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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925685/in-vitro-characterization-of-synthoplate-%C3%A2-synthetic-platelet-technology-and-its-in-vivo-evaluation-in-severely-thrombocytopenic-mice
#1
Meenal Shukla, Ujjal D S Sekhon, Venkaiah Betapudi, Wei Li, DaShawn A Hickman, Christa L Pawlowski, Mitchell R Dyer, Matthew D Neal, Keith R McCrae, Anirban Sen Gupta
BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion applications face severe challenges due to the limited availability and portability, high risk of contamination and short shelf-life of platelets. Therefore there is significant interest in synthetic platelet substitutes that can render hemostasis while avoiding these issues. Platelets promote hemostasis by injury site-selective adhesion and aggregation, and propagation of coagulation reactions on their membrane. Based on these mechanisms, we have developed a synthetic platelet technology (SynthoPlate(™) ) that integrates platelet-mimetic site-selective 'adhesion' and 'aggregation' functionalities via heteromultivalent surface-decoration of lipid vesicles with Von Willebrand Factor-binding, collagen-binding and active platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa-binding peptides...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925384/co-micellized-pluronic-mixture-with-thermo-sensitivity-and-residence-stability-as-an-injectable-tissue-adhesion-barrier-hydrogel
#2
Se Heang Oh, Jun Goo Kang, Jin Ho Lee
Although the tissue adhesion which leads to various complications frequently occurs after surgery, the development of an ideal tissue adhesion barrier is still a challenge. In this study, a thermo-sensitive hydrogel, which can fulfill the essential requirements of tissue adhesion barrier (that is, ease of handling for surgeon, flowing down prevention after application, stable residence on the injury during wound healing, and no use of toxic additives), was developed using biocompatible polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol copolymers (Pluronic F127/F68/P123 mixture)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922476/perceptions-of-an-adapted-mindfulness-program-for-persons-experiencing-substance-use-disorders-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Gisli K Kristofersson, Tom Beckers, Rick Krueger
BACKGROUND: Of the 1.4 million Americans who sustain traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) each year up to half experience substance use disorders (SUDs). This often leads to various issues such as increased rates of mental health problems and delay or lack of return to full employment. AIMS: The purpose of this program evaluation was to describe Vinland National Center's (Vinland's) client and staff perceptions of a 4-week mindfulness-based intervention adapted from the original mindfulness-based stress reduction program for persons experiencing SUDs and TBIs...
October 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922179/a-carbon-dioxide-stripping-model-for-mammalian-cell-culture-in-manufacturing-scale-bioreactors
#4
Zizhuo Xing, Amanda M Lewis, Michael C Borys, Zheng Jian Li
Control of carbon dioxide within the optimum range is important in mammalian bioprocesses at the manufacturing scale in order to ensure robust cell growth, high protein yields, and consistent quality attributes. The majority of bioprocess development work is done in laboratory bioreactors, in which carbon dioxide levels are more easily controlled. Some challenges in carbon dioxide control can present themselves when cell culture processes are scaled up, because carbon dioxide accumulation is a common feature due to longer gas-residence time of mammalian cell culture in large scale bioreactors...
December 6, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917249/perspectives-in-flow-based-microfluidic-gradient-generators-for-characterizing-bacterial-chemotaxis
#5
Christopher J Wolfram, Gary W Rubloff, Xiaolong Luo
Chemotaxis is a phenomenon which enables cells to sense concentrations of certain chemical species in their microenvironment and move towards chemically favorable regions. Recent advances in microbiology have engineered the chemotactic properties of bacteria to perform novel functions, but traditional methods of characterizing chemotaxis do not fully capture the associated cell motion, making it difficult to infer mechanisms that link the motion to the microbiology which induces it. Microfluidics offers a potential solution in the form of gradient generators...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911811/the-structure-of-the-catechin-binding-site-of-human-sulfotransferase-1a1
#6
Ian Cook, Ting Wang, Mark Girvin, Thomas S Leyh
We are just beginning to understand the allosteric regulation of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULTs) family-13 disease-relevant enzymes that regulate the activities of hundreds, if not thousands, of signaling small molecules. SULT1A1, the predominant isoform in adult liver, harbors two noninteracting allosteric sites, each of which binds a different molecular family: the catechins (naturally occurring flavonols) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Here, we present the structure of an SULT allosteric binding site-the catechin-binding site of SULT1A1 bound to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910052/a-needleless-liquid-jet-injection-delivery-approach-for-cardiac-gene-therapy
#7
Anthony S Fargnoli, Michael G Katz, Charles R Bridges
Fundamentally, cardiac gene therapy clinical trials have demonstrated that route efficiency is paramount in achieving maximum myocardial expression within safety limits. Gene transfer phenomena are largely influenced by physical transport principles (i.e., pressure, residence time, dispersion trafficking, mechanical resistance) that are independent of therapeutic characteristics. An alternative to intracoronary infusion methods, in an effort to improve efficiency in terms of cardiac specificity, is direct myocardial delivery via surgical injection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906761/surgical-education-and-health-care-reform-defining-the-role-and-value-of-trainees-in-an-evolving-medical-landscape
#8
Oluwadamilola M Fayanju, Reena Aggarwal, Rebeccah B Baucom, Cristina R Ferrone, David Massaro, Kyla P Terhune
OBJECTIVE: Health care reform and surgical education are often separated functionally. However, especially in surgery, where resident trainees often spend twice as much time in residency and fellowship than in undergraduate medical education, one must consider their contributions to health care. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In this short commentary, we briefly review the status of health care in the United States as well as some of the recent and current changes in graduate medical education that pertain to surgical trainees...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906315/effect-of-non-conformal-gold-deposition-on-sers-related-plasmonic-effects
#9
Swe Zin Oo, Martin D B Charlton
Recently, a comprehensive three dimensional computational model based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) has been developed to investigate the properties of surface plasmons resident on metal coated arrays of inverted pyramidal pits used for SERS sensing applications in the form of 'klarite'. This simulation tool allows the identification of a variety of dispersive features including propagating and localized surface plasmons as well as simple diffraction relating to the influence of geometrical features...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905979/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-fiji
#10
Stephen Morrell, Sophia Lin, Isimeli Tukana, Christine Linhart, Richard Taylor, Penina Vatucawaqa, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). METHODS: T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness...
November 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905896/the-impact-of-medical-tourism-on-colorectal-screening-among-korean-americans-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#11
Linda K Ko, Victoria M Taylor, Jihye Yoon, Wade K Copeland, Joo Ha Hwang, Eun Jeong Lee, John Inadomi
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Korean Americans (KAs) in part due to low screening rates. Recent studies suggest that some KA patients engage in medical tourism and receive medical care in their home country. The impact of medical tourism on CRC screening is unknown. The purpose of this paper was to 1) investigate the frequency of medical tourism, 2) examine the association between medical tourism and CRC screening, and 3) characterize KA patients who engage in medical tourism...
December 1, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904475/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-a-cytokine-with-regenerative-functions
#12
REVIEW
Wale Sulaiman, Doan H Nguyen
We review the biology and role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in peripheral nerve injury and regeneration, as it relates to injuries to large nerve trunks (i.e., sciatic nerve, brachial plexus), which often leads to suboptimal functional recovery. Experimental studies have suggested that the reason for the lack of functional recovery resides in the lack of sufficient mature axons reaching their targets, which is a result of the loss of the growth-supportive environment provided by the Schwann cells in the distal stump of injured nerves...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903784/terrain-following-and-applications-caenorhabditis-elegans-swims-along-the-floor-using-a-bump-and-undulate-strategy
#13
Jinzhou Yuan, Hungtang Ko, David M Raizen, Haim H Bau
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans are heavier than water. When submerged in water, they settle to the bottom surface. Observations reveal that the animals do not lie flat on the bottom surface, but remain substantially suspended above the surface through continuous collisions with the surface, while maintaining their swimming gaits. Consequently, the swimming animals follow the bottom surface topography. When the bottom surface is inclined, the animals swim up or down along the incline. As the magnitude of the gravitational force can be easily estimated, this behaviour provides a convenient means to estimate the animal's propulsive thrust...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903456/millifluidic-synthesis-of-amorphous-drug-polysaccharide-nanoparticle-complex-with-tunable-size-intended-for-supersaturating-drug-delivery-applications
#14
The-Thien Tran, Minh-Hiep Nguyen, Yong Zen Tan, Jia Wei Chew, Saif A Khan, Kunn Hadinoto
The conventional bulk mixing method to prepare amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (or drug nanoplex in short) has a major drawback in the lack of size control for the nanoplex produced, hence limiting its potential applications as a supersaturating drug delivery system for bioavailability enhancement of poorly soluble drugs. For this reason, we developed a continuous millifluidic synthesis platform of the drug nanoplex exhibiting high size tunability using curcumin (CUR) and chitosan (CHI) as the models for drug and polysaccharides, respectively...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899916/estdz3-a-new-esterolytic-enzyme-exhibiting-remarkable-thermostability
#15
Dimitra Zarafeta, Zalan Szabo, Danai Moschidi, Hien Phan, Evangelia D Chrysina, Xu Peng, Colin J Ingham, Fragiskos N Kolisis, Georgios Skretas
Lipolytic enzymes that retain high levels of catalytic activity when exposed to a variety of denaturing conditions are of high importance for a number of biotechnological applications. In this study, we aimed to identify new lipolytic enzymes, which are highly resistant to prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. To achieve this, we searched for genes encoding for such proteins in the genomes of a microbial consortium residing in a hot spring located in China. After performing functional genomic screening on a bacterium of the genus Dictyoglomus, which was isolated from this hot spring following in situ enrichment, we identified a new esterolytic enzyme, termed EstDZ3...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899799/population-health-based-approaches-to-utilizing-digital-technology-a-strategy-for-equity
#16
Garth N Graham, MaryLynn Ostrowski, Alyse B Sabina
Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898976/development-and-validation-of-a-deep-learning-algorithm-for-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-retinal-fundus-photographs
#17
Varun Gulshan, Lily Peng, Marc Coram, Martin C Stumpe, Derek Wu, Arunachalam Narayanaswamy, Subhashini Venugopalan, Kasumi Widner, Tom Madams, Jorge Cuadros, Ramasamy Kim, Rajiv Raman, Philip C Nelson, Jessica L Mega, Dale R Webster
Importance: Deep learning is a family of computational methods that allow an algorithm to program itself by learning from a large set of examples that demonstrate the desired behavior, removing the need to specify rules explicitly. Application of these methods to medical imaging requires further assessment and validation. Objective: To apply deep learning to create an algorithm for automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus photographs...
November 29, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898834/the-triticeae-toolbox-combining-phenotype-and-genotype-data-to-advance-small-grains-breeding
#18
Victoria C Blake, Clay Birkett, David E Matthews, David L Hane, Peter Bradbury, Jean-Luc Jannink
The Triticeae Toolbox (; T3) is the database schema enabling plant breeders and researchers to combine, visualize, and interrogate the wealth of phenotype and genotype data generated by the Triticeae Coordinated Agricultural Project (TCAP). T3 enables users to define specific data sets for download in formats compatible with the external tools TASSEL, Flapjack, and R; or to use by software residing on the T3 server for operations such as Genome Wide Association and Genomic Prediction. New T3 tools to assist plant breeders include a Selection Index Generator, analytical tools to compare phenotype trials using common or user-defined indices, and a histogram generator for nursery reports, with applications using the Android OS, and a Field Plot Layout Designer in development...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895924/urinary-arsenic-species-concentration-in-residents-living-near-abandoned-metal-mines-in-south-korea
#19
Jin-Yong Chung, Byoung-Gwon Kim, Byung-Kook Lee, Jai-Dong Moon, Joon Sakong, Man Joong Jeon, Jung-Duck Park, Byung-Sun Choi, Nam-Soo Kim, Seung-Do Yu, Jung-Wook Seo, Byeong-Jin Ye, Hyoun-Ju Lim, Young-Seoub Hong
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a carcinogenic heavy metal that has a species-dependent health effects and abandoned metal mines are a source of significant arsenic exposure. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze urinary arsenic species and their concentration in residents living near abandoned metal mines and to monitor the environmental health effects of abandoned metal mines in Korea. METHODS: This study was performed in 2014 to assess urinary arsenic excretion patterns of residents living near abandoned metal mines in South Korea...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890766/united-states-medical-licensing-exam-step-1-scores-directly-correlate-with-american-board-of-neurological-surgery-scores-a-single-institution-experience
#20
Daniel T Nagasawa, Joel S Beckett, Carlito Lagman, Lawrance K Chung, Benjamin Schmidt, Michael Safaee, Marvin Bergsneider, Neil Martin, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Luke Macyszyn, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery residency is becoming an increasingly competitive match. The process of screening and ultimately ranking applicants is a multifactorial process that lacks uniformity across residency programs. A significant factor that is evaluated is the applicant's performance on the United States Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1. USMLE Step 1 scores are often used to project future success in residency and performance on specialty boards like the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) exam...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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