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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532627/regenerative-medicine-in-hearing-recovery
#1
REVIEW
Edi Simoni, Giulia Orsini, Milvia Chicca, Simone Bettini, Valeria Franceschini, Alessandro Martini, Laura Astolfi
Hearing loss, or deafness, affects 360 million people worldwide of which about 32 million are children. Deafness is irreversible when it involves sensory hair cell death because the regenerative ability of these cells is lost in mammals after embryo development. The therapeutic strategies for deafness include hearing aids and/or implantable devices. However, not all patients are eligible or truly benefit from these medical devices. Regenerative medicine based on stem cell application could play a role in both improvement of extant medical devices and in vivo recovery of auditory function by regeneration of inner ear cells and neurons...
May 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530726/surface-enhanced-hyper-raman-scattering-sehrs-and-its-applications
#2
REVIEW
Fani Madzharova, Zsuzsanna Heiner, Janina Kneipp
Surface enhanced hyper Raman scattering (SEHRS) is the spontaneous, two-photon excited Raman scattering that occurs for molecules residing in high local optical fields of plasmonic nanostructures. Being regarded as a non-linear analogue of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), SEHRS shares most of its properties, but also has additional characteristics. They include complementary spectroscopic information resulting from different selection rules and a stronger enhancement due to the non-linearity in excitation...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529814/ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-interpolymeric-blend-nanoenabled-gastroretentive-levodopa-delivery-systems
#3
Ndidi C Ngwuluka, Yahya E Choonara, Girish Modi, Lisa C du Toit, Pradeep Kumar, Leith Meyer, Tracy Snyman, Viness Pillay
One approach for delivery of narrow absorption window drugs is to formulate gastroretentive drug delivery systems. This study was undertaken to provide insight into in vivo performances of two gastroretentive systems (PXLNET and IPB matrices) in comparison to Madopar® HBS capsules. The pig model was used to assess gastric residence time and pharmacokinetic parameters using blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine samples. Histopathology and cytotoxicity testing were also undertaken. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that levodopa was liberated from the drug delivery systems, absorbed, widely distributed, metabolized, and excreted...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528560/design-and-implementation-of-a-community-health-worker-hiv-treatment-and-prevention-intervention-in-an-hiv-hot-spot-fishing-community-in-rakai-uganda
#4
Amanda Long, Ismail Mbabali, Heidi E Hutton, Alvin G Thomas, Eva Bugos, Jeremiah Mulamba, Kathy Rivet Amico, Fred Nalugoda, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Gertrude Nakigozi, Larry W Chang
Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The intervention, utilizing a novel, theory-based approach, trained 10 community residents in an HIV hot spot fishing community to use motivational interviewing strategies and a mobile phone-based counseling application. During the first 3 months, 771 residents (median 82/health scout, range 27-160) were counseled...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527497/informatics-and-technology-in-resident-education
#5
REVIEW
William Niehaus
Biomedical or clinical informatics is the transdisciplinary field that studies and develops effective uses of biomedical data, information technology innovations, and medical knowledge for scientific inquiry, problem solving, and decision making, with an emphasis on improving human health. Given the ongoing advances in information technology, the field of informatics is becoming important to clinical practice and to residency education. This article will discuss how informatics is specifically relevant to residency education and the different ways to incorporate informatics into residency education, and will highlight applications of current technology in the context of residency education...
May 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523082/three-dimensional-printing-custom-made-implants-for-craniomaxillofacial-reconstructive-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Mariana Matias, Horácio Zenha, Horácio Costa
Craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery is a challenging field. First it aims to restore primary functions and second to preserve craniofacial anatomical features like symmetry and harmony. Three-dimensional (3D) printed biomodels have been widely adopted in medical fields by providing tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. Craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery was one of the first areas to implement 3D printing technology in their practice...
June 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521768/development-of-a-written-assessment-for-a-national-interprofessional-cardiotocography-education-program
#7
Line Thellesen, Thomas Bergholt, Morten Hedegaard, Nina Palmgren Colov, Karl Bang Christensen, Kristine Sylvan Andersen, Jette Led Sorensen
BACKGROUND: To reduce the incidence of hypoxic brain injuries among newborns a national cardiotocography (CTG) education program was implemented in Denmark. A multiple-choice question test was integrated as part of the program. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the test development process and to introduce a feasible method for written test development in general. METHODS: The test development was based on the unitary approach to validity. The process involved national consensus on learning objectives, standardized item writing, pilot testing, sensitivity analyses, standard setting and evaluation of psychometric properties using Item Response Theory models...
May 18, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521191/assessing-human-health-risks-from-pesticide-use-in-conventional-and-innovative-cropping-systems-with-the-browse-model
#8
Sabine-Karen Lammoglia, Marc C Kennedy, Enrique Barriuso, Lionel Alletto, Eric Justes, Nicolas Munier-Jolain, Laure Mamy
BACKGROUND: Reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment is one of the objectives of the European Commission Directive 2009/128/EC in the quest for a sustainable use of pesticides. This Directive, developed through European national plans such as Ecophyto plan in France, promotes the introduction of innovative cropping systems relying, for example, on integrated pest management. Risk assessment for human health of the overall pesticide use in these innovative systems is required before the introduction of those systems to avoid that an innovation becomes a new problem...
May 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520886/use-of-an-anaesthesia-workstation-barrier-device-to-decrease-contamination-in-a-simulated-operating-room
#9
S Hunter, D Katz, A Goldberg, H-M Lin, R Pasricha, G Benesh, B Le Grand, S DeMaria
Background.: Strategies to achieve reductions in perioperative infections have focused on hand hygiene among anaesthestists but have been of limited efficacy. We performed a study in a simulated operating room to determine whether a barrier covering the anaesthesia workstation during induction and intubation might reduce the risk of contamination of the area and possibly, by extension, the patient. Methods.: Forty-two attending and resident anaesthetists unaware of the study design were enrolled in individual simulation sessions in which they were asked to induce and intubate a human simulator that had been prepared with fluorescent marker in its oropharynx as a marker of potentially pathogenic bacteria...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515673/growth-of-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells-and-efficacy-of-anti-angiogenic-agents-in-a-hydroxyethyl-chitosan-glycidyl-methacrylate-hydrogel
#10
Hejing Wang, Junmin Qian, Yaping Zhang, Weijun Xu, Juxiang Xiao, Aili Suo
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer negatively affects women's health worldwide. The tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in tumour initiation, proliferation, and metastasis. Cancer cells are traditionally grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures as monolayers on a flat solid surface lacking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These experimental conditions deviate from the clinical situation. Improved experimental systems that can mimic the in vivo situation are required to discover new therapies, particularly for anti-angiogenic agents that mainly target intercellular factors and play an essential role in treating some cancers...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515505/application-of-the-layered-learning-practice-model-in-an-academic-medical-center
#11
Brittany M Loy, Sendra Yang, Jason M Moss, Debra W Kemp, Jamie N Brown
The layered learning practice model (LLPM) is a teaching strategy designed to train residents to precept students and other residents with the oversight of a seasoned clinical pharmacist. This model serves as a tool for residency programs to implement quality precepting opportunities and learning experiences as they look for new ways to integrate multiple learners into the practice setting. The levels of the LLPM include a senior preceptor, resident, and student. It is best implemented through utilization of 4 steps: orientation to the LLPM, preexperience planning, implementation, and postexperience evaluation...
April 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514490/brain-ultrasound-rehearsal-before-surgery-a-pilot-cadaver-study
#12
Carlo Giussani, Matteo Riva, Valentin Djonov, Simone Beretta, Francesco Prada, Erik Sganzerla
Introduction It has been shown that brain ultrasonography (US) is an efficient tool for improving three-dimensional (3D) spatial orientation during neurosurgical interventions. However, it necessitates specific training as it is highly operator-dependent. To date, neurosurgeons have relied solely on intraoperative practice to improve their mastery of brain US; this has obvious limitations. Herein, we consider whether a study of brain US on human cadavers could enable a training platform for neurosurgeons and residents to be developed...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510288/the-relationship-of-physiopsychosocial-factors-and-spiritual-well-being-in-elderly-residents-implications-for-evidence-based-practice
#13
Yi-Heng Chen, Li-Chan Lin, Li-Lan Chuang, Mei-Li Chen
BACKGROUND: Older adults in residential settings frequently suffer from functional decline, mental illness, and social isolation, which make them more vulnerable to spiritual distress. However, empirical evidence of the interrelationships between physiopsychosocial variables and spiritual well-being are still lacking, limiting the application of the biopsychosocial-spiritual model in institutional healthcare practice. AIMS: To explain the mechanisms by which these variables are linked, this cross-sectional study tested a causal model of predictors of spiritual well-being among 377 institutionalized older adults with disability using a structural equation modeling approach...
May 16, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508925/using-maldi-tof-ms-imaging-and-lc-hrms-for-the-investigation-of-the-degradation-of-polycaprolactone-diol-exposed-to-different-wastewater-treatments
#14
Daniel Rivas, Bozo Zonja, Peter Eichhorn, Antoni Ginebreda, Sandra Pérez, Damià Barceló
Polymers are used in high amounts in a wide range of applications from biomedicine to industry. Because of the growing awareness of the increasing amounts of plastic wastes in the aquatic environment during recent years, the evaluation of their biodegradability deserves special attention. In the past, most efforts were dedicated to studying the biodegradation of polyesters in soil and compost, while very little research has been conducted on their fate in wastewater. Here, we assessed the ability of bacterial communities residing in the aerobic and denitrification tank from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to degrade the polymeric ester polycaprolactone diol (PCLD; average molecular weight of 1250 Da)...
May 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508804/ehealth-networking-information-systems-the-new-quality-of-information-exchange
#15
Karin Messer-Misak, Christoph Reiter
BACKGROUND: The development and introduction of platforms that enable interdisciplinary exchange on current developments and projects in the area of eHealth have been stimulated by different authorities. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this project was to develop a repository of eHealth projects that will make the wealth of eHealth projects visible and enable mutual learning through the sharing of experiences and good practice. METHODS: The content of the database and search criteria as well as their categories were determined in close co-ordination and cooperation with stakeholders from the specialist areas...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504950/graph-regularized-restricted-boltzmann-machine
#16
Dongdong Chen, Jiancheng Lv, Zhang Yi
The restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) has received an increasing amount of interest in recent years. It determines good mapping weights that capture useful latent features in an unsupervised manner. The RBM and its generalizations have been successfully applied to a variety of image classification and speech recognition tasks. However, most of the existing RBM-based models disregard the preservation of the data manifold structure. In many real applications, the data generally reside on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in high-dimensional ambient space...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502923/g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling-through-gpr176-gz-and-rgs16-tunes-time-in-the-center-of-the-circadian-clock-review
#17
Kaoru Goto, Masao Doi, Tianyu Wang, Sumihiro Kunisue, Iori Murai, Hitoshi Okamura
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute an immensely important class of drug targets with diverse clinical applications. There are still more than 120 orphan GPCRs whose cognate ligands and physiological functions are not known. A set of circadian pacemaker neurons that governs daily rhythms in behavior and physiology resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. Malfunction of the circadian clock has been linked to a multitude of diseases, such as sleeping disorders, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, which makes the clock an attractive target for drug development...
May 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502854/characterization-of-a-bi-functional-cellulase-produced-by-a-gut-bacterial-resident-of-rosaceae-branch-borer-beetle-osphranteria-coerulescens-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#18
Atousa Hatefi, Ali Makhdoumi, Ahmad Asoodeh, Omid Mirshamsi
A cellulolytic bacterium was obtained from the digestive tract of Osphranteria coerulescens. The breakdown of woody and cellulosic substances by this insect may be relative in part to its symbiont bacteria. Under optimal cultural conditions the novel isolate produced 5.35U/ml cellulase after 72h. The enzyme was purified to 36 fold with a 0.59% yield and showed a specific activity of 9.0U/mg. It presented its maximum activity at 60°C and pH 5, while it was stable in a wide range of temperature from 20 to 60°C and pH from 5 to 10...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502796/in-vivo-reprogramming-for-heart-regeneration-a-glance-at-efficiency-environmental-impacts-challenges-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Behnam Ebrahimi
Replacing dying or diseased cells of a tissue with new ones that are converted from patient's own cells is an attractive strategy in regenerative medicine. In vivo reprogramming is a novel strategy that can circumvent the hurdles of autologous/allogeneic cell injection therapies. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that direct injection of cardiac transcription factors or specific miRNAs into the infarct border zone of murine hearts following myocardial infarction converts resident cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502606/provider-perspectives-regarding-resuscitation-decisions-for-neonates-and-other-vulnerable-patients
#20
Amélie Dupont-Thibodeau, Jade Hindié, Claude Julie Bourque, Annie Janvier
OBJECTIVES: To use structured surveys to assess the perspectives of pediatric residents and neonatal nurses on resuscitation decisions for vulnerable patients, including neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric providers were surveyed using scenarios for 6 critically ill patients of different ages with outcomes explicitly described. Providers were asked (1) whether resuscitation was in each patient's best interest; (2) whether they would accept families' wishes for comfort care (no resuscitation); and (3) to rank patients in order of priority for resuscitation...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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