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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758383/does-size-matter-venom-proteomic-and-functional-comparison-between-night-adder-species-viperidae-causus-with-short-and-long-venom-glands
#1
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733320/harvesting-venom-toxins-from-assassin-bugs-and-other-heteropteran-insects
#2
Andrew Allan Walker, Max Rosenthal, Eivind E A Undheim, Glenn F King
Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730150/neurotoxicity-fingerprinting-of-venoms-using-on-line-microfluidic-achbp-profiling
#3
Julien Slagboom, Reka A Otvos, Fernanda C Cardoso, Janaki Iyer, Jeroen C Visser, Bjorn R van Doodewaerd, Ryan J R McCleary, Wilfried M A Niessen, Govert W Somsen, Richard J Lewis, R Manjunatha Kini, August B Smit, Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen Kool
Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation...
May 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705150/a-myotoxic-lys49-phospholipase-a-2-homologue-is-the-major-component-of-the-venom-of-bothrops-cotiara-from-misiones-argentina
#4
Adolfo de Roodt, Julián Fernández, Daniela Solano, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops cotiara is a pitviper found in Southeastern Brazil and, scarcely, in the Misiones province of Argentina. In contrast to considerable information available on the venom of the Brazilian snake population, that of Misiones has received little attention. While exploring the chromatographic venom profile of Argentinean B. cotiara, a major protein peak was found which, according to a previous study, is not present in the venom of Brazilian origin. The corresponding protein was isolated by RP-HPLC, and characterized by electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) assay, and myotoxic activities...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704534/toxin-resolved-antivenomics-guided-assessment-of-the-immunorecognition-landscape-of-antivenoms
#5
Juan J Calvete, Yania Rodríguez, Sarai Quesada-Bernat, Davinia Pla
Snakebite envenoming represents a major issue in rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions across sub-Saharan Africa, South to Southeast Asia, Latin America and Oceania. Antivenoms constitute the only scientifically validated therapy for snakebite envenomings, provided they are safe, effective, affordable, accessible and administered appropriately. However, the lack of financial incentives in a technology that has remained relatively unchanged for more than a century, has contributed to some manufacturers leaving the market and others downscaling production or increasing the prices, leading to a decline in the availability and accessibility for these life-saving antidotes to millions of rural poor most at risk from snakebites in low income countries...
April 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698755/unresolved-issues-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathogenesis-of-local-tissue-damage-induced-by-snake-venoms
#6
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado, Teresa Escalante, Cristina Herrera, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte, Jay W Fox
Snakebite envenoming by viperid species, and by some elapids, is characterized by a complex pattern of tissue damage at the anatomical site of venom injection. In severe cases, tissue destruction may be so extensive as to lead to permanent sequelae, with serious pathophysiological, social and psychological consequences. Significant advances have been performed in the study of venom-induced tissue damage, including identification and characterization of the toxins involved, insights into the mechanisms of action of venoms and toxins, and study of tissue responses to venom-induced injury...
April 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656017/proteomic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-the-venom-of-the-south-african-ringhals-cobra-hemachatus-haemachatus
#7
Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Daniela Solano, Álvaro Segura, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom is composed of abundant three-finger toxins (3FTxs; 63.3%), followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s; 22.8%), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs 7.1%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs; 4.1%) and Kunitz type protease inhibitors (KTPIs; 1.5%). 3FTxs are the main responsible for lethality and myotoxicity in mice and in vitro anticoagulant activity...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#8
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621647/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-intraspecific-variation-in-snake-venom
#9
Diana R Amazonas, José A Portes-Junior, Milton Y Nishiyama-Jr, Carolina A Nicolau, Hipócrates M Chalkidis, Rosa H V Mourão, Felipe G Grazziotin, Darin R Rokyta, H Lisle Gibbs, Richard H Valente, Inácio L M Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Ana M Moura-da-Silva
Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying snake venom variability provides important clues for understanding how the biological functions of this powerful toxic arsenal evolve. We analyzed in detail individual transcripts and venom protein isoforms produced by five specimens of a venomous snake (Bothrops atrox) from two nearby but genetically distinct populations from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest which show functional similarities in venom properties. Individual variation was observed among the venoms of these specimens, but the overall abundance of each general toxin family was conserved both in transcript and in venom protein levels...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608922/conservation-analysis-and-decomposition-of-residue-correlation-networks-in-the-phospholipase-a2-superfamily-pla2s-insights-into-the-structure-function-relationships-of-snake-venom-toxins
#10
Alberto Oliveira, Lucas Bleicher, Carlos G Schrago, Floriano Paes Silva Junior
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s) comprise a superfamily of glycerophospholipids hydrolyzing enzymes present in many organisms in nature, whose catalytic activity was majorly unveiled by analysis of snake venoms. The latter have pharmaceutical and biotechnological interests and can be divided into different functional sub-classes. Our goal was to identify important residues and their relation to the functional and class-specific characteristics in the PLA2 s family with special emphasis on snake venom PLA2 s (svPLA2 s)...
March 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571682/protocol-to-obtain-targeted-transcript-sequence-data-from-snake-venom-samples-collected-in-the-colombian-field
#11
Alejandra Fonseca, Camila Renjifo-Ibáñez, Juan Manuel Renjifo, Rodrigo Cabrera
Snake venoms are a mixture of different molecules that can be used in the design of drugs for various diseases. The study of these venoms has relied on strategies that use complete venom extracted from animals in captivity or from venom glands that require the sacrifice of the animals. Colombia, a country with political and geographical conflicts has difficult access to certain regions. A strategy that can prevent the sacrifice of animals and could allow the study of samples collected in the field is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570631/phenotypic-variation-in-mojave-rattlesnake-crotalus-scutulatus-venom-is-driven-by-four-toxin-families
#12
Jason L Strickland, Andrew J Mason, Darin R Rokyta, Christopher L Parkinson
Phenotypic diversity generated through altered gene expression is a primary mechanism facilitating evolutionary response in natural systems. By linking the phenotype to genotype through transcriptomics, it is possible to determine what changes are occurring at the molecular level. High phenotypic diversity has been documented in rattlesnake venom, which is under strong selection due to its role in prey acquisition and defense. Rattlesnake venom can be characterized by the presence (Type A) or absence (Type B) of a type of neurotoxic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), such as Mojave toxin, that increases venom toxicity...
March 23, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562696/anticancer-activity-of-toxins-from-bee-and-snake-venom-an-overview-on-ovarian-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Marius Alexandru Moga, Oana Gabriela Dimienescu, Cristian Andrei Arvătescu, Petru Ifteni, Liana Pleş
Cancer represents the disease of the millennium, a major problem in public health. The proliferation of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and the relationship between the cancer cells and the components of the extracellular matrix are important in the events of carcinogenesis, and these pathways are being used as targets for new anticancer treatments. Various venoms and their toxins have shown possible anticancer effects on human cancer cell lines, providing new perspectives in drug development. In this review, we observed the effects of natural toxins from bee and snake venom and the mechanisms through which they can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551526/diversity-within-diversity-parasite-species-richness-in-poison-frogs-assessed-by-transcriptomics
#14
Juan C Santos, Rebecca D Tarvin, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Blackburn, Luis A Coloma
Symbionts (e.g., endoparasites and commensals) play an integral role in their host's ecology, yet in many cases their diversity is likely underestimated. Although endoparasites are traditionally characterized using morphology, sequences of conserved genes, and shotgun metagenomics, host transcriptomes constitute an underused resource to identify these organisms' diversity. By isolating non-host transcripts from host transcriptomes, individual host tissues can now simultaneously reveal their endoparasite species richness (i...
August 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547537/toxins-in-drug-discovery-and-pharmacology
#15
EDITORIAL
Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546833/natural-snake-venom-inhibitors-and-their-pharmaceutical-uses-challenges-and-possibilities
#16
Soledad Lorena Saavedra, Lucia Avila, Silvana Laura Giudicessi, Fernando Albericio, Silvia Andrea Camperi, Osvaldo Cascone, Maria Camila Martinez-Ceron
Nowadays, treatment with specific antivenins is considered the only cure for snakebites accidents. However, access to antivenom obstructs the successful implementation of the World Health Organization international guidelines. In the last few years, natural organic compounds, peptides and proteins with the ability to inhibit snake toxins and obtained from different sources such as plant extracts and animal blood have been proposed as antivenoms. In this work, we will focus on the inhibitors of the main venom toxins, phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases, and their application as novel antivenoms...
February 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533989/the-primary-duct-of-bothrops-jararaca-glandular-apparatus-secretes-toxins
#17
Richard Hemmi Valente, Fernanda Sakai, José Antonio Portes-Junior, Luciana Godoy Viana, Sylvia Mendes Carneiro, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
Despite numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland (and some data on the accessory gland) of the venom glandular apparatus of Viperidae snakes, the primary duct has been overlooked. We characterized the primary duct of the Bothrops jararaca snake by morphological analysis, immunohistochemistry and proteomics. The duct has a pseudostratified epithelium with secretory columnar cells with vesicles of various electrondensities, as well as mitochondria-rich, dark, basal, and horizontal cells...
March 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528146/biochemical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-trimersurus-malabaricus-snake-venom
#18
Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527170/animal-toxins-as-therapeutic-tools-to-treat-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501945/a-novel-synthetic-peptide-inspired-on-lys49-phospholipase-a-2-from-crotalus-oreganus-abyssus-snake-venom-active-against-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates
#20
José R Almeida, Bruno Mendes, Marcelo Lancellotti, Sergio Marangoni, Nuno Vale, Óscar Passos, Maria J Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Paula Gomes, Saulo L Da Silva
Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A2 s (PLA2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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