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snake neurological

Himmatrao S Bawaskar, Parag H Bawaskar, Pramodini H Bawaskar
Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Yu-Hsuan Hsieh, Jung-Hua Hsueh, Wen-Chung Liu, Kuo-Chung Yang, Kuei-Chang Hsu, Cheng-Ta Lin, Yen-Yi Ho, Lee-Wei Chen
OBJECTIVES: Snakebite usually results in various complications, such as significant soft tissue damage, infection, hematological, and neurological deficit. Surgical intervention, usually, is indicated in patients with tissue necrosis, infection, and compartment syndrome. To identify the contributing factors for complications and outcomes in different patients with snakebite so that outcomes can be evaluated and treatment of such patients can be initiated at the earliest. METHODS: Information was collected regarding age, sex, underlying disease, species of snake, and the course of treatment of the victims of snakebite who visited the emergency department of a medical center in southern Taiwan between 2004 and 2014...
March 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Norberto Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto Gómez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: A retrospective review of clinical features and treatment of children hospitalized for rattlesnake bite. METHODS: One hundred clinical records were reviewed. Variables included: age, gender, season of the year, signs, symptoms, poisoning grade, complications, treatment and sequelae. RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent were males and 37% were less than 5 years of age; 87% occurred in rural areas; 63% of the snakebites occurred during the summer, of them, 39% occurred within the perimeter of the domicile and 8% within the home...
April 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
Hyun-Jung Choi, Il Kwon, Na-Eun Kim, Jayoung Kim, Sunho An, Sungsoo Kang, Sung-Yu Hong, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo
Vascular leakage due to compromised integrity of the endothelial barrier is closely associated with brain damage in several neurological disorders, including ischaemic stroke. Saxatilin, a snake venom disintegrin containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, exerts thrombolytic and antiplatelet effects by interacting with multiple integrins on platelets. Integrin signalling is indispensable for regulation of endothelial permeability. Saxatilin may play a role in vascular leakage after ischaemia because it has high affinity for endothelial integrins...
December 22, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Bhargab Kalita, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of western India (WI) Russell's viper venom (RVV) was correlated with pharmacological properties and pathological manifestations of RV envenomation. Proteins in the 5-19 and 100-110 kDa mass ranges were the most predominate (∼35.1%) and least abundant (∼3.4%) components, respectively, of WI RVV. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE indicated the occurrence of multiple subunits, non-covalent oligomers, self-aggregation, and/or interactions among the RVV proteins. A total of 55 proteins belonging to 13 distinct snake venom families were unambiguously identified by ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Aleksandra Bocian, Małgorzata Urbanik, Konrad Hus, Andrzej Łyskowski, Vladimír Petrilla, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Monika Petrillová, Jaroslav Legath
Snake venom is a rich source of peptides and proteins with a wide range of actions. Many of the venom components are currently being tested for their usefulness in the treatment of many diseases ranging from neurological and cardiovascular to cancer. It is also important to constantly search for new proteins and peptides with properties not yet described. The venom of Vipera berus berus has hemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic properties, but its exact composition and the factors responsible for these properties are not known...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sayonara Ay More de Oliveira, Marta Regina Magalhães, Lilibete P de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos da Cunha
The crude venom of the snake Crotalus durissus collilineatus (CDC) promotes neurological signs and symptoms in accidents involving humans and animals and the victims reports analgesia at the bite site, without tissue destruction. Studies shows that CDC has analgesic activity, among others. The crude venom is considered unsuitable for therapeutic purposes, with encouragement to the fractionation and purification of the same. Thus, the aim with CDC venom is: to perform fractionation by preparative HPLC; to test the antinociceptive activity of fractions and acute toxicity of active fractions...
November 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
R R Singh, Dharmendra Uraiya, Anoop Kumar, Neeraj Tripathi
AIMS: This study was conducted retrospectively to define early demographic and clinical predictors for acute kidney injury (AKI) among snake bite patients at the time of hospital admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 138 cases with a poisonous snake bite. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence and absence of AKI. The data regarding clinical features and demographic profile of these patients were collected from the hospital records in a prestructured pro forma and statistically compared...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Shiv K Verma, David S Lindsay, Benjamin M Rosenthal, Jitender P Dubey
There is an emerging concern that snakes are definitive hosts of certain species of Sarcocystis that cause muscular sarcocystosis in human and non-human primates. Other species of Sarcocystis are known to cycle among snakes and rodents, but have been poorly characterized in the USA and elsewhere. Although neurological sequalae are known for certain species of Sarcocystis, no such neurological symptoms are known to typify parasites that naturally cycle in rodents. Here, sporocysts of a species of Sarcocystis were found in the intestinal contents of a rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) from Maryland, USA...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
Anjana Silva, Kalana Maduwage, Michael Sedgwick, Senaka Pilapitiya, Prasanna Weerawansa, Niroshana J Dahanayaka, Nicholas A Buckley, Sisira Siribaddana, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Russell's viper is more medically important than any other Asian snake, due to number of envenoming's and fatalities. Russell's viper populations in South India and Sri Lanka (Daboia russelii) cause unique neuromuscular paralysis not seen in other Russell's vipers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time course and severity of neuromuscular dysfunction in definite Russell's viper bites, including antivenom response. METHODOLOGY: We prospectively enrolled all patients (>16 years) presenting with Russell's viper bites over 14 months...
June 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Moksh Sethi, Mark Cook, Kenneth D Winkel
Loss of sense of smell is an intriguing yet under-recognised complication of snakebite. We report olfactory function testing and neuroimaging of the olfactory bulbs in a 30-year-old man with anosmia persisting for more than 1year after mulga (Pseudechis australis) snakebite. This problem was first noted by the patient 1week after being definitely bitten in Queensland, Australia. He had then presented to a regional hospital where his envenomation was considered mild enough to not warrant antivenom administration...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mu Yu, San-ling Liu, Pei-bei Sun, Hao Pan, Chang-lin Tian, Long-hua Zhang
Large conductance, Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels play important roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability and the control of smooth muscle contractions. BK channels can be activated by changes in both the membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Here, we provide an overview of the structural and pharmacological properties of BK channel blockers. First, the properties of different venom peptide toxins from scorpions and snakes are described, with a focus on their characteristic structural motifs, including their disulfide bond formation pattern, the binding interface between the toxin and BK channel, and the functional consequence of the blockage of BK channels by these toxins...
January 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Barbara Fellerhoff-Losch, Sergiy V Korol, Yonatan Ganor, Songhai Gu, Itzik Cooper, Raya Eilam, Michal Besser, Meidan Goldfinger, Yehuda Chowers, Rudolf Wank, Bryndis Birnir, Mia Levite
TNFα is a very potent and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, essential to the immune system for eradicating cancer and microorganisms, and to the nervous system, for brain development and ongoing function. Yet, excess and/or chronic TNFα secretion causes massive tissue damage in autoimmune, inflammatory and neurological diseases and injuries. Therefore, many patients with autoimmune/inflammatory diseases receive anti-TNFα medications. TNFα is secreted primarily by CD4(+) T cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and NK cells, mainly after immune stimulation...
March 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Shoichi Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: Lower motor neuron disease (LMND) is the term generally used to describe diseases in which only lower motor neuron signs are detected. A snake eyes appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological conditions including LMND. The author reports on three unique LMND patients with upper limb muscle weakness and atrophy who show a snake eyes appearance by MRI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients were aged 18, 40 and 52 years, respectively, at the onset of the disease and had a longstanding clinical course (more than 10 years for two patients and 8 years for one patient)...
September 2015: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Ingrid Berling, Simon G A Brown, Ferdi Miteff, Christopher Levi, Geoffrey K Isbister
Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a rare life-threatening consequence of venom induced consumption coagulopathy in snake-bite. It is unclear why certain patients haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate ICH in snake envenoming. Cases of venom-induced consumption coagulopathy from July 2005-June 2014 were identified from the Australian Snakebite Project, a prospective multicentre cohort of snake-bites. Cases with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy were extracted with data on the snake-bite, clinical effects, laboratory investigations, treatment and outcomes...
August 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ting-Ting Li, Man-Li Fan, Shi-Xiang Hou, Xiao-Yi Li, Devin M Barry, Hui Jin, Sheng-Yong Luo, Feng Kong, Lit-Fui Lau, Xiang-Rong Dai, Guo-Hui Zhang, Lan-Lan Zhou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischaemic stroke is a serious disease with limited therapy options. Glycoprotein (GP)Ib binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF) exposed at vascular injury initiates platelet adhesion and contributes to platelet aggregation. GPIb has been suggested as an effective target for antithrombotic therapy in stroke. Anfibatide is a GPIb antagonist derived from snake venom and we investigated its protective effect on experimental brain ischaemia in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced by 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
August 2015: British Journal of Pharmacology
Watchareewan Sontichai, Sanit Reungrongrat, Paitoon Narongchai, Rungrote Natesirinilkul
Venomous snakes with hematotoxin-Russell's viper (Daboia spp), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and green pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris and C macrops, previously named Trimeresurus spp) are commonly found in Thailand. Coagulation factor activation, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation are the main mechanisms of hemorrhaging from these snake bites. The neurological involvement and hepatocellular injury after Russell's viper bites were reported in Sri Lanka, but there is no report from Southeast Asia...
September 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
D W Hague, S Joslyn, W W Bush, E N Glass, A C Durham
BACKGROUND: Extraparenchymal spinal cord hematoma has been described in veterinary medicine in association with neoplasia, intervertebral disk disease, and snake envenomation. There are rare reports of spontaneous extraparenchymal spinal cord hematoma formation with no known cause in human medicine. Multiple cases of spontaneous extraparenchymal spinal cord hematoma have not been described previously in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVES: To describe the signalment, clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and surgical outcomes in histopathologically confirmed extraparenchymal spinal cord hematomas in dogs with no identified underlying etiology...
January 2015: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Quan Van Le, Lynne A Isbell, Jumpei Matsumoto, Van Quang Le, Etsuro Hori, Anh Hai Tran, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014). In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability...
2014: PloS One
Harold E Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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