Wu, Mayra Laino Albiero, Kyle Bittinger, Dana T Graves
Diabetes is a risk factor for periodontitis, an inflammatory bone disorder and the greatest cause of tooth loss in adults. Diabetes has a significant impact on the gut microbiota; however, studies in the oral cavity have been inconclusive. By 16S rRNA sequencing, we show here that diabetes causes a shift in oral bacterial composition and, by transfer to germ-free mice, that the oral microbiota of diabetic mice is more pathogenic. Furthermore, treatment with IL-17 antibody decreases the pathogenicity of the oral microbiota in diabetic mice; when transferred to recipient germ-free mice, oral microbiota from IL-17-treated donors induced reduced neutrophil recruitment, reduced IL-6 and RANKL, and less bone resorption...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695992/optimal-radiotherapy-target-volumes-in-intracranial-nongerminomatous-germ-cell-tumors-long-term-institutional-experience-with-chemotherapy-surgery-and-dose-and-field-adapted-radiotherapy
#10
William G Breen, Miran J Blanchard, Amulya Nageswara Rao, David J Daniels, Jan C Buckner, Nadia N Issa Laack
PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns of failure after multimodality treatment of nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 3,440 patients diagnosed with primary intracranial NGGCT between 1988 and 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients received induction chemotherapy followed by radiation with or without surgery. Median follow-up was 11.1 years (0.8-23.3). Outcomes were significantly improved in these 34 patients (5-year overall survival [OS]: 88% versus 50%, P = 0...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688084/chemical-proteomic-analysis-of-6-benzylaminopurine-molecular-partners-in-wheat-grains
#11
Radim Simerský, Ivo Chamrád, Jindřich Kania, Miroslav Strnad, Marek Šebela, René Lenobel
An affinity-based chemical proteomic technique enabled direct identification of BAP-interacting proteins in wheat, including the well-known cytokinin-binder, cytokinin-binding protein 1. In this work, we show the development of a chemical proteomic technique for the identification of proteins binding to natural aromatic cytokinins (CKs). 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and documented CK-binder, wheat germ-allocated cytokinin-binding protein 1 (CBP-1), were suggested as an ideal proof-of concept affinity pair. Therefore, wheat grains were chosen as a model plant material...
July 7, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687186/evaluation-of-a-new-packaging-process-for-non-autoclavable-endoscopes-results-for-the-first-100-microbiological-samples
#12
C Minebois, P Saviuc, J Shum, P Tuvignon, I Pelloux, M-P Brenier-Pinchart, C Landelle, M-R Mallaret
BACKGROUND: A new process for packaging endoscopes (SureStore(®), Medical Innovations Group) immediately after they exit from washing and disinfection in an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) allows for endoscopes to be stored for up to 15 days. AIM: To describe the microbiological quality of samples from gastrointestinal endoscopes following this process. METHODS: Three-month prospective study using microbiological sampling from a stock of 38 gastrointestinal endoscopes carried out in a French University Hospital...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683149/tlr2-and-interleukin-10-are-involved-in-bacteroides-fragilis-mediated-prevention-of-dss-induced-colitis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#13
Yi-Chih Chang, Yung-Hao Ching, Chien-Chao Chiu, Ju-Yun Liu, Shao-Wen Hung, Wen-Ching Huang, Yen-Te Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacteroides fragilis (BF) are Gram-negative anaerobe symbionts present in the colon. Recent studies have reported the beneficial role of BF in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, stimulating host immunologic development, and preventing infectious colitis caused by pathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies showed that monocolonization of germ-free mice with BF significantly reduced colon inflammations and damage. METHODS: In order to investigate the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) molecular signaling pathways involved in BF-mediated prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683093/regulation-of-gut-luminal-serotonin-by-commensal-microbiota-in-mice
#14
Tomokazu Hata, Yasunari Asano, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Tae Kimura-Todani, Noriyuki Miyata, Xue-Ting Zhang, Shu Takakura, Yuji Aiba, Yasuhiro Koga, Nobuyuki Sudo
Gut lumen serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) contributes to several gastrointestinal functions such as peristaltic reflexes. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in response to a number of stimuli, including signals from the gut microbiota. However, the specific mechanism by which the gut microbiota regulates 5-HT levels in the gut lumen has not yet been clarified. Our previous work with gnotobiotic mice showed that free catecholamines can be produced by the deconjugation of conjugated catecholamines; hence, we speculated that deconjugation by bacterial enzymes may be one of the mechanisms whereby gut microbes can produce free 5-HT in the gut lumen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677532/establishment-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-9-year-old-male-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#15
Eszter Varga, Csilla Nemes, István Bock, Zsuzsanna Táncos, Sára Berzsenyi, György Lévay, Viktor Román, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from a clinically characterized patient with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was verified by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and by spontaneous in vitro differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Furthermore, the iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Our model might offer a good platform to study the pathomechanism of ASD, also for drug testing, early biomarker discovery and gene therapy studies...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667531/exploring-the-role-of-microbiota-in-the-limiting-of-b1-and-mz-b-cell-numbers-by-naturally-secreted-immunoglobulins
#16
Elodie Mohr, Andreia C Lino
Immunoglobulins (Igs)-or antibodies (Ab)-are important to combat foreign pathogens but also to the immune system homeostasis. We developed the AID(-/-)μS(-/-) mouse model devoid of total soluble Igs and suitable to monitor the role of Igs on immune homeostasis. We used this experimental system to uncover a negative feedback control of marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells numbers by naturally secreted Igs. We raised AID(-/-)μS(-/-) mice in germ-free conditions demonstrating that this effect of natural secreted Igs is independent of the microbiota...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660318/reduced-volume-radiotherapy-for-patients-with-localized-intracranial-nongerminoma-germ-cell-tumors
#17
Brian De, Oren Cahlon, Ira J Dunkel, Kevin C De Braganca, Yasmin Khakoo, Stephen W Gilheeney, Mark M Souweidane, Suzanne L Wolden
Craniospinal irradiation is standard radiotherapy (RT) for localized intracranial nongerminoma germ cell tumors (NGGCT). Given its toxicity, there is interest in using smaller fields. We examined outcomes of NGGCT patients receiving reduced-volume RT at a single institution. Records of 16 patients who received reduced-volume RT as part of definitive treatment between 1996 and 2016 were reviewed. Median age at presentation was 10.8 years (range 4.6-41.0 years). Ten patients had pineal tumors and 6 had suprasellar tumors...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658802/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-on-testicular-function-and-the-role-of-antioxidants-in-improving-it-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Nematollah Asadi, Mahmoud Bahmani, Arash Kheradmand, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Oxidative stress is an important factor for development of male infertility because of very high rate of cell division and mitochondrial oxygen consumption in testicular tissue as well as comparably higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in this tissue than in other tissues. Moreover, the level of oxygen pressure is low due to the weakness of testicular artery; therefore, there is a severe cell competition for oxygen. Therefore, the testicular tissue and male reproductive system are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650151/orthogonal-comparison-of-gc-ms-and-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-for-short-chain-fatty-acid-quantitation
#19
Jingwei Cai, Jingtao Zhang, Yuan Tian, Limin Zhang, Emmanuel Hatzakis, Kristopher W Krausz, Philip B Smith, Frank J Gonzalez, Andrew D Patterson
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important regulators of host physiology and metabolism and may contribute to obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Interest in SCFAs has increased in part due to the recognized importance of how production of SCFAs by the microbiota may signal to the host. Therefore, reliable, reproducible, and affordable methods for SCFA profiling are required for accurate identification and quantitation. In the current study, four different methods for SCFA (acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) extraction and quantitation were compared using two independent platforms including gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
June 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#20
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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