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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087885/absence-of-intestinal-microbiota-increases-%C3%A3-cyclodextrin-stimulated-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#1
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
SCOPE: Non-digestible oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics for perceived health benefits, among these modulating lipid metabolism. However, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The present study characterized the impact of dietary ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD, 10%, w/w), a cyclic oligosaccharide, on sterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in conventional and also germ-free mice to establish dependency on metabolism by intestinal bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: In conventional ßCD-fed C57BL/6J wild-type mice plasma cholesterol decreased significantly (-40%, p<0...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072818/glucose-abl1-tor-signaling-modulates-cell-cycle-tuning-to-control-terminal-appressorial-cell-differentiation
#2
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard A Wilson
The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon-responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia)...
January 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071630/ovarian-tumors-in-children-10-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#3
B Rajeswari, M Nair, A Ninan, K Parukuttyamma
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are uncommon in childhood and constitute around 1% of childhood malignancies. Two thirds of pediatric ovarian tumors are germ cell tumors. Epithelial ovarian tumors and stromal tumors are less frequent. We share our experience in childhood ovarian cancers, analyzing a series of cases with respect to the clinical profile, treatment and survival. METHODS: All newly diagnosed ovarian tumors in children up to 14 years of age, registered in our Pediatric Oncology Division between January 2000 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064242/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-activity-is-required-for-allogeneic-t-cell-responses-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-mice
#4
David Askew, Tej Pareek, Saada Eid, Sudipto Ganguly, Megan Tyler, Alex Y Huang, John J Letterio, Kenneth R Cooke
Molecular intermediates in T cell activation pathways are crucial targets for the therapy and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We recently identified an essential role for cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in T cell activation and effector function, but the contribution of Cdk5 activity to the development of GVHD has not been explored. Using an established, pre-clinical, murine, GVHD model we reveal that Cdk5 activity is increased in key target organs early after allogeneic HCT...
November 14, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062491/reverse-cholesterol-transport-is-increased-in-germ-free-mice
#5
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiota is emerging as a clinically relevant modulator of atherosclerotic risk. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is an atheroprotective metabolic pathway. How the microbiota impacts RCT has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize cholesterol metabolism and RCT in germ-free mice compared with conventional mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In chow-fed germ-free mice, plasma cholesterol was unchanged, whereas liver cholesterol content was higher (1...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057792/a-novel-view-of-the-adult-stem-cell-compartment-from-the-perspective-of-a-quiescent-population-of-very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janina Ratajczak, Malwina Suszynska, Donald M Miller, Magda Kucia, Dong-Myung Shin
Evidence has accumulated that adult hematopoietic tissues and other organs contain a population of dormant stem cells (SCs) that are more primitive than other, already restricted, monopotent tissue-committed SCs (TCSCs). These observations raise several questions, such as the developmental origin of these cells, their true pluripotent or multipotent nature, which surface markers they express, how they can be efficiently isolated from adult tissues, and what role they play in the adult organism. The phenotype of these cells and expression of some genes characteristic of embryonic SCs, epiblast SCs, and primordial germ cells suggests their early-embryonic deposition in developing tissues as precursors of adult SCs...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056091/respiration-of-microbiota-derived-1-2-propanediol-drives-salmonella-expansion-during-colitis
#7
Franziska Faber, Parameth Thiennimitr, Luisella Spiga, Mariana X Byndloss, Yael Litvak, Sara Lawhon, Helene L Andrews-Polymenis, Sebastian E Winter, Andreas J Bäumler
Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054231/regulation-of-root-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-phytohormone-secreting-epiphytic-methylobacteria
#8
Jana Klikno, Ulrich Kutschera
In numerous experimental studies, seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have been raised on sterile mineral salt agar. However, under natural conditions, no plant has ever grown in an environment without bacteria. Here, we document that germ-free (gnotobiotic) seedlings, raised on mineral salt agar without sucrose, develop very short root hairs. In the presence of a soil extract that contains naturally occurring microbes, root hair elongation is promoted; this effect can be mimicked by the addition of methylobacteria to germ-free seedlings...
January 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052076/diet-matters-endotoxin-in-the-diet-impacts-the-level-of-allergic-sensitization-in-germ-free-mice
#9
Martin Schwarzer, Dagmar Srutkova, Petra Hermanova, Francois Leulier, Hana Kozakova, Irma Schabussova
Germ-free animals have been used to define the vital role of commensal bacteria on the maturation of the host immune system. However, the role of bacterial residues in diet in this setting is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of bacterial contamination in sterile diet on the level of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Sterile grain-based diets ST1 and R03 were tested for the level of bacterial contamination. ST1 contained higher amount of bacterial DNA, approximately ten times more endotoxin, and induced higher, TLR4-dependent, cytokine production in dendritic cells compared to R03...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045458/bacteria-isolated-from-lung-modulate-asthma-susceptibility-in-mice
#10
Aude Remot, Delphyne Descamps, Marie-Louise Noordine, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Elliot Mathieu, Véronique Robert, Sabine Riffault, Bart Lambrecht, Philippe Langella, Hamida Hammad, Muriel Thomas
Asthma is a chronic, non-curable, multifactorial disease with increasing incidence in industrial countries. This study evaluates the direct contribution of lung microbial components in allergic asthma in mice. Germ-Free and Specific-Pathogen-Free mice display similar susceptibilities to House Dust Mice-induced allergic asthma, indicating that the absence of bacteria confers no protection or increased risk to aeroallergens. In early life, allergic asthma changes the pattern of lung microbiota, and lung bacteria reciprocally modulate aeroallergen responsiveness...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030369/intestinal-microbiota-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#11
Johannes R Hov, Martin Kummen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alterations of the gut-liver axis have been linked to the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) since the disease was first described. The purpose of this review is to discuss multiple recent studies on the intestinal microbiota in human PSC and experimental models of this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Data are available from eight cross-sectional studies of human PSC, which include a variable number of patients (n = 11-85), material (mucosal or fecal), and microbiota profiling methodology...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018362/visualization-of-probiotic-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-vivo
#12
Takahiro Adachi, Shigeru Kakuta, Yoshiko Aihara, Tomonori Kamiya, Yohei Watanabe, Naomi Osakabe, Naoki Hazato, Atsushi Miyawaki, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Takako Usami, Hajime Karasuyama, Hiromi Kimoto-Nira, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Noriko M Tsuji
Probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus subtilis var. natto, have been shown to modulate immune responses. It is important to understand how probiotic bacteria impact intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), because IECs are the first line of defense at the mucosal surface barrier and their activities substantially affect the gut microenvironment and immunity. However, to date, their precise mechanism remains unknown due to a lack of analytical systems available for live animal models. Recently, we generated a conditional Ca(2+) biosensor Yellow Cameleon (YC3...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018325/sensitive-quantitative-analysis-of-the-meconium-bacterial-microbiota-in-healthy-term-infants-born-vaginally-or-by-cesarean-section
#13
Ravinder Nagpal, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takuya Takahashi, Kazunari Kawashima, Satoru Nagata, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro
For decades, babies were thought to be born germ-free, but recent evidences suggest that they are already exposed to various bacteria in utero. However, the data on population levels of such pioneer gut bacteria, particularly in context to birth mode, is sparse. We herein aimed to quantify such bacteria from the meconium of 151 healthy term Japanese infants born vaginally or by C-section. Neonatal first meconium was obtained within 24-48 h of delivery; RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse-transcription-quantitative PCR using specific primers for Clostridium coccoides group, C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017833/protein-palmitoylation-by-zdhhc13-protects-skin-against-microbial-driven-dermatitis
#14
Li-Ying Chen, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Chun-Chou Tsai, Christina Li-Ping Thio, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Liang-Tung Yang, Li-Fen Shen, I-Wen Song, Kai-Ming Liu, Yen-Te Huang, Fu-Tong Liu, Ya-Jen Chang, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Jeffrey J Y Yen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disorder that results from intimate interactions between genetic predisposition, host environment, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. However, a clear genetic roadmap leading to AD remains to be fully explored. From a genome-wide mutagenesis screen, deficiency of ZDHHC13, a palmitoylacyl transferase, has previously been associated with skin and multi-tissue inflammatory phenotypes. Here, we report that ZDHHC13 is required for skin barrier integrity and that deficiency of ZDHHC13 renders mice susceptible to environmental bacteria, resulting in persistent skin inflammation and an AD-like disease...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008190/central-diabetes-insipidus
#15
REVIEW
Hiroshi Arima, Yoshinori Azuma, Yoshiaki Morishita, Daisuke Hagiwara
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone which acts on V2 receptors in kidney to promote reabsorption of free water. CDI is classified into three subtypes; idiopathic, secondary and familial. A previous study suggests that infundibulo-neurohypophysitis might be an underlying cause of idiopathic CDI. Among secondary CDI, the tumors in the central nervous system such as craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors are the most frequent causes...
December 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000927/does-detection-of-ddx4-mrna-in-cell-free-seminal-plasma-represents-a-reliable-noninvasive-germ-cell-marker-in-patients-with-nonobstructive-azoospermia
#16
W Abdallah, D Hashad, R Abdelmaksoud, M M Hashad
This study aimed to investigate the potential application of DDX4 gene expression in cell-free seminal mRNA as a noninvasive biomarker for the identification of the presence of germ cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia and to correlate this factor with testicular biopsy. Male reproductive organ-specific genes were chosen: DDX4, which is a germ cell-specific gene and transglutaminase 4, which is a prostate-specific gene that was used as a control gene. Thirty-nine azoospermic males and twenty-eight normospermic fertile males (serving as a control group) participated in the study...
December 21, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000382/aging-impairs-double-strand-break-repair-by-homologous-recombination-in-drosophila-germ-cells
#17
Laetitia Delabaere, Henry A Ertl, Dashiell J Massey, Carolyn M Hofley, Faraz Sohail, Elisa J Bienenstock, Hans Sebastian, Irene Chiolo, Jeannine R LaRocque
Aging is characterized by genome instability, which contributes to cancer formation and cell lethality leading to organismal decline. The high levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) observed in old cells and premature aging syndromes are likely a primary source of genome instability, but the underlying cause of their formation is still unclear. DSBs might result from higher levels of damage or repair defects emerging with advancing age, but repair pathways in old organisms are still poorly understood. Here, we show that premeiotic germline cells of young and old flies have distinct differences in their ability to repair DSBs by the error-free pathway homologous recombination (HR)...
December 21, 2016: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999597/construction-of-a-dual-fluorescence-reporter-system-to-monitor-the-dynamic-progression-of-pluripotent-cell-differentiation
#18
Wu-Sheng Sun, Ju-Lan Chun, Jeong-Tae Do, Dong-Hwan Kim, Jin-Seop Ahn, Min-Kyu Kim, In-Sul Hwang, Dae-Jin Kwon, Seong-Soo Hwang, Jeong-Woong Lee
Oct4 is a crucial germ line-specific transcription factor expressed in different pluripotent cells and downregulated in the process of differentiation. There are two conserved enhancers, called the distal enhancer (DE) and proximal enhancer (PE), in the 5' upstream regulatory sequences (URSs) of the mouse Oct4 gene, which were demonstrated to control Oct4 expression independently in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We analyzed the URSs of the pig Oct4 and identified two similar enhancers that were highly consistent with the mouse DE and PE...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975269/egg-activation-at-fertilization
#19
Zoltan Machaty, Andrew R Miller, Lu Zhang
Fertilization is the union of gametes to initiate development of a new individual. The female gamete is formed during oogenesis. The process begins when, in the early embryo, primordial germ cells arise and subsequently colonize the genital ridges. They differentiate into oogonia, start meiosis, and become primary oocytes. The cell cycle of the primary oocytes then becomes arrested in mid-meiosis for an extended period of time. Prior to ovulation the oocytes undergo a growth phase and their sizes increase significantly...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975086/ligand-responsive-upregulation-of-3-cite-mediated-translation-in-a-wheat-germ-cell-free-expression-system
#20
Atsushi Ogawa, Yuta Murashige, Junichiro Tabuchi, Taiki Omatsu
We have rationally constructed a novel regulation-type of artificial riboswitch that ligand-dose dependently upregulates translation initiation mediated by a 3' cap-independent translation element (3' CITE) with no major hybridization switches in a plant expression system (wheat germ extract).
December 15, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
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