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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808936/-envenomation-by-micrurus-psyches-in-french-guiana
#1
X Heckmann, C Marty, F Starace, J-D Louembé, S Larréché
We report here the first known envenomation by Micrurus psyches, the so-called Carib coral snake, which occurred on April 2016 in the surroundings of Saint- Laurent-du-Maroni, Western French Guiana. Besides local neurological symptoms, it featured unexpected electrocardiogram changes, which were emergence of a first-degree atrioventricular block and biphasic T waves, both transient. NewWorld elapid venoms were not known for being cardiotoxic so far. The possible reasons of this cardiac injury are discussed.
August 14, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617656/sarcocystis-pantherophis-n-sp-from-eastern-rat-snakes-pantherophis-alleghaniensis-definitive-hosts-and-interferon-gamma-gene-knockout-mice-as-experimental-intermediate-hosts
#2
Shiv Verma, David Lindsay, Joseph Mowery, Benjamin Rosenthal, J P Dubey
Here we report a new species, Sarcocystis pantherophisi n. sp. with the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) as natural definitive host and the interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mouse as the experimental intermediate host. Sporocysts (n = 15) from intestinal contents of the snake were 17.3 x 10.9 µm. Sporocysts were orally infective to interferon gamma KO mice but not to laboratory raised albino outbred house mice (Mus musculus). The interferon gamma KO mice developed schizont-associated neurological signs and schizonts were cultivated in vitro from the brain...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574015/clinical-profile-complications-of-neurotoxic-snake-bite-comparison-of-two-regimens-of-polyvalent-anti-snake-venom-in-its-treatment
#3
Krishna Sarin, Tarun Kumar Dutta, K V Vinod
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The optimal anti-snake venom (ASV) dose required to treat neurotoxic snake envenomation is not known. Low-dose ASV (national protocol: maximum dose 200 ml) may be as efficacious as the conventional regimen (100 ml six hourly till all symptoms disappear), but a direct comparison of the regimens is not available. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of low-dose ASV regimen against the conventional high-dose regimen. METHODS: The clinical profile of 51 patients with neurotoxic snake envenomation was studied...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515291/differential-disease-susceptibilities-in-experimentally-reptarenavirus-infected-boa-constrictors-and-ball-pythons
#4
Mark D Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E Garcia, Marylee L Layton, Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Scott M Boback, M Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G Hawkins, Joseph L DeRisi
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487791/a-horned-viper-bite-victim-with-pres
#5
Ahmed Mustafa Ibrahim, Tarek Talaat ElSefi, Maha Ghanem, Akram Muhammad Fayed, Nesreen Adel Shaban
Neurological complications of snake bites have been well documented in the literature as neuromuscular paralysis and cerebrovascular complications; posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was rarely described. A 23-year-old lady presented near full term of her pregnancy with a horned snake Cerastes cerastes bite; after successful delivery she started complaining of altered mental status and visual disturbance with ulceration over the site of the snake bite. On admission, the patient had Glasgow Coma Score of 12, blood pressure 130/80 mmHg, temperature 38°C, sinus tachycardia at 120 beats per minute, severe dehydration, and reduction in visual acuity to "hand motion" in both eyes with poor light projection and sluggish pupillary reactions...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300747/pathophysiology-of-dilatation-of-pupils-due-to-scorpion-and-snake-envenomation-and-its-therapeutic-value-clinical-observations
#6
Himmatrao S Bawaskar, Parag H Bawaskar, Pramodini H Bawaskar
Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195896/contributing-factors-for-complications-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-snakebite-experience-in-a-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan
#7
Yu-Hsuan Hsieh, Jung-Hua Hsueh, Wen-Chung Liu, Kuo-Chung Yang, Kuei-Chang Hsu, Cheng-Ta Lin, Yen-Yi Ho, Lee-Wei Chen
OBJECTIVES: Snakebite usually results in various complications, such as significant soft tissue damage, infection, hematological, and neurological deficit. Surgical intervention, usually, is indicated in patients with tissue necrosis, infection, and compartment syndrome. To identify the contributing factors for complications and outcomes in different patients with snakebite so that outcomes can be evaluated and treatment of such patients can be initiated at the earliest. METHODS: Information was collected regarding age, sex, underlying disease, species of snake, and the course of treatment of the victims of snakebite who visited the emergency department of a medical center in southern Taiwan between 2004 and 2014...
March 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178774/a-retrospective-review-of-rattlesnake-bites-in-100-children
#8
Norberto Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto Gómez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: A retrospective review of clinical features and treatment of children hospitalized for rattlesnake bite. METHODS: One hundred clinical records were reviewed. Variables included: age, gender, season of the year, signs, symptoms, poisoning grade, complications, treatment and sequelae. RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent were males and 37% were less than 5 years of age; 87% occurred in rural areas; 63% of the snakebites occurred during the summer, of them, 39% occurred within the perimeter of the domicile and 8% within the home...
April 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004056/fc-saxatilin-a-snake-venom-disintegrin-suppresses-hypoxia-induced-vascular-leakage-by-regulating-endothelial-occludin-expression
#9
Hyun-Jung Choi, Il Kwon, Na-Eun Kim, Jayoung Kim, Sunho An, Sungsoo Kang, Sung-Yu Hong, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo
Vascular leakage due to compromised integrity of the endothelial barrier is closely associated with brain damage in several neurological disorders, including ischaemic stroke. Saxatilin, a snake venom disintegrin containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, exerts thrombolytic and antiplatelet effects by interacting with multiple integrins on platelets. Integrin signalling is indispensable for regulation of endothelial permeability. Saxatilin may play a role in vascular leakage after ischaemia because it has high affinity for endothelial integrins...
December 22, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936776/unraveling-the-proteome-composition-and-immuno-profiling-of-western-india-russell-s-viper-venom-for-in-depth-understanding-of-its-pharmacological-properties-clinical-manifestations-and-effective-antivenom-treatment
#10
Bhargab Kalita, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of western India (WI) Russell's viper venom (RVV) was correlated with pharmacological properties and pathological manifestations of RV envenomation. Proteins in the 5-19 and 100-110 kDa mass ranges were the most predominate (∼35.1%) and least abundant (∼3.4%) components, respectively, of WI RVV. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE indicated the occurrence of multiple subunits, non-covalent oligomers, self-aggregation, and/or interactions among the RVV proteins. A total of 55 proteins belonging to 13 distinct snake venom families were unambiguously identified by ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775574/proteome-and-peptidome-of-vipera-berus-berus-venom
#11
Aleksandra Bocian, Małgorzata Urbanik, Konrad Hus, Andrzej Łyskowski, Vladimír Petrilla, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Monika Petrillová, Jaroslav Legath
Snake venom is a rich source of peptides and proteins with a wide range of actions. Many of the venom components are currently being tested for their usefulness in the treatment of many diseases ranging from neurological and cardiovascular to cancer. It is also important to constantly search for new proteins and peptides with properties not yet described. The venom of Vipera berus berus has hemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic properties, but its exact composition and the factors responsible for these properties are not known...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720975/identification-of-antinociceptive-fraction-of-snake-venom-from-crotalus-durissus-collilineatus-crotamine-negative-and-its-acute-toxicity-evaluation
#12
Sayonara Ay More de Oliveira, Marta Regina Magalhães, Lilibete P de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos da Cunha
The crude venom of the snake Crotalus durissus collilineatus (CDC) promotes neurological signs and symptoms in accidents involving humans and animals and the victims reports analgesia at the bite site, without tissue destruction. Studies shows that CDC has analgesic activity, among others. The crude venom is considered unsuitable for therapeutic purposes, with encouragement to the fractionation and purification of the same. Thus, the aim with CDC venom is: to perform fractionation by preparative HPLC; to test the antinociceptive activity of fractions and acute toxicity of active fractions...
November 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555694/early-demographic-and-clinical-predictors-of-developing-acute-kidney-injury-in-snake-bite-patients-a-retrospective-controlled-study-from-an-indian-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-eastern-uttar-pradesh-india
#13
R R Singh, Dharmendra Uraiya, Anoop Kumar, Neeraj Tripathi
AIMS: This study was conducted retrospectively to define early demographic and clinical predictors for acute kidney injury (AKI) among snake bite patients at the time of hospital admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 138 cases with a poisonous snake bite. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence and absence of AKI. The data regarding clinical features and demographic profile of these patients were collected from the hospital records in a prestructured pro forma and statistically compared...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130321/ancient-globally-distributed-lineage-of-sarcocystis-from-sporocysts-of-the-eastern-rat-snake-pantherophis-alleghaniensis-and-its-relation-to-neurological-sequalae-in-intermediate-hosts
#14
Shiv K Verma, David S Lindsay, Benjamin M Rosenthal, Jitender P Dubey
There is an emerging concern that snakes are definitive hosts of certain species of Sarcocystis that cause muscular sarcocystosis in human and non-human primates. Other species of Sarcocystis are known to cycle among snakes and rodents, but have been poorly characterized in the USA and elsewhere. Although neurological sequalae are known for certain species of Sarcocystis, no such neurological symptoms are known to typify parasites that naturally cycle in rodents. Here, sporocysts of a species of Sarcocystis were found in the intestinal contents of a rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) from Maryland, USA...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923566/neurotoxicity-in-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-envenoming-in-sri-lanka-a-clinical-and-neurophysiological-study
#15
Anjana Silva, Kalana Maduwage, Michael Sedgwick, Senaka Pilapitiya, Prasanna Weerawansa, Niroshana J Dahanayaka, Nicholas A Buckley, Sisira Siribaddana, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Russell's viper is more medically important than any other Asian snake, due to number of envenoming's and fatalities. Russell's viper populations in South India and Sri Lanka (Daboia russelii) cause unique neuromuscular paralysis not seen in other Russell's vipers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time course and severity of neuromuscular dysfunction in definite Russell's viper bites, including antivenom response. METHODOLOGY: We prospectively enrolled all patients (>16 years) presenting with Russell's viper bites over 14 months...
June 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26896910/persistent-anosmia-and-olfactory-bulb-atrophy-after-mulga-pseudechis-australis-snakebite
#16
Moksh Sethi, Mark Cook, Kenneth D Winkel
Loss of sense of smell is an intriguing yet under-recognised complication of snakebite. We report olfactory function testing and neuroimaging of the olfactory bulbs in a 30-year-old man with anosmia persisting for more than 1year after mulga (Pseudechis australis) snakebite. This problem was first noted by the patient 1week after being definitely bitten in Queensland, Australia. He had then presented to a regional hospital where his envenomation was considered mild enough to not warrant antivenom administration...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725735/peptide-toxins-and-small-molecule-blockers-of-bk-channels
#17
REVIEW
Mu Yu, San-ling Liu, Pei-bei Sun, Hao Pan, Chang-lin Tian, Long-hua Zhang
Large conductance, Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels play important roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability and the control of smooth muscle contractions. BK channels can be activated by changes in both the membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Here, we provide an overview of the structural and pharmacological properties of BK channel blockers. First, the properties of different venom peptide toxins from scorpions and snakes are described, with a focus on their characteristic structural motifs, including their disulfide bond formation pattern, the binding interface between the toxin and BK channel, and the functional consequence of the blockage of BK channels by these toxins...
January 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26611796/normal-human-cd4-helper-t-cells-express-kv1-1-voltage-gated-k-channels-and-selective-kv1-1-block-in-t-cells-induces-by-itself-robust-tnf%C3%AE-production-and-secretion-and-activation-of-the-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-non-canonical-pathway
#18
Barbara Fellerhoff-Losch, Sergiy V Korol, Yonatan Ganor, Songhai Gu, Itzik Cooper, Raya Eilam, Michal Besser, Meidan Goldfinger, Yehuda Chowers, Rudolf Wank, Bryndis Birnir, Mia Levite
TNFα is a very potent and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, essential to the immune system for eradicating cancer and microorganisms, and to the nervous system, for brain development and ongoing function. Yet, excess and/or chronic TNFα secretion causes massive tissue damage in autoimmune, inflammatory and neurological diseases and injuries. Therefore, many patients with autoimmune/inflammatory diseases receive anti-TNFα medications. TNFα is secreted primarily by CD4(+) T cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and NK cells, mainly after immune stimulation...
March 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26099699/sporadic-lower-motor-neuron-disease-with-a-snake-eyes-appearance-on-the-cervical-anterior-horns-by-mri
#19
Shoichi Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: Lower motor neuron disease (LMND) is the term generally used to describe diseases in which only lower motor neuron signs are detected. A snake eyes appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological conditions including LMND. The author reports on three unique LMND patients with upper limb muscle weakness and atrophy who show a snake eyes appearance by MRI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients were aged 18, 40 and 52 years, respectively, at the onset of the disease and had a longstanding clinical course (more than 10 years for two patients and 8 years for one patient)...
September 2015: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26003794/intracranial-haemorrhages-associated-with-venom-induced-consumption-coagulopathy-in-australian-snakebites-asp-21
#20
Ingrid Berling, Simon G A Brown, Ferdi Miteff, Christopher Levi, Geoffrey K Isbister
Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a rare life-threatening consequence of venom induced consumption coagulopathy in snake-bite. It is unclear why certain patients haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate ICH in snake envenoming. Cases of venom-induced consumption coagulopathy from July 2005-June 2014 were identified from the Australian Snakebite Project, a prospective multicentre cohort of snake-bites. Cases with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy were extracted with data on the snake-bite, clinical effects, laboratory investigations, treatment and outcomes...
August 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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