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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138410/pla2-like-proteins-myotoxic-mechanism-a-dynamic-model-description
#1
Rafael J Borges, Ney Lemke, Marcos R M Fontes
Phospholipase A2-like (PLA2-like) proteins contribute to the development of muscle necrosis in Viperidae snake bites and are not efficiently neutralized by current antivenom treatments. The toxic mechanisms of PLA2-like proteins are devoid of catalytic activity and not yet fully understood, although structural and functional experiments suggest a dimeric assembly and that the C-terminal residues are essential to myotoxicity. Herein, we characterized the functional mechanism of bothropic PLA2-like structures related to global and local measurements using the available models in the Protein Data Bank and normal mode molecular dynamics (NM-MD)...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111117/identification-of-b-cell-recognized-linear-epitopes-in-a-snake-venom-serine-proteinase-from-the-central-american-bushmaster-lachesis-stenophrys
#2
M Madrigal, A Alape-Girón, E Barboza-Arguedas, W Aguilar-Ulloa, M Flores-Díaz
Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107670/new-findings-from-the-first-transcriptome-of-the-bothrops-moojeni-snake-venom-gland
#3
Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Romualdo Morandi-Filho, Patricia Tieme Fujimura, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Suely Vilela Sampaio
Snakebites are a serious health problem in tropical countries. In Brazil, the genus Bothrops (Viperidae family) causes most of the ophidic accidents, characterized by proteolysis and haemorrhage. Snake venoms are rich sources of toxins with great therapeutic and biotechnological potential and omics approaches is a valuable tool for identification of new bioactive components in the venom. In this study, we described the first transcriptome of the venom gland of Bothrops moojeni snake, using the next-generation sequencing with the Illumina platform...
October 28, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071226/pharmacological-properties-of-vochysia-haenkeana-vochysiaceae-extract-to-neutralize-the-neuromuscular-blockade-induced-by-bothropstoxin-i-lys49-phospholipase-a2-myotoxin
#4
Carolina Harder, Akila Lara de Oliveira, Andreia Borges Scriboni, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Márcio Galdino Dos Santos, Karina Cogo-Müller, Regina Yuri Hashimoto Miura, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Sandro Rostelato-Ferreira, Yoko Oshima-Franco
Purpose: Bothrops snakes are responsible for more than 70 % of snakebites every year in Brazil and their venoms cause severe local and systemic damages. The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been widely investigated in order to discover new alternative treatments for different classes of diseases including neglected tropical diseases as envenomation by snakebites. In this work, we have investigated the ability of Vochysia haenkeana stem barks extract (VhE) to neutralize the neuromuscular effects caused by Bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), the major phospholipase A2 (PLA2) myotoxin from B...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068410/can-inhibitors-of-snake-venom-phospholipases-a%C3%A2-lead-to-new-insights-into-anti-inflammatory-therapy-in-humans-a-theoretical-study
#5
Thaís A Sales, Silvana Marcussi, Elaine F F da Cunha, Kamil Kuca, Teodorico C Ramalho
Human phospholipase A₂ (hPLA₂) of the IIA group (HGIIA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, producing arachidonic acid and originating potent inflammatory mediators. Therefore, molecules that can inhibit this enzyme are a source of potential anti-inflammatory drugs, with different action mechanisms of known anti-inflammatory agents. For the study and development of new anti-inflammatory drugs with this action mechanism, snake venom PLA₂ (svPLA₂) can be employed, since the svPLA₂ has high similarity with the human PLA₂ HGIIA...
October 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067765/identification-of-the-molecular-determinants-of-the-antibacterial-activity-of-lmuttx-a-lys49-phospholipase-a2-homologue-isolated-from-lachesis-muta-muta-snake-venom-linnaeus-1766
#6
Rafaela Diniz-Sousa, Cleópatra A S Caldeira, Anderson M Kayano, Mauro V Paloschi, Daniel C Pimenta, Rodrigo Simões-Silva, Amália S Ferreira, Fernando B Zanchi, Najla B Matos, Fernando P Grabner, Leonardo A Calderon, Juliana P Zuliani, Andreimar M Soares
Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s) are responsible for numerous pathophysiological effects in snakebites; however, their biochemical properties favour antimicrobial actions against different pathogens, thus constituting a true source of potential microbicidal agents. This study describes the isolation of a Lys49 PLA2 homologue from Lachesis muta muta venom using two chromatographic steps: Size Exclusion and Reverse Phase. The protein showed a molecular mass of 13,889 Da and was devoid of phospholipase activity on an artificial substrate...
October 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027956/combined-venom-gland-transcriptomic-and-venom-peptidomic-analysis-of-the-predatory-ant-odontomachus-monticola
#7
Kohei Kazuma, Keiichi Masuko, Katsuhiro Konno, Hidetoshi Inagaki
Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) have adapted to many different environments and have become some of the most prolific and successful insects. To date, 13,258 ant species have been reported. They have been classified into 333 genera and 17 subfamilies. Except for a few Formicinae, Dolichoderinae, and members of other subfamilies, most ant species have a sting with venom. The venoms are composed of formic acid, alkaloids, hydrocarbons, amines, peptides, and proteins. Unlike the venoms of other animals such as snakes and spiders, ant venoms have seldom been analyzed comprehensively, and their compositions are not yet completely known...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#8
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021149/the-envenomation-of-general-physiology-throughout-the-last-century
#9
Jon T Sack
Toxins are the poisonous products of organisms. Toxins serve vital defensive and offensive functions for those that harbor them: stinging scorpions, pesticidal plants, sanguinary snakes, fearless frogs, sliming snails, noxious newts, and smarting spiders. For physiologists, toxins are integral chemical tools that hijack life's fundamental processes with remarkable molecular specificity. Our understanding of electrophysiological phenomena has been transformed time and time again with the help of some terrifying toxins...
November 6, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993633/rabies-virus-modifies-host-behaviour-through-a-snake-toxin-like-region-of-its-glycoprotein-that-inhibits-neurotransmitter-receptors-in-the-cns
#10
Karsten Hueffer, Shailesh Khatri, Shane Rideout, Michael B Harris, Roger L Papke, Clare Stokes, Marvin K Schulte
Rabies virus induces drastic behaviour modifications in infected hosts. The mechanisms used to achieve these changes in the host are not known. The main finding of this study is that a region in the rabies virus glycoprotein, with homologies to snake toxins, has the ability to alter behaviour in animals through inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors present in the central nervous system. This finding provides a novel aspect to virus receptor interaction and host manipulation by pathogens in general...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927001/a-review-and-database-of-snake-venom-proteomes
#11
REVIEW
Theo Tasoulis, Geoffrey K Isbister
Advances in the last decade combining transcriptomics with established proteomics methods have made possible rapid identification and quantification of protein families in snake venoms. Although over 100 studies have been published, the value of this information is increased when it is collated, allowing rapid assimilation and evaluation of evolutionary trends, geographical variation, and possible medical implications. This review brings together all compositional studies of snake venom proteomes published in the last decade...
September 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906474/non-clinical-studies-for-evaluation-of-8-c-rhamnosyl-apigenin-purified-from-peperomia-obtusifolia-against-acute-edema
#12
Cinthia I Tamayose, Paulete Romoff, Daniela O Toyama, Henrique H Gaeta, Caroline R C Costa, Mariana N Belchor, Bruna D Ortolan, Leosvaldo S M Velozo, Maria A C Kaplan, Marcelo J P Ferreira, Marcos H Toyama
Compound 8-C-rhamnosyl apigenin (8CR) induced a moderate reduction in the enzymatic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but the compound also significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. In vitro assays showed that the compound induced a slight change in the secondary structure of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In vivo assays were divided into two steps. In the first step, the 8CR compound was administered by intraperitoneal injections 30 min prior to administration of sPLA2...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905944/snakebite-envenoming
#13
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete, Abdulrazaq G Habib, Robert A Harrison, David J Williams, David A Warrell
Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that kills >100,000 people and maims >400,000 people every year. Impoverished populations living in the rural tropics are particularly vulnerable; snakebite envenoming perpetuates the cycle of poverty. Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins that exert a wide range of toxic actions. The high variability in snake venom composition is responsible for the various clinical manifestations in envenomings, ranging from local tissue damage to potentially life-threatening systemic effects...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904556/medicinal-plants-for-the-treatment-of-local-tissue-damage-induced-by-snake-venoms-an-overview-from-traditional-use-to-pharmacological-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Juliana Félix-Silva, Arnóbio Antônio Silva-Junior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Snakebites are a serious problem in public health due to their high morbimortality. Most of snake venoms produce intense local tissue damage, which could lead to temporary or permanent disability in victims. The available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, whose effectiveness is reduced against these effects. Thus, the search for complementary alternatives for snakebite treatment is relevant. There are several reports of the popular use of medicinal plants against snakebites worldwide. In recent years, many studies have been published giving pharmacological evidence of benefits of several vegetal species against local effects induced by a broad range of snake venoms, including inhibitory potential against hyaluronidase, phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, and edematogenic activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888370/biophysical-and-biological-properties-of-small-linear-peptides-derived-from-crotamine-a-cationic-antimicrobial-antitumoral-toxin-with-cell-penetrating-and-cargo-delivery-abilities
#15
C Dal Mas, D A Pinheiro, J D Campeiro, B Mattei, V Oliveira, E B Oliveira, A Miranda, K R Perez, M A F Hayashi
Crotamine is a natural polypeptide from snake venom which delivers nucleic acid molecules into cells, besides having pronounced affinity for negatively charged membranes and antifungal activity. We previously demonstrated that crotamine derived short linear peptides were not very effective as antifungal, although the non-structured recombinant crotamine was overridingly more potent compared to the native structured crotamine. Aiming to identify the features necessary for the antifungal activity of crotamine, two linear short peptides, each comprising half of the total positively charged amino acid residues of the full-length crotamine were evaluated here to show that these linear peptides keep the ability to interact with lipid membrane model systems with different phospholipid compositions, even after forming complexes with DNA...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887046/effect-of-amino-acids-near-the-rgd-sequence-on-binding-activities-between-%C3%AE-iib%C3%AE-3-integrin-and-fibrinogen-in-the-presence-of-rgd-containing-synthetic-peptides-from-elegantin-and-angustatin
#16
Etsuko Oyama, Hidenobu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Ishii
Elegantin and angustatin, which were isolated from the snake venoms of Protobothrops elegans and Dendroaspis angusticeps, markedly inhibit binding between platelet integrins and fibrinogen via the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. Angustatin, which is a three-finger toxin containing the RGD sequence, inhibits platelet aggregation almost ten times more strongly than disintegrin isolated from the venoms of Viperidae and Crotalidae. The RGD sequences of both polypeptides are located at the top of hairpin loops, and the composition of the RGD loop is very important for binding to integrin...
September 5, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867663/high-density-peptide-microarray-exploration-of-the-antibody-response-in-a-rabbit-immunized-with-a-neurotoxic-venom-fraction
#17
Mikael Engmark, Martin C Jespersen, Bruno Lomonte, Ole Lund, Andreas H Laustsen
Polyvalent snakebite antivenoms derive their therapeutic success from the ability of their antibodies to neutralize venom toxins across multiple snake species. This ability results from a production process involving immunization of large mammals with a broad suite of toxins present in venoms. As a result of immunization with this wide range of toxins, many polyvalent antivenoms have a high degree of cross-reactivity to similar toxins in other snake venoms - a cross-reactivity which cannot easily be deconvoluted...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867438/neuromuscular-paralysis-by-the-basic-phospholipase-a2-subunit-of-crotoxin-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-snake-venom-needs-its-acid-chaperone-to-concurrently-inhibit-acetylcholine-release-and-produce-muscle-blockage
#18
Walter L G Cavalcante, José B Noronha-Matos, Maria A Timóteo, Marcos R M Fontes, Márcia Gallacci, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864899/detection-of-human-neuronal-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-by-conjugates-of-snake-%C3%AE-neurotoxin-with-quantum-dots
#19
Ya V Makarova, I V Shelukhina, A K Mukherjee, D V Kuznetsov, V I Tsetlin, Yu N Utkin
Fluorescent derivatives are widely used to study the structure and functions of proteins. Quantum dots (QDs), fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals, have a high quantum yield and are much more resistant to bleaching compared to organic dyes. Conjugates of α-neurotoxins with QDs were used for visualization of human α7 acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in GH4C1 pituitary adenoma cells. Specific staining of cells by the conjugated toxins was observed.
July 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843532/the-medical-threat-of-mamba-envenoming-in-sub-saharan-africa-revealed-by-genus-wide-analysis-of-venom-composition-toxicity-and-antivenomics-profiling-of-available-antivenoms
#20
Stuart Ainsworth, Daniel Petras, Mikael Engmark, Roderich D Süssmuth, Gareth Whiteley, Laura-Oana Albulescu, Taline D Kazandjian, Simon C Wagstaff, Paul Rowley, Wolfgang Wüster, Pieter C Dorrestein, Ana Silvia Arias, José M Gutiérrez, Robert A Harrison, Nicholas R Casewell, Juan J Calvete
Mambas (genus Dendroaspis) are among the most feared of the medically important elapid snakes found in sub-Saharan Africa, but many facets of their biology, including the diversity of venom composition, remain relatively understudied. Here, we present a reconstruction of mamba phylogeny, alongside genus-wide venom gland transcriptomic and high-resolution top-down venomic analyses. Whereas the green mambas, D. viridis, D. angusticeps, D. j. jamesoni and D. j. kaimosae, express 3FTx-predominant venoms, black mamba (D...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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