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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087927/genome-wide-approaches-to-defining-macrophage-identity-and-function
#1
Gregory J Fonseca, Jason S Seidman, Christopher K Glass
Macrophages play essential roles in the response to injury and infection and contribute to the development and/or homeostasis of the various tissues they reside in. Conversely, macrophages also influence the pathogenesis of metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic diversity of macrophages in health and disease remain poorly understood. Here we review the recent application of genome-wide approaches to characterize the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of tissue-resident macrophages...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#2
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087239/on-going-mechanical-damage-from-mastication-drives-homeostatic-th17-cell-responses-at-the-oral-barrier
#3
Nicolas Dutzan, Loreto Abusleme, Hayley Bridgeman, Teresa Greenwell-Wild, Tamsin Zangerle-Murray, Mark E Fife, Nicolas Bouladoux, Holly Linley, Laurie Brenchley, Kelly Wemyss, Gloria Calderon, Bo-Young Hong, Timothy J Break, Dawn M E Bowdish, Michail S Lionakis, Simon A Jones, Giorgio Trinchieri, Patricia I Diaz, Yasmine Belkaid, Joanne E Konkel, Niki M Moutsopoulos
Immuno-surveillance networks operating at barrier sites are tuned by local tissue cues to ensure effective immunity. Site-specific commensal bacteria provide key signals ensuring host defense in the skin and gut. However, how the oral microbiome and tissue-specific signals balance immunity and regulation at the gingiva, a key oral barrier, remains minimally explored. In contrast to the skin and gut, we demonstrate that gingiva-resident T helper 17 (Th17) cells developed via a commensal colonization-independent mechanism...
January 6, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081575/what-arthroscopic-skills-need-to-be-trained-before-continuing-safe-training-in-the-operating-room
#4
Gabrielle Tuijthof, Federico Cabitza, Vincenza Ragone, Riccardo Compagnoni, Pietro Randelli
The purpose of this study was to generate consensus among experienced surgeons on "what skills a resident should possess before continuing safe training in the operating room (OR)." An online survey of 65 questions was developed and distributed to surgeons in the European community. A total of 216 responded. The survey included 15 questions regarding generic and specific skills; 16 on patient and tissue manipulation, 11 on knowledge of pathology and 6 on inspection of e-anatomical structures; 5 methods to prepare residents; and 12 on specific skills exercises...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081235/comprehensive-rna-seq-profiling-to-evaluate-the-sheep-mammary-gland-transcriptome-in-response-to-experimental-mycoplasma-agalactiae-infection
#5
Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly, Melanie Korb, René Brunthaler, Reinhard Ertl
Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081153/dermal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-do-not-freely-re-circulate-out-of-skin-and-produce-il-17-to-promote-neutrophil-infiltration-during-primary-contact-hypersensitivity
#6
Xiaodong Jiang, Chang Ook Park, Jenna Geddes Sweeney, Min Jae Yoo, Olivier Gaide, Thomas Seth Kupper
The role of mouse dermal γδ T cells in inflammatory skin disorders and host defense has been studied extensively. It is known that dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) have a monomorphic γδ T cell receptor (TCR) and reside in murine epidermis from birth. We asked if dermal γδ cells freely re-circulated out of skin, or behaved more like dermal resident memory T cells (TRM) in mice. We found that, unlike epidermal γδ T cells (DETC), dermal γδ cells are not homogeneous with regard to TCR, express the tissue resident T cell markers CD69 and CD103, bear skin homing receptors, and produce IL-17 and IL-22...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079888/antiphospholipid-antibodies-enhance-rat-neonatal-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-in-an-in-vitro-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-model-via-p38-mapk
#7
Lauren T Bourke, Thomas McDonnell, James McCormick, Charis Pericleous, Vera M Ripoll, Ian Giles, Anisur Rahman, Anastasis Stephanou, Yiannis Ioannou
A significant amount of myocardial damage during a myocardial infarction (MI) occurs during the reperfusion stage, termed ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and accounts for up to 50% of total infarcted tissue post-MI. During the reperfusion phase, a complex interplay of multiple pathways and mechanisms is activated, which ultimately leads to cell death, primarily through apoptosis. There is some evidence from a lupus mouse model that lupus IgG, specifically the antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody subset, is pathogenic in mesenteric I/R injury...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078092/severe-obesity-emotions-and-eating-habits-a-case-control-study
#8
M Koski, H Naukkarinen
BACKGROUND: Obesity has a multifaceted etiology that involves genetic, biological and behavioral factors, body growth, eating habits, energy expenditure and the function of adipose tissue. The present study aimed to expand upon knowledge about the relationships among obesity, emotions and eating habits in severely obese individuals using a case-control method. METHODS: The subject group consisted of 112 individuals (81 females and 31 males) receiving a permanent disability pension primarily for obesity...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074367/assessment-of-metal-contamination-in-the-hun-river-china-and-evaluation-of-the-fish-zacco-platypus-and-the-snail-radix-swinhoei-as-potential-biomonitors
#9
Xing Wu, Shaofeng Wang, Hongxing Chen, Zhiqiang Jiang, Hongwei Chen, Mi Gao, Ran Bi, Paul L Klerks, He Wang, Yongju Luo, Lingtian Xie
The Hun River is a major tributary of the Liao River in the northeast area of China and provides drinking water for 23 million local residents. This study was designed to assess the severity of metal contamination in the Hun River and the potential use of indigenous organisms (the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei) as biomonitors of metal contamination. Water, sediment, and the native fish and snails were collected at four sampling sites that differed in their physicochemical characteristics and their contamination levels...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#10
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors required for production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during S. mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069607/lysophosphatidic-acid-converts-monocytes-into-macrophages-in-both-mice-and-humans
#11
Rashmi Ray, Vivek Rai
Monocytes and macrophages represent critical arms of the innate immune system and are considered regulators and effectors of inflammation and innate immune response. Monocytes can mobilize from bone marrow, traffic to their required destination and differentiate into effector cells depending on the local tissue environment to perform multiple roles during infection or inflammation, making them an important component of body's immune defense. Macrophages have diverse roles in tissue homeostasis, development as well as tissue repair following injury...
January 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069369/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-in-the-vicinity-of-an-expanded-polystyrene-material-manufacturing-plant-in-tianjin-china
#12
Hongkai Zhu, Kai Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Fei Wang, Yiming Yao
To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068953/pregnant-human-peripheral-leukocyte-migration-during-several-late-pregnancy-clinical-conditions-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#13
Jun Takeda, Xin Fang, David M Olson
BACKGROUND: Parturition at term and preterm is characterized by sterile inflammatory processes occurring in the absence of infection whereby peripheral leukocytes infiltrate gestational tissues in response to chemotactic signals. In response to a homing signal, recruited leukocytes undergo diapedesis and extravasate through capillaries, migrating into stromal tissue. There they interact with resident immune and stromal cells to produce a mixture of matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandins and cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 that in turn transform the uterus from pregnancy to parturition...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068899/maternal-bmi-as-a-predictor-of-methylation-of-obesity-related-genes-in-saliva-samples-from-preschool-age-hispanic-children-at-risk-for-obesity
#14
Kathryn Tully Oelsner, Yan Guo, Sophie Bao-Chieu To, Amy L Non, Shari L Barkin
BACKGROUND: The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity...
January 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067461/phagocytosis-and-immune-response-studies-of-macrophage-nanodiamond-interactions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
K-J Huang, C-Y Lee, Y-C Lin, C-Y Lin, E Perevedentseva, S-F Hung, C-L Cheng
The applications of nanodiamond as drug delivery and bio-imaging can require the relinquishing ND-drug conjugate via blood flow, where interaction with immune cells may occur. In this work, we investigated the ND penetration in macrophage and the immune response using the tissue-resident murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Confocal fluorescence imaging, immunofluorescence analysis of nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor IRF-3 and transcriptional factor NF-κΒ, analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines production IL-1β, IL-6 IL-10 with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique were applied...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067223/the-microbiota-maintain-homeostasis-of-liver-resident-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-17-cells-in-a-lipid-antigen-cd1d-dependent-manner
#16
Fenglei Li, Xiaolei Hao, Yongyan Chen, Li Bai, Xiang Gao, Zhexiong Lian, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
The microbiota control regional immunity using mechanisms such as inducing IL-17A-producing γδ T (γδT-17) cells in various tissues. However, little is known regarding hepatic γδT cells that are constantly stimulated by gut commensal microbes. Here we show hepatic γδT cells are liver-resident cells and predominant producers of IL-17A. The microbiota sustain hepatic γδT-17 cell homeostasis, including activation, survival and proliferation. The global commensal quantity affects the number of liver-resident γδT-17 cells; indeed, E...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066812/the-denture-associated-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-stomatitis
#17
Baochen Shi, Tingxi Wu, Jeffrey McLean, Anna Edlund, Youngik Young, Xuesong He, Hongyang Lv, Xuedong Zhou, Wenyuan Shi, Huiying Li, Renate Lux
While investigation of the microbiome on natural oral surfaces has generated a wealth of information, few studies have examined the microbial communities colonizing dentures and their relationship to oral health. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the bacterial community associated with dentures and remaining teeth in healthy individuals and patients with denture stomatitis. The microbiome compositions of matched denture and tooth plaque samples of 10 healthy individuals and 9 stomatitis patients were determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063988/engineered-extracellular-microenvironment-with-a-tunable-mechanical-property-for-controlling-cell-behavior-and-cardiomyogenic-fate-of-cardiac-stem-cells
#18
Min-Young Choi, Jong-Tae Kim, Won-Jin Lee, Yunki Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young-Il Yang, Ki Dong Park
: Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are known to play a certain role in the myocardial homeostasis of the adult heart. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding CSCs provides mechanical signals to regulate a variety of cell behaviors, yet the impact in the adult heart of these mechanical properties of ECM on CSC renewal and fate decisions is mostly unknown. To elucidate CSC mechanoresponses at the individual cell and myocardial level, we used the sol-to-gel transitional gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) hydrogel with a tunable mechanical property to construct a three-dimensional (3D) matrix for culturing native myocardium and CSCs...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063059/experimental-arthritis-mouse-models-driven-by-adaptive-and-or-innate-inflammation
#19
W Razawy, C H Alves, M Molendijk, P S Asmawidjaja, A M C Mus, E Lubberts
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease mainly affecting synovial joints. The clinical presentation of RA shows the heterogeneity of this disease with its underlying complex interactions between the innate and adaptive immune system and flare-ups of disease. Different disease models such as collagen induced arthritis, antigen induced arthritis, and Streptococcal cell wall induced arthritis can be exploited to investigate different aspects of the pathogenesis of arthritis. The disease can be monitored macroscopically over time via scoring systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062300/positively-charged-polypeptide-nanogel-enhances-mucoadhesion-and-penetrability-of-10-hydroxycamptothecin-in-orthotopic-bladder-carcinoma
#20
Hui Guo, Weiguo Xu, Jinjin Chen, Lesan Yan, Jianxun Ding, Yuchuan Hou, Xuesi Chen
Bladder cancer (BC) has become a serious public health problem due to its continuously rising incidence, high recurrence rate, and poor quality of life. Intravesical instillation of chemotherapy, one of common and important treatment strategy for BC, is restricted partially due to the short residence time and the low penetration ability of current antineoplastic agent formulations in clinic. Herein, a positively charged disulfide-core-crosslinked polypeptide nanogel of poly(l-lysine)-poly(l-phenylalanine-co-l-cystine) (PLL-P(LP-co-LC)) was synthesized...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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