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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780025/neighbourhood-socioeconomic-position-and-risks-of-major-chronic-diseases-and-all-cause-mortality-a-quasi-experimental-study
#1
Daniel Kim, Richard H Glazier, Brandon Zagorski, Ichiro Kawachi, Philip Oreopoulos
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the health impacts of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) among public housing residents. Because applicants to public housing were assigned to housing projects primarily based on factors other than personal choice, we capitalised on a quasirandom source of variation in neighbourhood of residence to obtain more valid estimates of the health impacts of neighbourhood SEP. DESIGN: Quasiexperimental study. SETTING: Greater Metropolitan Toronto area, Canada...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779300/coroners-recommendations-for-prevention-of-resident-deaths-in-aged-care-the-role-of-primary-care-providers
#2
Georgia Aitken, Athena Demosthenous, Lyndal Bugeja, Melissa Willoughby, Carmel Young, Joseph E Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, very little is known about how coroners consider a role for general practitioners (GPs) and registered nurses (RNs) in recommendations for the prevention of premature death. Involving these professions in recommendations generally directed towards government organisations or residential aged care providers and management may contribute to more successful broader policy changes. The aim of this article was to examine whether coroners' recommendations describe a specific role for GPs and RNs in the prevention of premature death in residential aged care settings and, if so, what domains of practice were considered...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779152/genetic-analysis-of-39-y-str-loci-in-a-han-population-from-henan-province-central-china
#3
Yanmei Huang, Liwei Guo, Mengge Wang, Cui Zhang, Lixia Kang, Kejie Wang, Yalei Ma, Huiyong Jiao, Xi Li, Hongyu Sun
A total of 39 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci included in the advanced commercial six-dye multiplex system (AGCU Database Y30 kit) and a custom-designed four-dye multiplex system were investigated in 259 unrelated healthy Chinese males residing in Henan Province, central China. The haplotype diversity (HD) values were 0.99997 and 1.0000 for the six and four fluorescent-multiplex amplification systems, respectively. The discrimination capacity (DC) values were 0.9961 and 1.0000, respectively. When the 39 Y-STR loci were considered, 259 unique haplotypes were obtained in Henan Han individuals with both the haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity being 1...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778743/separation-of-chloroform-from-a-dilute-solution-using-a-cyclic-peptide-nanotube-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#4
Xin Zhao, Jian Fen Fan, Xia Lan Si, Ling Ling Zhang, Meng Nan Qu
This work firstly explored the potential application of a cyclic peptide nanotube (CPNT) in the separation of chloroform from a dilute solution. Four hydrophobic CPNTs of 8 × (WL)4,5 and 8 × (AL)4,5 all exhibit excellent adsorption characteristics to chloroform. The CPNT diameter, side chain structures and the concentration of chloroform in a solution all affect the adsorption characteristics of chloroform. CHCl3 molecules are overwhelmingly adsorbed on the surfaces of these CPNTs as a cluster, and sporadically reside inside the channels, consistent with the chloroform's potentials of mean force (PMFs) inside and outside the channels...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776526/access-to-trauma-centers-for-road-crashes-in-the-united-states
#5
Wei Hu, Qiao Dong, Chunjiao Dong, Jun Yang, Baoshan Huang
INTRODUCTION: Existing research indicates that around 90% of all U.S. residents have access to at least one level I or II trauma center within 60min. However, a limitation of these estimates lies in that they are based on where people live and not where people are injured, which may overestimate the access to trauma centers for seriously injured patients in fatal crashes. METHOD: In this study, the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data between 2013 and 2014 were collected and analyzed to quantify the access of injured patients to trauma centers for fatal crashes across states...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776473/surgeons-experience-and-perceived-barriers-with-outpatient-shoulder-arthroplasty
#6
Tyler J Brolin, Ryan M Cox, Benjamin M Zmistowski, Surena Namdari, Gerald R Williams, Joseph A Abboud
BACKGROUND: Recently, outpatient total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has been proposed as a safe and cost-effective alternative to the inpatient setting. This study evaluated the expert shoulder surgeon's experience with and perceived barriers to outpatient TSA. METHODS: A secure web application was used to perform an online survey of 484 active American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons members. The survey assessed surgeon practice demographics, experience with TSA/outpatient TSA, and perceived barriers to successful outpatient TSA...
June 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776071/effect-of-ac-electric-field-on-the-dynamics-of-a-vesicle-under-shear-flow-in-the-small-deformation-regime
#7
Kumari Priti Sinha, Rochish M Thaokar
Vesicles or biological cells under simultaneous shear and electric field can be encountered in dielectrophoretic devices or designs used for continuous flow electrofusion or electroporation. In this work, the dynamics of a vesicle subjected to simultaneous shear and uniform alternating current (ac) electric field is investigated in the small deformation limit. The coupled equations for vesicle orientation and shape evolution are derived theoretically, and the resulting nonlinear equations are handled numerically to generate relevant phase diagrams that demonstrate the effect of electrical parameters on the different dynamical regimes such as tank treading (TT), vacillating breathing (VB) [called trembling (TR) in this work], and tumbling (TU)...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772788/application-of-a-protocol-based-on-trap-neuter-return-tnr-to-manage-unowned-urban-cats-on-an-australian-university-campus
#8
Helen Swarbrick, Jacquie Rand
In August 2008, the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia, commenced a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program to manage the population of approximately 69 free-roaming unowned urban cats on its Kensington campus. The goals of the program included an ongoing audit of cats on campus, stabilization of cat numbers through TNR, and a subsequent reduction in cat numbers over time while maintaining the health of remaining campus cats. Continuation of the TNR program over nine years resulted in a current population, as of September 2017, of 15 cats, all desexed (78% reduction)...
May 17, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772690/peritoneal-carcinomatosis-targeting-with-tumor-homing-peptides
#9
REVIEW
Lorena Simón-Gracia, Hedi Hunt, Tambet Teesalu
Over recent decades multiple therapeutic approaches have been explored for improved management of peritoneally disseminated malignancies-a grim condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Intraperitoneal (IP) administration can be used to achieve elevated local concentration and extended half-life of the drugs in the peritoneal cavity to improve their anticancer efficacy. However, IP-administered chemotherapeutics have a short residence time in the IP space, and are not tumor selective. An increasing body of work suggests that functionalization of drugs and nanoparticles with targeting peptides increases their peritoneal retention and provides a robust and specific tumor binding and penetration that translates into improved therapeutic response...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770174/a-simple-technique-to-prolong-molding-time-during-application-of-a-fiberglass-cast-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Mark Ayzenberg, Michael Narvaez, James Raphael
Casting is routinely used for acute and post-operative immobilization and remains a cornerstone in the non-operative management of fractures and deformities. The application of a properly fitted and wellmolded cast, especially for a trainee, can be challenging. We present a simple method of prolonging cure time of fiberglass cast - placing ice in the dip water. Eight-ply, fiveinch fiberglass cast was circumferentially applied to an aluminum-wrapped cardboard cylinder. An electronic, 2-channel temperature sensor (TR-71wf Temp Logger, T&D Corporation, Matsumoto, Japan), accurate to 0...
March 29, 2018: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769371/how-are-we-currently-training-and-maintaining-clinical-readiness-of-us-and-uk-military-surgeons-responsible-for-managing-head-face-and-neck-wounds-on-deployment
#11
John Breeze, J G Combes, J DuBose, D B Powers
INTRODUCTION: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan provided military surgeons from the USA and the UK with extensive experience into the management of injuries to the head, face and neck (HFN) from high energy bullets and explosive weaponry. The challenge is now to maintain the expertise in managing such injuries for future military deployments. METHODS: The manner in which each country approaches four parameters required for a surgeon to competently treat HFN wounds in deployed military environments was compared...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768913/estimation-of-drug-target-residence-times-by-%C3%AF-random-acceleration-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#12
Daria B Kokh, Marta Amaral, Joerg Bomke, Ulrich Grädler, Djordje Musil, Hans-Peter Buchstaller, Matthias K Dreyer, Matthias Frech, Maryse Lowinski, François Vallée, Marc Bianciotto, Alexey Rak, Rebecca C Wade
Drug-target residence time (τ), one of the main determinants of drug efficacy, remains highly challeng-ing to predict computationally and, therefore, is usually not considered in the early stages of drug de-sign. Here, we present an efficient computational method, τ-random acceleration molecular dynamics (τRAMD), for the ranking of drug candidates by their residence time and obtaining insights into ligand-target dissociation mechanisms. We assessed τRAMD on a dataset of 70 diverse drug-like ligands of the N-terminal domain of HSP90α, a pharmaceutically important target with a highly flexible binding site, obtaining computed relative residence times with an accuracy of about 2...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765825/early-career-surgical-practice-for-cerebellopontine-angle-tumors-in-the-era-of-radiosurgery
#13
Giannantonio Spena, Tommaso Sorrentino, Roberto Altieri, Luca Redaelli de Zinis, Roberto Stefini, Pier Paolo Panciani, Marco Fontanella
We analyzed the outcomes of patients with large cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors treated by a skull-base team in which two surgeons (one neurosurgeon and one otological surgeon) were in the beginning of their careers (<40 years old). Data of patients operated on between April 2012 and March 2016 were reviewed. All factors related to surgical training were considered. Thirty-one patients had vestibular schwannomas, while 26 had meningiomas. Mean tumor diameter was 30.6 mm (range, 23-49 mm) for schwannomas and 35 mm (range, 22-51 mm) for meningiomas...
June 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765429/the-potentials-and-caveats-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-in-the-preterm-infant
#14
REVIEW
Judith Gronbach, Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Tobias Reicherzer, Harald Ehrhardt
Preponderance of proinflammatory signals is a characteristic feature of all acute and resulting long-term morbidities of the preterm infant. The proinflammatory actions are best characterized for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is the chronic lung disease of the preterm infant with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and severe consequences for psychomotor development and quality of life. Besides BPD, the immature brain, eye, and gut are also exposed to inflammatory injuries provoked by infection, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen toxicity...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764328/community-based-hearing-screening-for-young-children-using-an-mhealth-service-delivery-model
#15
Shouneez Yousuf Hussein, De Wet Swanepoel, Faheema Mahomed, Leigh Biagio de Jager
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the most common developmental disorders identifiable at birth with its prevalence increasing throughout school years. However, early detection programs are mostly unavailable in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where more than 80% of children with hearing loss reside. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the feasibility of a smartphone-based hearing screening program for preschool children operated by community healthcare workers (CHWs) in community-based early childhood development (ECD) centers...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764134/on-the-possibility-of-singlet-fission-in-crystalline-quaterrylene
#16
Xiaopeng Wang, Xingyu Liu, Cameron Cook, Bohdan Schatschneider, Noa Marom
Singlet fission (SF), the spontaneous down-conversion of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons residing on neighboring molecules, is a promising route to improve organic photovoltaic (OPV) device efficiencies by harvesting two charge carriers from one photon. However, only a few materials have been discovered that exhibit intermolecular SF in the solid state, most of which are acene derivatives. Recently, there has been a growing interest in rylenes as potential SF materials. We use many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to investigate the possibility of intermolecular SF in crystalline perylene and quaterrylene...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761389/isolation-and-phenotyping-of-adult-mouse-microglial-cells
#17
Kathleen Grabert, Barry W McColl
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma and fulfill crucial roles in brain development, homeostasis, and inflammation. The isolation of a pure microglia population from brain tissue enables the examination of microglial phenotypes without the interference of other cell populations. Microglial extractions from the neonatal brain have been described in various protocols, yet the more established and complex adult mouse brain poses a greater challenge. Here we describe a refined protocol including enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of adult mouse brain tissue and removal of myelin by Percoll density gradient...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761157/a-next-generation-sequencing-primer-how-does-it-work-and-what-can-it-do
#18
REVIEW
Yuriy O Alekseyev, Roghayeh Fazeli, Shi Yang, Raveen Basran, Thomas Maher, Nancy S Miller, Daniel Remick
Next-generation sequencing refers to a high-throughput technology that determines the nucleic acid sequences and identifies variants in a sample. The technology has been introduced into clinical laboratory testing and produces test results for precision medicine. Since next-generation sequencing is relatively new, graduate students, medical students, pathology residents, and other physicians may benefit from a primer to provide a foundation about basic next-generation sequencing methods and applications, as well as specific examples where it has had diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 2018: Academic pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761063/screening-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria-and-phac-encoding-genes-in-two-hypersaline-microbial-mats-from-guerrero-negro-baja-california-sur-mexico
#19
Carolina A Martínez-Gutiérrez, Hever Latisnere-Barragán, José Q García-Maldonado, Alejandro López-Cortés
Hypersaline microbial mats develop through seasonal and diel fluctuations, as well as under several physicochemical variables. Hence, resident microorganisms commonly employ strategies such as the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in order to resist changing and stressful conditions. However, the knowledge of bacterial PHA production in hypersaline microbial mats has been limited to date, particularly in regard to medium-chain length PHAs (mcl-PHAs), which have biotechnological applications due to their plastic properties...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760861/scholarly-tracks-in-emergency-medicine-residency-programs-are-associated-with-increased-choice-of-academic-career
#20
Jaime Jordan, Michael Hwang, Amy H Kaji, Wendy C Coates
Introduction: Career preparation in residency training is not standardized. Scholarly tracks have emerged in emergency medicine (EM) residencies to allow specialized training in an area of focus. The characteristics of these tracks and their value and impact on resident career choice are unknown. We aim to describe the current state of scholarly tracks in residency training programs and their association with pursuit of an academic career. Methods: Program leaders at EM training programs completed an online survey consisting of multiple-choice items with free-text option...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
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