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snake toxin

Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Soledad Lorena Saavedra, Lucia Avila, Silvana Laura Giudicessi, Fernando Albericio, Silvia Andrea Camperi, Osvaldo Cascone, Maria Camila Martinez-Ceron
Nowadays, treatment with specific antivenins is considered the only cure for snakebites accidents. However, access to antivenom obstructs the successful implementation of the World Health Organization international guidelines. In the last few years, natural organic compounds, peptides and proteins with the ability to inhibit snake toxins and obtained from different sources such as plant extracts and animal blood have been proposed as antivenoms. In this work, we will focus on the inhibitors of the main venom toxins, phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases, and their application as novel antivenoms...
February 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Richard Hemmi Valente, Fernanda Sakai, José Antonio Portes-Junior, Luciana Godoy Viana, Sylvia Mendes Carneiro, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
Despite numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland (and some data on the accessory gland) of the venom glandular apparatus of Viperidae snakes, the primary duct has been overlooked. We characterized the primary duct of the Bothrops jararaca snake by morphological analysis, immunohistochemistry and proteomics. The duct has a pseudostratified epithelium with secretory columnar cells with vesicles of various electrondensities, as well as mitochondria-rich, dark, basal, and horizontal cells...
March 13, 2018: Toxins
Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
José R Almeida, Bruno Mendes, Marcelo Lancellotti, Sergio Marangoni, Nuno Vale, Óscar Passos, Maria J Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Paula Gomes, Saulo L Da Silva
Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A2 s (PLA2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Juliana Pavan Zuliani, José María Gutiérrez, Catarina Teixeira
Phagocytosis, a process involved in host defense, requires coordination of a variety of signaling reactions. MT-II, a catalytically-inactive Lys49-PLA2 ¸ and MT-III, an active Asp49-PLA2 isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom, activate phagocytosis in macrophages. In this study the signal pathways mediating zymosan phagocytosis, focusing in lipidic second messengers, were investigated. Macrophages collected from male Swiss mouse peritoneum were obtained 96 h after i.p. injection of thioglycollate. Phagocytosis was evaluated with non-opsonized zymosan in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Pieter T J Johnson, Dana M Calhoun, Amber N Stokes, Calvin B Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J Briggs, Jason T Hoverman, Vasyl V Tkach, Jacobus C de Roode
1.Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2.Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which is only partially explained by predation pressure...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Joy R Makdisi, Dennis P Kim, Paytra A Klein, Jeffrey A Klein
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a neglected global health problem. There is a need for a prehospital treatment of neurotoxic snakebite that prolongs survival and allows time for a victim to reach a hospital for antivenom therapy. Tumescent epinephrine consists of a large volume of dilute epinephrine (2 mg/l) injected subcutaneously. It functions as "contravenom" by causing capillary vasoconstriction and delaying venom absorption. METHODS: A murine model of neurotoxic envenomation using lidocaine as a surrogate for neurotoxic snake venom was first developed in a pilot study...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Shengwei Xiong, Chunhong Huang
Synergism is a significant phenomenon present in snake venoms that may be an evolving strategy to potentiate toxicities. Synergism exists between different toxins or toxin complexes in various snake venoms, with phospholipaseA 2 s (PLA 2 s) (toxins or subunits) the main enablers. The predominant toxins, snake venom PLA 2 s, metalloproteases (SVMPs), serine proteases (SVSPs) and three-finger toxins (3FTxs), play essential roles in synergistic processes. The hypothetical mechanisms of synergistic effect can be generalized under the effects of amplification and chaperoning...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Suchaya Sanhajariya, Stephen B Duffull, Geoffrey K Isbister
Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974-present) and Medline (1946-present). For animals, 12 out of 520 initially identified studies met the inclusion criteria. In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase, with half-lives of 5 to 48 min and 0...
February 7, 2018: Toxins
Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz, Sawsan Al Khoury, Lucie Jaquillard, Mathilde Triquigneaux, Guillaume Martinez, Sandrine Bourgoin-Voillard, Michel Sève, Christophe Arnoult, Rémy Beroud, Michel De Waard
Background: Sperm contains a wealth of cell surface receptors and ion channels that are required for most of its basic functions such as motility and acrosome reaction. Conversely, animal venoms are enriched in bioactive compounds that primarily target those ion channels and cell surface receptors. We hypothesized, therefore, that animal venoms should be rich enough in sperm-modulating compounds for a drug discovery program. Our objective was to demonstrate this fact by using a sperm-based phenotypic screening to identify positive modulators from the venom of Walterinnesia aegyptia...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Kok Keong Tan, Boon Huat Bay, Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone
L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is a protein toxin commonly found in snake venom. It has many applications, ranging from biotechnology to potential anticancer therapeutics. LAAO converts L-amino acid into α-keto acid and release ammonia and hydrogen peroxide as by-products. Induction of oxidative stress in cancer cells is one of the cancer treatment strategies as controlled and targeted release of hydrogen peroxide can theoretically induce sufficient oxidative stress to kill cancer cells. Furthermore, L-amino acid oxidase has been shown to selectively bind to cell membranes of specific phospholipid composition and deliver the hydrogen peroxide to localized regions on the cell surface...
January 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Isabela Pacheco Borges, Mariana Ferreira Silva, Fernanda Maria Santiago, Lucas Silva de Faria, Álvaro Ferreira Júnior, Rafaela José da Silva, Mônica Costa Soares, Vitor de Freitas, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo Yoneyama, Eloísa Amália Vieira Ferro, Daiana Silva Lopes, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues
Activities of phospholipases (PLAs) have been linked to pathogenesis in various microorganisms, and implicated in cell invasion and so the interest in these enzymes as potential targets that could contribute to the control of parasite survival and proliferation. Chicken eggs immunized with BnSP-7, a Lys49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom, represent an excellent source of polyclonal antibodies with potential inhibitory activity on parasite PLAs. Herein, we report the production, characterization and anti-parasitic effect of IgY antibodies from egg yolks of hens immunized with BnSP-7...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jaime Felipe Guerrero-Garzón, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Fernando Zamudio, Gerardo Corzo, Alejandro Alagón, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez
The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) represent an extremely diverse protein family in elapid venoms, where the short chain α-neurotoxins are the most relevant toxin group from the clinical point of view. Essentially, the 3FTxs variability and the low proportions of α-neurotoxins in the venoms of North American coral snakes make it difficult to obtain effective elapid antivenoms against the envenomation symptoms caused mainly by these α-neurotoxins. In this work, thirty 3FTx transcript sequences were obtained from the venom glands of four coral snake species from Mexico (M...
January 29, 2018: Biochimie
Daniel Dashevsky, Bryan G Fry
Coral snakes, most notably the genus Micrurus, are the only terrestrial elapid snakes in the Americas. Elapid venoms are generally known for their potent neurotoxicity which is usually caused by Three-Finger Toxin (3FTx) proteins. These toxins can have a wide array of functions that have been characterized from the venom of other elapids. We examined publicly available sequences from Micrurus 3FTx to show that they belong to 8 monophyletic clades that diverged as deep in the 3FTx phylogenetic tree as the other clades with characterized functions...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Andrea Sala, Clotilde Silvia Cabassi, Davide Santospirito, Eugenia Polverini, Sara Flisi, Sandro Cavirani, Simone Taddei
Naja atra subsp. atra cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1), produced by Chinese cobra snakes, belonging to Elapidae family, is included in the three-finger toxin family and exerts high cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity too. Using as template mainly the tip and the subsequent β-strand of the first "finger" of this toxin, different sequences of 20 amino acids linear peptides have been designed in order to avoid toxic effects but to maintain or even strengthen the partial antimicrobial activity already seen for the complete toxin...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Goldenberg, Vittoria Cipriani, Timothy N W Jackson, Kevin Arbuckle, Jordan Debono, Daniel Dashevsky, Nadya Panagides, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Ivan Koludarov, Bin Li, Renan Castro Santana, Amanda Nouwens, Alun Jones, Chris Hay, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Brian Bush, John J Miles, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Pseudechis (black snakes) is an Australasian elapid snake genus that inhabits much of mainland Australia, with two representatives confined to Papua New Guinea. The present study is the first to analyse the venom of all 9 described Pseudechis species (plus one undescribed species) to investigate the evolution of venom composition and functional activity. Proteomic results demonstrated that the typical Pseudechis venom profile is dominated by phospholipase A2 toxins. Strong cytotoxicity was the dominant function for most species...
January 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Venkata Krishna Pothukuchi, Alok Kumar, Chennamsetty Teja, Archana Verma
Snakebite is an important medical problem in India. Among their various manifestations, cerebral complications are uncommonly found in literature. Moreover, Ischemic stroke following snake bite is quite rare. Here we report a case series of two such cases that developed neurological manifestations following Russell's viper bite. On computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain; cerebral infarcts were revealed. Their likely mechanisms are discussed in present study which include disseminated intravascular coagulation, toxin induced vasculitis and endothelial damage...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Feng Zhao, Xinqiang Lan, Tao Li, Yang Xiang, Fang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Wenhui Lee
Centipedes are one of the oldest venomous animals and use their venoms as weapons to attack prey or protect themselves. Their venoms contain various components with different biomedical and pharmacological properties. However, little attention has been paid to the profiles and diversity of their toxin-like proteins/peptides. In this study, we used a proteotranscriptomic approach to uncover the diversity of centipede toxin-like proteins in Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Nine hundred twenty-three and 6,736 peptides, which were separately isolated from venom and torso tissues, respectively, were identified by ESI-MS/MS and deduced from their transcriptomes...
January 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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