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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240232/venomics-of-tropidolaemus-wagleri-the-sexually-dimorphic-temple-pit-viper-unveiling-a-deeply-conserved-atypical-toxin-arsenal
#1
Choo Hock Tan, Kae Yi Tan, Michelle Khai Khun Yap, Nget Hong Tan
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238904/proteomic-toxicological-and-immunogenic-characterization-of-mexican-west-coast-rattlesnake-crotalus-basiliscus-venom-and-its-immunological-relatedness-with-the-venom-of-central-american-rattlesnake-crotalus-simus
#2
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Francisco Reta Mares, Claudia Jaime, Andrés Sánchez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Aarón Gómez, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
: The venom of the Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) was characterized for its protein composition, toxicological profile and immunogenic properties. This venom is composed of 68% Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), 14% phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 11% serine proteinases, 4% SVMPs-inhibitor tripeptides (SVMP-ITs), 2% bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 0.6% cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and 0.2% l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). SVMPs present in the venom are responsible for azocasein hydrolysis and hemorrhagic activity, but their contribution to the lethal activity of the venom in mice is masked by the neurotoxic activity of PLA2s, which in addition are also responsible for myotoxic activity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209480/thermal-stabilization-of-anti-%C3%AE-cobratoxin-single-domain-antibodies
#3
George P Anderson, Jessica H Liu, Dan Zabetakis, Jinny L Liu, Ellen R Goldman
There is an unmet need for snake antivenoms that can be stored ready to use near the point of care. To address that need we have taken two anti-α-cobratoxin single domain antibodies and increased their thermal stability to improve their ambient temperature shelf-life. The anti-α-cobratoxin single domain antibodies C2 and C20 were first isolated, and demonstrated to be toxin neutralizing by Richard et al., 2013 (Richard, G., Meyers, A.J., McLean, M.D., Arbabi-Ghahroudi, M., MacKenzie, R., Hall, J.C., 2013...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205610/cr-laao-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-calloselasma-rhodostoma-venom-as-a-potential-tool-for-developing-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategies-against-cancer
#4
Tássia R Costa, Danilo L Menaldo, Karina F Zoccal, Sandra M Burin, Alexandre F Aissa, Fabíola A de Castro, Lúcia H Faccioli, Lusânia M Greggi Antunes, Suely V Sampaio
L-amino acid oxidases from snake venoms have been described to possess various biological functions. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses induced in vivo and in vitro by CR-LAAO, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom, and its antitumor potential. CR-LAAO induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, with recruitment of neutrophils and release of IL-6, IL-1β, LTB4 and PGE2. In vitro, IL-6 and IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with CR-LAAO was dependent of the activation of the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159722/cell-penetrating-and-cargo-delivery-ability-of-a-spider-toxin-derived-peptide-in-mammalian-cells
#5
Nisha Ponnappan, Archana Chugh
Cell-penetrating peptides are short cationic peptides with inherent ability to cross the plasma membrane barrier as well as intracellularly deliver cargo molecules conjugated to them. Venoms from snakes, scorpions and spiders are rich in membrane-active peptides. Crotamine from snake venom as well as maurocalcine and imperatoxin isolated from scorpion venoms have been reported to possess cell-penetrating property in mammalian cells. Latarcins, a group of spider venom toxins, has also been reported to possess antimicrobial property...
January 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159706/venomics-of-naja-sputatrix-the-javan-spitting-cobra-a-short-neurotoxin-driven-venom-needing-improved-antivenom-neutralization
#6
Nget Hong Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Choo Hock Tan
: The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149694/exploration-of-immunoglobulin-transcriptomes-from-mice-immunized-with-three-finger-toxins-and-phospholipases-a2-from-the-central-american-coral-snake-micrurus-nigrocinctus
#7
Andreas H Laustsen, Mikael Engmark, Christopher Clouser, Sonia Timberlake, Francois Vigneault, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Lomonte
Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Here, we employ high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) transcriptome of mice immunized with a three-finger toxin and a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130154/what-killed-karl-patterson-schmidt-combined-venom-gland-transcriptomic-venomic-and-antivenomic-analysis-of-the-south-african-green-tree-snake-the-boomslang-dispholidus-typus
#8
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Gareth Whiteley, Simon C Wagstaff, Robert A Harrison, Nicholas R Casewell, Juan J Calvete
BACKGROUND: Non-front-fanged colubroid snakes comprise about two-thirds of extant ophidian species. The medical significance of the majority of these snakes is unknown, but at least five species have caused life-threatening or fatal human envenomings. However, the venoms of only a small number of species have been explored. METHODS: A combined venomic and venom gland transcriptomic approach was employed to characterise of venom of Dispholidus typus (boomslang), the snake that caused the tragic death of Professor Karl Patterson Schmidt...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117768/induction-of-acute-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-by-cardiotoxin-injection
#9
Ombretta Guardiola, Gennaro Andolfi, Mario Tirone, Francescopaolo Iavarone, Silvia Brunelli, Gabriella Minchiotti
Skeletal muscle regeneration is a physiological process that occurs in adult skeletal muscles in response to injury or disease. Acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration is a widely used, powerful model system to study the events involved in muscle regeneration as well as the mechanisms and different players. Indeed, a detailed knowledge of this process is essential for a better understanding of the pathological conditions that lead to skeletal muscle degeneration, and it aids in identifying new targeted therapeutic strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093334/in-vitro-antitumor-and-antiangiogenic-effects-of-bothropoidin-a-metalloproteinase-from-bothrops-pauloensis-snake-venom
#10
Denise de Oliveira Guimarães, Daiana Silva Lopes, Fernanda Van Petten Vasconcelos Azevedo, Sarah Natalie Cirilo Gimenes, Makswell Almeida Silva, David Collares Achê, Mário Sérgio Rocha Gomes, Lara Vecchi, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo Yoneyama, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues
Breast cancer is a highly malignant carcinoma and remains the second leading cause of mortality among women. The antitumor effects of metalloproteinases and disintegrins from snake venom on various types of cancer cells have been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells induced by Bothropoidin, a disintegrin-like metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. At 24h after treatment at 100μg/mL, Bothropoidin exerted a moderate cytotoxic effect of 30% on MDA-MB-231 versus 10% cytotoxicity against MCF10A (a non-tumorigenic breast cell line), a significant difference that suggests a possible preference by this protein for targets in cancer cells...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067855/detection-of-naja-atra-cardiotoxin-using-adenosine-based-molecular-beacon
#11
Yi-Jun Shi, Ying-Jung Chen, Wan-Ping Hu, Long-Sen Chang
This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher...
January 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063984/protein-toxins-of-the-echis-coloratus-viper-venom-directly-activate-trpv1
#12
Matan Geron, Rakesh Kumar, Henry Matzner, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Gadi Cohen, Philip Lazarovici, Avi Priel
BACKGROUND: Peptide and protein toxins are essential tools to dissect and probe the biology of their target receptors. Venoms target vital physiological processes to evoke pain. Snake venoms contain various factors with the ability to evoke, enhance and sustain pain sensation. While a number of venom-derived toxins were shown to directly target TRPV1 channels expressed on somatosensory nerve terminals to evoke pain response, such toxins were yet to be identified in snake venoms. METHODS: We screened Echis coloratus saw-scaled viper venom's protein fractions isolated by reversed phase HPLC for their ability to activate TRPV1 channels...
March 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063838/exploring-and-understanding-the-functional-role-and-biochemical-and-structural-characteristics-of-an-acidic-phospholipase-a2-apltx-i-purified-from-agkistrodon-piscivorus-leucostoma-snake-venom
#13
L M Resende, J R Almeida, R Schezaro-Ramos, R C O Collaço, L R Simioni, D Ramírez, W González, A M Soares, L A Calderon, S Marangoni, S L da Silva
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) constitute a class of extensively studied toxins, isolated from snake venoms. Basic PLA2 isoforms mediate various toxicological effects, while the acidic isoforms generally have higher enzymatic activities, but do not promote evident toxic effects. The functions of these acidic isoforms in snake venoms are still not completely understood and more studies are needed to characterize the biological functions and diversification of acidic toxins in order to justify their abundant presence in these secretions...
January 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062377/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-complex-venom-proteome-of-eastern-india-naja-naja-correlation-of-venom-composition-with-its-biochemical-and-pharmacological-properties
#14
Sumita Dutta, Abhishek Chanda, Bhargab Kalita, Taufikul Islam, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
: The complex venom proteome of the eastern India (EI) spectacled cobra (Naja naja) was analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry of cation-exchange venom fractions. About 75% of EI N. naja venom proteins were <18kDa and cationic at physiological pH of blood. SDS-PAGE (non-reduced) analysis indicated that in the native state venom proteins either interacted with each-other or self-aggregated resulting in the formation of higher molecular mass complexes. Proteomic analysis revealed that 43 enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins in EI N...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042812/snake-venom-metalloproteinases-and-their-peptide-inhibitors-from-myanmar-russell-s-viper-venom
#15
Khin Than Yee, Morgan Pitts, Pumipat Tongyoo, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin, Mark C Wilkinson
Russell's viper bites are potentially fatal from severe bleeding, renal failure and capillary leakage. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are attributed to these effects. In addition to specific antivenom therapy, endogenous inhibitors from snakes are of interest in studies of new treatment modalities for neutralization of the effect of toxins. Two major snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): RVV-X and Daborhagin were purified from Myanmar Russell's viper venom using a new purification strategy. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to explore the Myanmar RV venom gland transcriptome, mRNAs of novel tripeptide SVMP inhibitors (SVMPIs) were discovered...
December 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034717/crystal-structure-of-a-phospholipase-a2-from-bothrops-asper-venom-insights-into-a-new-putative-myotoxic-cluster
#16
Guilherme H M Salvador, Juliana I Dos Santos, Bruno Lomonte, Marcos R M Fontes
Snake venoms from the Viperidae and Elapidae families often have several phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), which may display different functions despite having a similar structural scaffold. These proteins are considered an important target for the development of drugs against local myotoxic damage because they are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. PLA2s from these venoms are generally divided into two classes: (i) catalytic PLA2s (or Asp49-PLA2s) and (ii) non-catalytic PLA2-like toxins (or Lys49-PLA2s)...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017694/pitfalls-to-avoid-when-using-phage-display-for-snake-toxins
#17
Andreas Hougaard Laustsen, Line Præst Lauridsen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Rørdam Andersen, Brian Lohse
Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection...
December 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012742/minor-snake-venom-proteins-structure-function-and-potential-applications
#18
REVIEW
Johara Boldrini-França, Camila Takeno Cologna, Manuela Berto Pucca, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Fernando Antonio Pino Anjolette, Francielle Almeida Cordeiro, Gisele Adriano Wiezel, Felipe Augusto Cerni, Ernesto Lopes Pinheiro-Junior, Priscila Yumi Tanaka Shibao, Isabela Gobbo Ferreira, Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Snake venoms present a great diversity of pharmacologically active compounds that may be applied as research and biotechnological tools, as well as in drug development and diagnostic tests for certain diseases. The most abundant toxins have been extensively studied in the last decades and some of them have already been used for different purposes. Nevertheless, most of the minor snake venom protein classes remain poorly explored, even presenting potential application in diverse areas. The main difficulty in studying these proteins lies on the impossibility of obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a comprehensive investigation...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010961/synthetic-peptide-antigens-derived-from-long-chain-alpha-neurotoxins-immunogenicity-effect-against-elapid-venoms
#19
Guillermo de la Rosa, Nina Pastor, Alejandro Alagón, Gerardo Corzo
Three-finger toxins (3FTXs), especially α-neurotoxins, are the most poorly neutralized elapid snake toxins by current antivenoms. In this work, the conserved structural similarity and motif arrangements of long-chain α-neurotoxins led us to design peptides with consensus sequences. Eight long-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type II) were used to generate a consensus sequence from which two peptides were chemically synthesized, LCP1 and LCP2. Rabbit sera raised against them were able to generate partially-neutralizing antibodies, which delayed mice mortality in neutralization assays against Naja haje, Dendrospis polylepis and Ophiophagus hannah venoms...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001213/an-overview-of-bothrops-erythromelas-venom
#20
Neriane Monteiro Nery, Karla Patrícia Luna, Carla Freire Celedônio Fernandes, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
This review discusses studies on the venom of Bothrops erythromelas published over the past 36 years. During this period, many contributions have been made to understand the venomous snake, its venom, and its experimental and clinical effects better. The following chronological overview is based on 29 articles that were published between 1979 and 2015, with emphasis on diverse areas. The complexity of this task demands an integration of multidisciplinary research tools to study toxinology. This science is in need of renewed conceptual and experimental platforms aimed at obtaining a profound understanding of the highly complex pathophysiology of snakebite envenoming and toxins isolated from snakes...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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