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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602829/comparison-of-proteomic-profiles-of-the-venoms-of-two-of-the-big-four-snakes-of-india-the-indian-cobra-naja-naja-and-the-common-krait-bungarus-caeruleus-and-analyses-of-their-toxins
#1
Manisha Choudhury, Ryan J R McCleary, Manish Kesherwani, R Manjunatha Kini, Devadasan Velmurugan
Snake venoms are mixtures of biologically-active proteins and peptides, and several studies have described the characteristics of some of these toxins. However, complete proteomic profiling of the venoms of many snake species has not yet been done. The Indian cobra (Naja naja) and common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) are elapid snake species that are among the 'Big Four' responsible for the majority of human snake envenomation cases in India. As understanding the composition and complexity of venoms is necessary for successful treatment of envenomation in humans, we utilized three different proteomic profiling approaches to characterize these venoms: i) one-dimensional SDS-PAGE coupled with in-gel tryptic digestion and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) of individual protein bands; ii) in-solution tryptic digestion of crude venoms coupled with ESI-LC-MS/MS; and iii) separation by gel-filtration chromatography coupled with tryptic digestion and ESI-LC-MS/MS of separated fractions...
June 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595875/development-of-igy-antibodies-against-anti-snake-toxins-endowed-with-highly-lethal-neutralizing-activity
#2
David Gitirana da Rocha, Jorge Hernandez Fernandez, Cláudia Maria Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Letícia da Silva, Fábio Carlos Magnoli, Osmair Élder da Silva, Wilmar Dias da Silva
Snakebite envenoming is a major neglected disease related to poverty in developing countries. Treatment involves the administration of a specific antivenom serum and auxiliary therapies, if necessary. The improvement of antibodies is of great importance for the technological advancement of antivenom therapy and to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this medical burden. In the present study, adult hens were immunized nine times with 20μg of B. arietans or C. d. terrificus venoms at three-week intervals between immunizations...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579478/absolute-venomics-absolute-quantification-of-intact-venom-proteins-through-elemental-mass-spectrometry
#3
Francisco Calderón-Celis, Laura Cid-Barrio, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan J Calvete
We report the application of a hybrid element and molecular MS configuration for the parallel absolute quantification of μHPLC-separated intact sulfur-containing venom proteins, via ICP triple quadrupole MS and (32)S/(34)S isotope dilution analysis, and identification by ESI-QToF-MS of the toxins of the medically important African black-necked spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis (Tanzania); New Guinea small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka; and Papuan black snake, Pseudechis papuanus. The main advantage of this approach is that only one generic sulfur-containing standard is required to quantify each and all intact Cys- and/or Met-containing toxins of the venom proteome...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578650/snake-venom-from-deadly-toxins-to-life-saving-therapeutics
#4
Humera Waheed, Syed Faraz Moin, M Iqbal Choudhary
Snakes are fascinating creatures and have been residents of this planet well before ancient humans dwelled the earth. Venomous snakes have been a figure of fear, and cause notable mortality throughout the world. The venom constitutes families of proteins and peptides with various isoforms that make it a cocktail of diverse molecules. These biomolecules are responsible for the disturbance in fundamental physiological systems of the envenomed victim, leading to morbidity which can lead to death if left untreated...
June 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571558/protein-profile-analysis-of-two-australian-snake-venoms-by-one-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-and-ms-ms-experiments
#5
Dessi Georgieva, Diana Hildebrand, Rodrigo Simas, Monika A Coronado, Marcel Kwiatkowski, Hartmut Schlüter, Raghuvir Arni, Patrick Spencer, Christian Betzel
The Pseudechis colletti and Pseudechis butleri venoms were analyzed by 1-D gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides obtained from the protein bands. Both venoms contain highly potent pharmacologically active components, which were assigned to the following protein families: basic and acidic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), P-III metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), 5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTDs), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), venom nerve growth factors (VNGFs) and post-synaptic neurotoxins...
May 31, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555029/venom-on-a-chip-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-comparative-venomics
#6
Giulia Zancolli, Libia Sanz, Juan J Calvete, Wolfgang Wüster
Venom research has attracted an increasing interest in disparate fields, from drug development and pharmacology, to evolutionary biology and ecology, and rational antivenom production. Advances in "-omics" technologies have allowed the characterization of an increasing number of animal venoms, but the methodology currently available is suboptimal for large-scale comparisons of venom profiles. Here, we describe a fast, reproducible and semi-automated protocol for investigating snake venom variability, especially at the intraspecific level, using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on-chip technology...
May 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552727/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-caused-by-moojenactivase-a-procoagulant-snake-venom-metalloprotease
#7
Marco A Sartim, Gabriel N Cezarette, Anna L Jacob-Ferreira, Fabiani G Frantz, Lucia H Faccioli, Suely V Sampaio
Snake venom toxins that activate coagulation factors are key players in the process of venom-induced coagulopathy, and account for severe clinical manifestations. The present study applies a variety of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological approaches to broadly investigate the intravascular and systemic effects of moojenactivase (MooA), the first described PIIId subclass metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops sp. venom that activates coagulation factors. MooA induced consumption coagulopathy with high toxic potency, characterized by prolongation of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time, consumption of fibrinogen and the plasma coagulation factors X and II, and thrombocytopenia...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534833/coagulating-colubrids-evolutionary-pathophysiological-and-biodiscovery-implications-of-venom-variations-between-boomslang-dispholidus-typus-and-twig-snake-thelotornis-mossambicanus
#8
Jordan Debono, James Dobson, Nicholas R Casewell, Anthony Romilio, Bin Li, Nyoman Kurniawan, Karine Mardon, Vera Weisbecker, Amanda Nouwens, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species) are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D...
May 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507562/antivenomics-as-a-tool-to-improve-the-neutralizing-capacity-of-the-crotalic-antivenom-a-study-with-crotamine
#9
Ricardo Teixeira-Araújo, Patrícia Castanheira, Leonora Brazil-Más, Francisco Pontes, Moema Leitão de Araújo, Maria Lucia Machado Alves, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Carlos Correa-Netto
BACKGROUND: Snakebite treatment requires administration of an appropriate antivenom that should contain antibodies capable of neutralizing the venom. To achieve this goal, antivenom production must start from a suitable immunization protocol and proper venom mixtures. In Brazil, antivenom against South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) bites is produced by public institutions based on the guidelines defined by the regulatory agency of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, ANVISA...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495622/a-new-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-bothrops-jararacussu-snake-venom-isolation-partial-characterization-and-assessment-of-pro-apoptotic-and-antiprotozoal-activities
#10
Sante E I Carone, Tássia R Costa, Sandra M Burin, Adélia C O Cintra, Karina F Zoccal, Francine J Bianchini, Luiz F F Tucci, João J Franco, Maria R Torqueti, Lúcia H Faccioli, Sérgio de Albuquerque, Fabíola A de Castro, Suely V Sampaio
A new l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) from Bothrops jararacussu venom (BjussuLAAO-II) was isolated by using a three-step chromatographic procedure based on molecular exclusion, hydrophobicity, and affinity. BjussuLAAO-II is an acidic enzyme with pI=3.9 and molecular mass=60.36kDa that represents 0.3% of the venom proteins and exhibits high enzymatic activity (4884.53U/mg/mim). We determined part of the primary sequence of BjussuLAAO-II by identifying 96 amino acids, from which 34 compose the N-terminal of the enzyme (ADDRNPLEECFRETDYEEFLEIARNGLSDTDNPK)...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477376/chronic-effects-of-an-invasive-species-on-an-animal-community
#11
J Sean Doody, David Rhind, Brian Green, Christina Castellano, Colin McHenry, Simon Clulow
Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible...
May 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476572/venomics-of-bungarus-caeruleus-indian-krait-comparable-venom-profiles-variable-immunoreactivities-among-specimens-from-sri-lanka-india-and-pakistan
#12
Angeline Mei Feng Oh, Choo Hock Tan, Gnanathasan Christeine Ariaranee, Naeem Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan
The Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is one of the "Big Four" venomous snakes widely distributed in South Asia. The present venomic study reveals that its venom (Sri Lankan origin) is predominated by phospholipases A2 (64.5% of total proteins), in which at least 4.6% are presynaptically-acting β-bungarotoxin A-chains. Three-finger toxins (19.0%) are the second most abundant, comprising 15.6% κ-neurotoxins, the potent postsynaptically-acting long neurotoxins. Comparative chromatography showed that venom samples from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan did not exhibit significant variation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474628/protection-against-osteoarthritis-in-experimental-animals-by-nanogold-conjugated-snake-venom-protein-toxin-gold-nanoparticle-naja-kaouthia-cytotoxin-1
#13
Antony Gomes, Partha Pratim Saha, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta, Subir Chandra Dasgupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Increased severity of osteoarthritis (OA) and adverse side effects of its treatment led to the search for alternative therapies. It was previously reported that snake venom protein toxin Naja kaouthia cytotoxin 1 (NKCT1) and gold nanoparticle (GNP) individually have potential against excremental arthritis. In this study, we analyzed the protective activity of GNP conjugated protein toxin NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) against experimental OA. METHODS: Gold nanoparticle conjugation with NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) was done and its physiochemical properties were studied...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465678/protein-species-quantitative-venomics-looking-through-a-crystal-ball
#14
REVIEW
Juan J Calvete, Daniel Petras, Francisco Calderón-Celis, Bruno Lomonte, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
In this paper we discuss recent significant developments in the field of venom research, specifically the emergence of top-down proteomic applications that allow achieving compositional resolution at the level of the protein species present in the venom, and the absolute quantification of the venom proteins (the term "protein species" is used here to refer to all the different molecular forms in which a protein can be found. Please consult the special issue of Jornal of Proteomics "Towards deciphering proteomes via the proteoform, protein speciation, moonlighting and protein code concepts" published in 2016, vol...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462047/the-genetics-of-venom-ontogeny-in-the-eastern-diamondback-rattlesnake-crotalus-adamanteus
#15
Darin R Rokyta, Mark J Margres, Micaiah J Ward, Elda E Sanchez
The same selective forces that give rise to rapid inter- and intraspecific divergence in snake venoms can also favor differences in venoms across life-history stages. Ontogenetic changes in venom composition are well known and widespread in snakes but have not been investigated to the level of unambiguously identifying the specific loci involved. The eastern diamondback rattlesnake was previously shown to undergo an ontogenetic shift in venom composition at sexual maturity, and this shift accounted for more venom variation than geography...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462021/differential-transcript-profile-of-inhibitors-with-potential-anti-venom-role-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-and-adult-bothrops-jararaca-snake
#16
Cícera Maria Gomes, Karen de Morais-Zani, Stephen Lu, Diego de Souza Buarque, Glória Regina Cardoso Braz, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities-proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant-mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake's venoms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447805/do-tiger-keelback-snakes-rhabdophis-tigrinus-recognize-how-toxic-they-are
#17
Akira Mori, Gordon M Burghardt
Animals that depend on defensive chemicals acquired from food may face a decision when attempting to deter predatory attacks: Should they exhibit antipredator behavior that relies on the toxicity of the sequestered chemicals or should they adopt other behaviors that can avoid predation without using the chemical defense, such as flight? Thus, it is reasonable to assume that animals that sequester prey toxins have evolved the ability to flexibly change their antipredator responses according to the amount of toxin-resource they have consumed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444737/digest-know-your-poison-predictable-molecular-changes-confer-toxin-resistance-in-snakes
#18
Kalina T J Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439287/rattlesnake-crotalus-molossus-nigrescens-venom-induces-oxidative-stress-on-human-erythrocytes
#19
David Meléndez-Martínez, Juan Manuel Muñoz, Guillermo Barraza-Garza, Martha Sandra Cruz-Peréz, Ana Gatica-Colima, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Luis Fernando Plenge-Tellechea
BACKGROUND: Globally, snake envenomation is a well-known cause of death and morbidity. In many cases of snakebite, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, hemorrhage and neurotoxicity are present. Some of these symptoms may be provoked by the envenomation itself, but others are secondary effects of the produced oxidative stress that enhances the damage produced by the venom toxins. The only oxidative stress effect known in blood is the change in oxidation number of Fe (from ferrous to ferric) in hemoglobin, generating methemoglobin but not in other macromolecules...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435120/the-role-of-platelets-in-hemostasis-and-the-effects-of-snake-venom-toxins-on-platelet-function
#20
REVIEW
Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz, Bruna Barbosa de Sousa, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha Pereira, Carla Cristine Neves Mamede, Mariana Santos Matias, Nadia Cristina Gomes de Morais, Júnia de Oliveira Costa, Fábio de Oliveira
The human body has a set of physiological processes, known as hemostasis, which keeps the blood fluid and free of clots in normal vessels; in the case of vascular injury, this process induces the local formation of a hemostatic plug, preventing hemorrhage. The hemostatic system in humans presents complex physiological interactions that involve platelets, plasma proteins, endothelial and subendothelial structures. Disequilibrium in the regulatory mechanisms that control the growth and the size of the thrombus is one of the factors that favors the development of diseases related to vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are among the leading causes of death in the western world...
July 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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