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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#1
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327300/rbaltmip-a-recombinant-alpha-type-myotoxin-inhibitor-from-bothrops-alternatus-rhinocerophis-alternatus-snake-as-a-potential-candidate-to-complement-the-antivenom-therapy
#2
Norival A Santos-Filho, Tiago S Sousa, Johara Boldrini-França, Ludier K Santos-Silva, Danilo L Menaldo, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Adélia C O Cintra, Helen J Laure, Carla C N Mamede, Fábio Oliveira, Thalita B Riul, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, José C Rosa, Suely V Sampaio
Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (PLIs) are important targets in the search and development of new drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of an alpha-type phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus (Rhinocerophis alternatus) snake in its recombinant form (rBaltMIP) to complement the conventional antivenom therapy. Biochemical experiments showed that rBaltMIP presented pI 5.8 and molecular masses of ∼21 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 19.57 kDa by MALDI/TOF MS. After tryptic peptides sequencing, the results were compared with other PLIs available in databases, showing 100% identity between rBaltMIP and its native inhibitor BaltMIP and from 92% to 96% identity with other inhibitors...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326549/the-three-finger-toxin-fold-a-multifunctional-structural-scaffold-able-to-modulate-cholinergic-functions
#3
REVIEW
Pascal Kessler, Pascale Marchot, Marcela Silva, Denis Servent
Three-finger fold toxins are miniproteins frequently found in Elapidae snake venoms. This fold is characterized by three distinct loops rich in β-strands and emerging from a dense, globular core reticulated by four highly conserved disulfide bridges. The number and diversity of receptors, channels, and enzymes identified as targets of three-finger fold toxins is increasing continuously. Such manifold diversity highlights the specific adaptability of this fold for generating pleiotropic functions. Although this toxin superfamily disturbs many biological functions by interacting with a large diversity of molecular targets, the most significant target is the cholinergic system...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302413/characterization-of-daboia-russelii-and-naja-naja-venom-neutralizing-ability-of-an-undocumented-indigenous-medication-in-sri-lanka
#4
Madhushika M Silva, Sampath S Seneviratne, Devaka K Weerakoon, Charitha L Goonasekara
BACKGROUND: Indigenous medicinal practice in Sri Lanka talks about powerful compounds extracted from native plants for treating venomous snake bites which are hardly documented in literature but are used by the indigenous doctors for thousand years. OBJECTIVE: We screened the neutralizing ability of a herbal preparation practiced in indigenous medicine of Sri Lanka, consisting of Sansevieria cylindrica, Jatropha podagrica and Citrus aurantiifolia, for its ability to neutralize venom toxins of Naja naja (Common Cobra) and Daboia russelii (Russell's viper)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289430/envenoming-by-viridovipera-stejnegeri-snake-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis-presenting-disruption-of-hemostatic-balance
#5
Chih-Ying Chien, Shu-Chen Liao, Chien-Hung Liao, Ting-Shuo Huang, Yu-Hsien Chen
BACKGROUND: In most cases of envenoming by the green habu Viridovipera stejnegeri in Taiwan coagulopathy is not observed. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who developed venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy after V. stejnegeri bite. Laboratory investigation revealed the following: prothrombin time > 100 s (international normalized ratio > 10), activated partial thromboplastin time > 100 s, fibrinogen < 50 mg/dL, and fibrin degradation product > 80 μg/mL...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288817/animal-venoms-as-a-source-of-natural-antimicrobials-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Octavio L Franco, Gautam Sethi, Lina Hk Lim
Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens...
March 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275208/understanding-the-snake-venom-metalloproteinases-an-interview-with-jay-fox-and-jos%C3%A3-mar%C3%A3-a-guti%C3%A3-rrez
#7
EDITORIAL
Jay W Fox, José María Gutiérrez
Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez recently finished editing a Special Issue on the topic "Snake Venom Metalloproteinases" in Toxins. The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics, including the molecular evolution and structure of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the mechanisms involved in the generation of diversity of SVMPs, the mechanism of action of SVMPs, and their role in the pathophysiology of envenomings, with implications for improving the therapy of envenomings. In this interview, we discussed with Jay W...
January 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265084/lys49-myotoxin-from-the-brazilian-lancehead-pit-viper-elicits-pain-through-regulated-atp-release
#8
Chuchu Zhang, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Elda E Sánchez, Allan I Basbaum, David Julius
Pain-producing animal venoms contain evolutionarily honed toxins that can be exploited to study and manipulate somatosensory and nociceptive signaling pathways. From a functional screen, we have identified a secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like protein, BomoTx, from the Brazilian lancehead pit viper (Bothrops moojeni). BomoTx is closely related to a group of Lys49 myotoxins that have been shown to promote ATP release from myotubes through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BomoTx excites a cohort of sensory neurons via ATP release and consequent activation of P2X2 and/or P2X3 purinergic receptors...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264436/toxin-fused-with-sumo-tag-a-new-expression-vector-strategy-to-obtain-recombinant-venom-toxins-with-easy-tag-removal-inside-the-bacteria
#9
Lhiri H A L Shimokawa-Falcão, Maria C Caporrino, Katia C Barbaro, Maisa S Della-Casa, Geraldo S Magalhães
Many animal toxins may target the same molecules that need to be controlled in certain pathologies; therefore, some toxins have led to the formulation of drugs that are presently used, and many other drugs are still under development. Nevertheless, collecting sufficient toxins from the original source might be a limiting factor in studying their biological activities. Thus, molecular biology techniques have been applied in order to obtain large amounts of recombinant toxins into Escherichia coli. However, most animal toxins are difficult to express in this system, which results in insoluble, misfolded, or unstable proteins...
February 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263888/combined-venomics-antivenomics-and-venom-gland-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-monocoled-cobra-naja-kaouthia-from-china
#10
Ning Xu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Yin Yin, Shan-Shan Shen, Lin-Lin Shan, Chuan-Xi Chen, Yan-Xia Zhang, Jian-Fang Gao, Xiang Ji
We conducted an omics-analysis of the venom of Naja kaouthia from China. Proteomics analysis revealed six protein families [three-finger toxins (3-FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), nerve growth factor, snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), cysteine-rich secretory protein and ohanin], and venom-gland transcriptomics analysis revealed 28 protein families from 79 unigenes. 3-FTx (56.5% in proteome/82.0% in transcriptome) and PLA2 (26.9%/13.6%) were identified as the most abundant families in venom proteome and venom-gland transcriptome...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249773/toad-toxin-resistant-snake-thamnophis-elegans-expresses-high-levels-of-mutant-na-k-atpase-mrna-in-cardiac-muscle
#11
Shabnam Mohammadi, Alan H Savitzky, Jennifer Lohr, Susanne Dobler
Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, which are lethal to most predators. These toxins exert their lethal effects by binding to and disabling the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases of cell membranes. Many species of snakes exhibit resistance to the effects of bufadienolides due to target-site insensitivity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Mutations that confer resistance have previously been identified in ATP1a3, the gene that codes for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-3 paralog. We have found that this mutant gene is expressed at a significantly elevated level in heart tissue compared to gut, kidney, and liver of the bufadienolide-resistant snake, Thamnophis elegans...
February 26, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245079/hemorrhagic-metalloproteinase-cc-hsm-iii-isolated-from-cerastes-cerastes-venom-purification-and-biochemical-characterization
#12
Wafa Tachoua, Hinda Boukhalfa-Abib, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Snake venom metalloproteinases are the most abundant toxins in Viperidae venoms. In this study, a new hemorrhagin, Cc HSM-III (66 kDa), was purified from Cerastes cerastes venom by gel filtration, ion exchange, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographies. The analysis of Cc HSM-III by liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry revealed 32 peptides sharing a homology with P-III metalloproteinases from Echis ocellatus snake venom. Cc HSM-III displays hemorrhagic activity with a minimal hemorrhagic dose of 5 μg, which is abolished by ethylene diamine tetracetic acid but not by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240232/venomics-of-tropidolaemus-wagleri-the-sexually-dimorphic-temple-pit-viper-unveiling-a-deeply-conserved-atypical-toxin-arsenal
#13
Choo Hock Tan, Kae Yi Tan, Michelle Khai Khun Yap, Nget Hong Tan
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238904/proteomic-toxicological-and-immunogenic-characterization-of-mexican-west-coast-rattlesnake-crotalus-basiliscus-venom-and-its-immunological-relatedness-with-the-venom-of-central-american-rattlesnake-crotalus-simus
#14
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Francisco Reta Mares, Claudia Jaime, Andrés Sánchez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Aarón Gómez, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
The venom of the Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) was characterized for its protein composition, toxicological profile and immunogenic properties. This venom is composed of 68% Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), 14% phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 11% serine proteinases, 4% SVMPs-inhibitor tripeptides (SVMP-ITs), 2% bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 0.6% cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and 0.2% l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). SVMPs present in the venom are responsible for azocasein hydrolysis and hemorrhagic activity, but their contribution to the lethal activity of the venom in mice is masked by the neurotoxic activity of PLA2s, which in addition are also responsible for myotoxic activity...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209480/thermal-stabilization-of-anti-%C3%AE-cobratoxin-single-domain-antibodies
#15
George P Anderson, Jessica H Liu, Dan Zabetakis, Jinny L Liu, Ellen R Goldman
There is an unmet need for snake antivenoms that can be stored ready to use near the point of care. To address that need we have taken two anti-α-cobratoxin single domain antibodies and increased their thermal stability to improve their ambient temperature shelf-life. The anti-α-cobratoxin single domain antibodies C2 and C20 were first isolated, and demonstrated to be toxin neutralizing by Richard et al., 2013 (Richard, G., Meyers, A.J., McLean, M.D., Arbabi-Ghahroudi, M., MacKenzie, R., Hall, J.C., 2013...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205610/cr-laao-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-calloselasma-rhodostoma-venom-as-a-potential-tool-for-developing-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategies-against-cancer
#16
Tássia R Costa, Danilo L Menaldo, Karina F Zoccal, Sandra M Burin, Alexandre F Aissa, Fabíola A de Castro, Lúcia H Faccioli, Lusânia M Greggi Antunes, Suely V Sampaio
L-amino acid oxidases from snake venoms have been described to possess various biological functions. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses induced in vivo and in vitro by CR-LAAO, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom, and its antitumor potential. CR-LAAO induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, with recruitment of neutrophils and release of IL-6, IL-1β, LTB4 and PGE2. In vitro, IL-6 and IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with CR-LAAO was dependent of the activation of the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159722/cell-penetrating-and-cargo-delivery-ability-of-a-spider-toxin-derived-peptide-in-mammalian-cells
#17
Nisha Ponnappan, Archana Chugh
Cell-penetrating peptides are short cationic peptides with inherent ability to cross the plasma membrane barrier as well as intracellularly deliver cargo molecules conjugated to them. Venoms from snakes, scorpions and spiders are rich in membrane-active peptides. Crotamine from snake venom as well as maurocalcine and imperatoxin isolated from scorpion venoms have been reported to possess cell-penetrating property in mammalian cells. Latarcins, a group of spider venom toxins, has also been reported to possess antimicrobial property...
January 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159706/venomics-of-naja-sputatrix-the-javan-spitting-cobra-a-short-neurotoxin-driven-venom-needing-improved-antivenom-neutralization
#18
Nget Hong Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Choo Hock Tan
The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes. At subproteome, the 3FTx is dominated by cytotoxins (48...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149694/exploration-of-immunoglobulin-transcriptomes-from-mice-immunized-with-three-finger-toxins-and-phospholipases-a2-from-the-central-american-coral-snake-micrurus-nigrocinctus
#19
Andreas H Laustsen, Mikael Engmark, Christopher Clouser, Sonia Timberlake, Francois Vigneault, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Lomonte
Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Here, we employ high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) transcriptome of mice immunized with a three-finger toxin and a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130154/what-killed-karl-patterson-schmidt-combined-venom-gland-transcriptomic-venomic-and-antivenomic-analysis-of-the-south-african-green-tree-snake-the-boomslang-dispholidus-typus
#20
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Gareth Whiteley, Simon C Wagstaff, Robert A Harrison, Nicholas R Casewell, Juan J Calvete
BACKGROUND: Non-front-fanged colubroid snakes comprise about two-thirds of extant ophidian species. The medical significance of the majority of these snakes is unknown, but at least five species have caused life-threatening or fatal human envenomings. However, the venoms of only a small number of species have been explored. METHODS: A combined venomic and venom gland transcriptomic approach was employed to characterise of venom of Dispholidus typus (boomslang), the snake that caused the tragic death of Professor Karl Patterson Schmidt...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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