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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786958/variability-in-student-perceptions-of-mistreatment
#1
Samantha Ellis, Joel Purkiss, Emily Abdoler, Amanda Opaskar, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Joseph C Kolars, Sally A Santen
BACKGROUND: As medical schools strive to improve the learning environment, it is important to understand medical students' perceptions of mistreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore student interpretations of previously reported mistreatment incidents to better understand how they conceptualise the interactions. METHODS: Medical students were presented with case scenarios of previously reported instances of mistreatment and asked to indicate their agreement as to whether the scenarios demonstrated mistreatment, using a five-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781149/supporting-advanced-dementia-in-people-with-down-syndrome-and-other-intellectual-disability-consensus-statement-of-the-international-summit-on-intellectual-disability-and-dementia
#2
M McCarron, P McCallion, A Coppus, J Fortea, S Stemp, M Janicki, K Wtachman
BACKGROUND: The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia (Glasgow, Scotland; October 2016) noted that advanced dementia can be categorised as that stage of dementia progression characterised by significant losses in cognitive and physical function, including a high probability of further deterioration and leading to death. METHOD: The question before the Summit was whether there were similarities and differences in expressions of advanced dementia between adults with intellectual disability (ID) and adults in the general population...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780768/lack-of-school-requirements-and-clinician-recommendations-for-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#3
Linda M Niccolai, Anna L North, Alison Footman, Caitlin E Hansen
Background: A strong recommendation from a clinician is one of the best predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents, yet many clinicians do not provide effective recommendations. The objective of this study was to understand how the lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination influences clinicians' recommendations. Design and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 32 clinicians were conducted in 2015 in Connecticut USA...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765260/attitude-and-perception-of-undergraduate-medical-students-toward-the-problem-based-learning-in-chitwan-medical-college-nepal
#4
Ram Lochan Yadav, Rano Mal Piryani, Gopendra Prasad Deo, Dev Kumar Shah, Laxmi Kumari Yadav, Md Nazrul Islam
Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into Basic Medical Sciences early in the 1980s at Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal, followed by other universities where didactic lecture method was still followed as the main teaching strategy. Despite gaining its popularity worldwide as integrated teaching learning method, PBL is not given importance in Nepal. This study aimed to assess the attitude and perceptions of undergraduate medical students regarding learning outcomes of PBL and to know their views about role and qualities of effective tutors for its successful implementation...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762312/the-influence-of-occupation-on-wellbeing-as-experienced-by-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#5
Christina Jessen-Winge, Mille Nyboe Petersen, Anne-Le Morville
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to synthesize knowledge regarding which types of occupations the elderly perceive as important to and supporting their overall wellbeing. INTRODUCTION: Being active is an important part of managing the daily challenges of advanced old age. Occupational therapy and occupational science are based on the premise that a person's occupations are intertwined with their health and are thus needed for them to experience a meaningful life and improve their wellbeing...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760220/quantifying-atherogenic-lipoproteins-current-and-future-challenges-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine-and-vldl-cholesterol-a-consensus-statement-from-eas-and-eflm
#6
Michel R Langlois, M John Chapman, Christa Cobbaert, Samia Mora, Alan T Remaley, Emilio Ros, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Hannsjörg Baum, Eric Bruckert, Alberico Catapano, Olivier S Descamps, Arnold von Eckardstein, Pia R Kamstrup, Genovefa Kolovou, Florian Kronenberg, Anne Langsted, Kari Pulkki, Nader Rifai, Grazyna Sypniewska, Olov Wiklund, B Rge G Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: The European Atherosclerosis Society-European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Consensus Panel aims to provide recommendations to optimize atherogenic lipoprotein quantification for cardiovascular risk management. CONTENT: We critically examined LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL particle number assays based on key criteria for medical application of biomarkers. ( a ) Analytical performance: Discordant LDL cholesterol quantification occurs when LDL cholesterol is measured or calculated with different assays, especially in patients with hypertriglyceridemia >175 mg/dL (2 mmol/L) and low LDL cholesterol concentrations <70 mg/dL (1...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760183/neural-mechanisms-underlying-individual-differences-in-control-averse-behavior
#7
Sarah Rudorf, Katrin Schmelz, Thomas Baumgartner, Roland Wiest, Urs Fischbacher, Daria Knoch
When another person tries to control one's decisions, some people might comply, but many will feel the urge to act against that control. This control aversion can lead to suboptimal decisions and it affects social interactions in many societal domains. To date, however, it has been unclear what drives individual differences in control-averse behavior. Here, we address this issue by measuring brain activity with fMRI while healthy female and male human participants make choices that are either free or controlled by another person, with real consequences to both interaction partners...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757486/global-status-of-diabetes-prevention-and-prospects-for-action-a-consensus-statement
#8
REVIEW
Mahmoud Ibrahim, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Pablo Aschner, Lucille Beseler, Avivit Cahn, Robert H Eckel, Amy Hess Fischl, George Guthrie, James O Hill, Mick Kumwenda, R David Leslie, Darin E Olson, Paolo Pozzilli, Sandra L Weber, Guillermo E Umpierrez
Primary prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) should be achievable through the implementation of early and sustainable measures. Such prevention follows from addressing modifiable risk factors that predispose an individual to prediabetes, which then gradually progresses to T2D. Several randomised control studies that have found success in preventing the progression to T2D in high-risk populations1,2 have identified early and intensive intervention based on an individualised prevention model as the key factor for participant benefit...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756255/comparative-optimism-in-older-adults-future-health-expectations
#9
Karen Vanderzanden, Joelle C Ruthig
OBJECTIVES: Despite a common belief that health declines with age, many older adults remain optimistic about their future health. However, the longitudinal impact of personal and comparatively optimistic future health estimates (FHEs) is unclear. METHOD: Among 408 older adults (Mage  = 70.32 years), this study identified the prevalence, source, and two-year stability of comparatively optimistic FHEs; examined demographic, psychosocial, and health correlates of comparative FHEs; and assessed the role of comparative FHEs in predicting eight-year survival odds...
May 13, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753688/citrus-fruits-intake-and-oral-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Santa Cirmi, Michele Navarra, Jayne V Woodside, Marie M Cantwell
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between Citrus intake and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched until September 2017. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, Citrus oil, fruits, oral cancer, mouth cancer, mouth neoplasm. STUDY SELECTION: The selection of studies and the systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740194/opinions-of-israeli-neonatologists-about-life-and-death-decisions-in-neonates
#11
Moshe Y Kasirer, Francis B Mimouni, Alona Bin-Nun, Michael S Schimmel
BACKGROUND: In 2005, the Israeli parliament passed the "law of dying patients" legalizing life and death decisions (do not resuscitate) in patients with life expectancy less than 6 months. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ethnic and religious backgrounds (both religion and religiosity) influence neonatologists' attitudes in simulated clinical situations and opinions about the new law. DESIGN/METHODS: Prospective design, using standard questionnaire sent to all 155 board-certified practising Israeli Neonatologists...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736680/same-gender-distractors-are-not-so-easy-to-reject-erp-evidence-of-gender-categorization
#12
Tamara Rakić, Melanie C Steffens, Holger Wiese
Social categorization appears to be an automatic process that occurs during person perception. Understanding social categorization better is important because mere categorization can lead to stereotype activation and, in turn, to discrimination. In the present study we used a novel approach to examine event-related potentials (ERPs) of gender categorization in the "Who said what?" memory paradigm, thus allowing for a more in-depth understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying identity versus categorization processing...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727377/cardiovascular-nursing-science-priorities-a-statement-from-the-american-heart-association-council-on-cardiovascular-and-stroke-nursing
#13
Mariann R Piano, Nancy T Artinian, Holli A DeVon, Susan T Pressler, Kathleen T Hickey, Deborah A Chyun
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association's (AHA) Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing (CVSN) plays a critical role in advancing the mission of the AHA in the discovery of new scientific knowledge. The aim was to identify priority research topics that would promote and improve cardiovascular (CV) health, provide direction for the education of future nurse scientists, and serve as a resource and catalyst for federal and organizational funding priorities. METHODS: A Qualtrics survey, which included 3 questions about priorities for CVSN nurse researchers, was sent to the CVSN Leadership Committee and all CVSN Fellows of the AHA (n = 208)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724796/gad65-promoter-polymorphism-rs2236418-modulates-harm-avoidance-in-women-via-inhibition-excitation-balance-in-the-rostral-acc
#14
Lejla Colic, Meng Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Shija Li, Iris Müller, Anni Richter, Constanze I Seidenbecher, Oliver Speck, Björn H Schott, Oliver Stork, Martin Walter
Anxiety disorders are common and debilitating conditions with higher prevalence in women. However, factors that predispose women to anxiety phenotypes are not clarified. Here we investigated potential contribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2236418 in GAD2 gene to changes in regional inhibition/excitation balance, anxiety-like traits and related neural activity in both sexes. 105 healthy individuals were examined with high-field (7T) multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including resting state fMRI in combination with assessment of GABA and Glutamate (Glu) levels via MR spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713801/forensic-age-estimation-using-computed-tomography-of-the-medial-clavicular-epiphysis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Coralie Hermetet, Pauline Saint-Martin, Arsène Gambier, Léo Ribier, Bénédicte Sautenet, Camille Rérolle
Medicolegal physicians are increasingly called upon to aid in determining the administrative age group affiliation of refugees with questionable unaccompanied minor claims. According to guidelines for forensic age assessment, age differentiation along the 18-year-old cut-off relies on clavicular ossification. The thin-slice computed tomography scan (TSCTs) of the medial clavicular epiphysis (MCE) is one of the methods contributing to this assessment, though it is not yet universally accepted. The aim of this systematic review was to identify scientific papers where age was assessed using TSCTs of the MCE and to observe whether this examination was reproducible and reliable in estimating a person's age relative to the 18-year-old threshold...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712789/macrophage-depletion-ameliorates-peripheral-neuropathy-in-aging-mice
#16
Xidi Yuan, Dennis Klein, Susanne Kerscher, Brian L West, Joachim Weis, Istvan Katona, Rudolf Martini
Aging is known as a major risk factor for the structure and function of the nervous system. There is urgent need to overcome such deleterious effects of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we show that peripheral nerves of 24-month-old aging C57Bl6 mice of either sex show similar pathological alterations as nerves from aging human individuals while 12 months old adult mice lack such alterations. Specifically, nerve fibers showed de- and remyelination and axonal lesion. Moreover, in the aging mice, neuromuscular junctions showed features typical for dying-back neuropathies, as revealed by a decline of pre-synaptic markers, associated with α-bungarotoxin-positive postsynapses...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712788/mesocorticolimbic-connectivity-and-volumetric-alterations-in-dcc-mutation-carriers
#17
Daniel E Vosberg, Yu Zhang, Aurore Menegaux, Amanda Chalupa, Colleen Manitt, Simone Zehntner, Conrad Eng, Kristina DeDuck, Dominique Allard, France Durand, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Myriam Srour, Ridha Joober, Franco Lepore, Guy Rouleau, Hugo Théoret, Barry J Bedell, Cecilia Flores, Marco Leyton
The axon guidance cue receptor DCC plays a critical role in the organization of mesocorticolimbic pathways in rodents. To investigate whether this occurs in humans, we measured (i) anatomical connectivity between the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (SN/VTA) and forebrain targets, (ii) striatal and cortical volumes, and (iii) putatively associated traits and behaviors. To assess translatability, morphometric data were also collected in Dcc haploinsufficient mice.The human volunteers were 20 DCC +/- mutation carriers, 16 DCC +/+ relatives, and 20 DCC +/+ unrelated healthy volunteers (UHV) (28 females)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708007/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
Gary, R., Dunbar, S. B., Higgins, M., Butts, B., Corwin, E., Hepburn, K., … Miller, A. H. (2018). An Intervention to Improve Physical Function and Caregiver Perceptions in Family Caregivers of Persons With Heart Failure. Journal of Applied Gerontology. E pub ahead of print 19 January 2018. DOI: 10.1177/0733464817746757 In this article, the acknowledgment for the funder in the funding statement was missing. The correct funding statement is given below. The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work is supported in part by the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Nursing Research grant no...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700101/evaluation-of-a-decision-aid-for-incidental-genomic-results-the-genomics-adviser-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Salma Shickh, Marc Clausen, Chloe Mighton, Selina Casalino, Esha Joshi, Emily Glogowski, Kasmintan A Schrader, Adena Scheer, Christine Elser, Seema Panchal, Andrea Eisen, Tracy Graham, Melyssa Aronson, Kara M Semotiuk, Laura Winter-Paquette, Michael Evans, Jordan Lerner-Ellis, June C Carroll, Jada G Hamilton, Kenneth Offit, Mark Robson, Kevin E Thorpe, Andreas Laupacis, Yvonne Bombard
INTRODUCTION: Genome sequencing, a novel genetic diagnostic technology that analyses the billions of base pairs of DNA, promises to optimise healthcare through personalised diagnosis and treatment. However, implementation of genome sequencing faces challenges including the lack of consensus on disclosure of incidental results, gene changes unrelated to the disease under investigation, but of potential clinical significance to the patient and their provider. Current recommendations encourage clinicians to return medically actionable incidental results and stress the importance of education and informed consent...
April 26, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699552/rationing-elective-surgery-for-smokers-and-obese-patients-responsibility-or-prognosis
#20
Virimchi Pillutla, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), a number of National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG) have proposed controversial measures to restrict elective surgery for patients who either smoke or are obese. Whilst the nature of these measures varies between NHS authorities, typically, patients above a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and smokers are required to lose weight and quit smoking prior to being considered eligible for elective surgery. Patients will be supported and monitored throughout this mandatory period to ensure their clinical needs are appropriately met...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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