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Qingtao Liu, Yuzhuo Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Keran Bi, Yin Li
H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06) virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50) of 10(2.83) 50% egg infectious dose (EID50), whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01) virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a MLD50 of >10(6...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yu Gong, Yuejia Ji, Fang Liu, Juan Li, Yi Cao
Recent studies showed that ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) might induce the toxicity to human endothelial cells. However, little is known about the interaction between ZnO NPs and circulatory components, which is likely to occur when NPs enter the blood. In this study, we evaluated ZnO NP-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), with the emphasis on the interaction with palmitate (PA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), because PA and LPS are normal components in human blood that increase in metabolic diseases...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Jazmina L G Cruz, José V Pérez-Girón, Anja Lüdtke, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Paula Ruibal, Juliana Idoyaga, César Muñoz-Fontela
Influenza virus infection triggers an increase in the number of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in the respiratory tract, but the role of these cells during antiviral immunity is still unclear. Here we show that during influenza infection, moDCs dominate the late activation of CD8(+) T cells and trigger the switch in immunodominance of the CD8(+) T-cell response from acidic polymerase (PA)-specificity to nucleoprotein (NP)-specificity. Abrogation of monocyte recruitment or depletion of moDCs strongly compromised host resistance to secondary influenza challenge...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Kejun Xu, Sara Gregg, David Carpenter, Rob Grabenkort, Heather Meissen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Hyoung Joon Moon, Jin Sik Oh, Woonsung Na, Minjoo Yeom, Sang Yoon Han, Sung Jae Kim, Bong Kyun Park, Dae Sub Song, Bo Kyu Kang
A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets...
October 2016: Immune Network
Zhijie Zhang, Rui Li, Lufang Jiang, Chenglong Xiong, Yue Chen, Genming Zhao, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting human and other mammals. Human infected AIV H5N6 in China during 2014-2015 is believed to be a triple reassortant originated from H6N6 and two clades of H5 viruses. The current report suggests that its reassortment history is more complicated. METHODS: Genomes of human infected isolates of AIV H5N6 were searched from the NCBI Influenza Virus Sequence Database and the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data...
October 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zhong-Jie Wang, Ling Qin, Jin-Xi Chen, He-Gen Zheng
Two luminescent Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared from electron-rich π-conjugated fluorescent ligands. They are isostructural with sql nets. Their strong luminescences can be quenched by a series of nitroaromatic explosives. Notably, MOF 1 shows highly selective and sensitive detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), while MOF 2 exhibits good responses toward picric acid (PA) compared with other nitroaromatic explosives. This different order of quenching efficiency is because there are H-bonding interactions between MOF 1 and 4-NP, while MOF 2 lacks these H-bonding interactions...
October 21, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Hohyeon Lee, Haemin Kim, Thang Phan Nguyen, Jin Ho Chang, Soo Young Kim, Hyuncheol Kim, Eunah Kang
Photoacoustic activity is the generation of an ultrasonic signal via thermal expansion or bubble formation, stimulated by laser irradiation. Photoacoustic nanoplatforms have recently gained focus for application in bio-electric interfaces. Various photoacoustic material types have been evaluated, including gold nanoparticles, semiconductive π-conjugating polymers (SP), etc. In this study, surfactant-free methoxy-polyethylene glycol-co-polypyrrole copolymer (mPEG-co-PPyr) nanoparticles (NPs) and mPEG-co-PPyr NP/molybdenum disulfide (mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2) nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared and their photoacoustic activity was demonstrated...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guillermo V Sanchez, Adam L Hersh, Daniel J Shapiro, James F Cawley, Lauri A Hicks
We examined US nurse practitioner (NP) and physician assistant (PA) outpatient antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotics were more frequently prescribed during visits involving NP/PA visits compared with physician-only visits, including overall visits (17% vs 12%, P < .0001) and acute respiratory infection visits (61% vs 54%, P < .001). Antibiotic stewardship interventions should target NPs and PAs.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Fred C Eilrich
Revenues generated by physician assistants (PAs) and NPs in clinics and hospitals create employment opportunities and wages, salaries, and benefits for staff, which in turn are circulated throughout the local economy. An input-output model was used to estimate the direct and secondary effects of a rural primary care PA or NP on the community and surrounding area. This type of model explains how input/output from one sector of industry can be the output/input for another sector. Given two example scenarios, a rural PA or NP can have an employment effect of 4...
October 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
James Kirui, Arindam Mondal, Andrew Mehle
: The influenza A virus polymerase plays an essential role in the virus lifecycle, directing synthesis of viral mRNAs and genomes. It is a trimeric complex composed of subunits PA, PB1, and PB2 and associates with viral RNAs and nucleoprotein (NP) to form higher order ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. The polymerase is regulated temporally over the course of infection to ensure coordinated expression of viral genes as well as replication of the viral genome. Various host factors and processes have been implicated in regulation of the IAV polymerase function, including post-translational modifications, however the mechanisms are not fully understood...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan, Carol Cardona, Alongkorn Amonsin, Srinand Sreevatsan
BACKGROUND: In early 2015, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 caused outbreaks in commercial poultry farms in Minnesota and neighboring states where more than 48 million birds were affected. To date, the origin and transmission pathways of HPAI H5N2 have not been conclusively established. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed forty-six samples from turkeys and their environment that were collected at different time-points of the outbreak to identify origins and within outbreak evolutionary changes...
2016: Virology Journal
Narges L Horriat, Sara L Deatsman, Jessica Stelter, Peter C Frommelt, Garick D Hill
Initial surgical strategies in neonates with single left ventricular (LV) anatomy vary based on adequacy of pulmonary and systemic blood flow. Differing myocardial responses to these strategies, as reflected in indices of systolic function, ventricular size, and mass have not been well defined. We sought to evaluate single LV myocardial response to varied physiology and initial palliation and determine whether the response is consistent and predictable. Infants with single LV physiology were divided based on neonatal palliation: no palliation/PA band (NO); BT shunt only (BT); or Norwood procedure (NP)...
December 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Zujian Feng, Junqiang Zhao, Yin Li, Shuxin Xu, Junhui Zhou, Jianhua Zhang, Liandong Deng, Anjie Dong
Thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels based on poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) block copolymers have attracted considerable attention for sustained drug release and tissue engineering applications. Previously, we have reported a thermo-sensitive hydrogel of P(CL-co-TOSUO)-PEG-P(CL-co-TOSUO) (PECT) triblock copolymers modified by hydrophilic cyclic ether pendant groups 1,4,8-trioxa-[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone (TOSUO). Unfortunately, the low gel modulus of PECT (only 50-70 Pa) may limit its applications...
October 20, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Yawei Li, Xiaomei Sun, Li Teng, Jiajie Xu, Jianjian Lu, Bo Ding, Chao Zhang, Fang Xie, Xuejian Sun
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in hard tissues, soft tissues, and teeth after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy and orthodontic treatment for the treatment of mandibular protrusion. Cephalometric analysis was used to evaluate the aesthetic effects and occlusal relationships obtained. The subjects included 11 women and 9 men (aged 18-27 years; average, 20 years) with mandibular protrusion who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Based on a preoperative computer-aided manufacturing/design-assisted, model surgical design and an occlusal guide plate, new occlusal relationships were established for the patients...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Xiaoli Hao, Jiao Hu, Jiongjiong Wang, Jing Xu, Hao Cheng, Yunpeng Xu, Qunhui Li, Dongchang He, Xiaowen Liu, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Shunlin Hu, Xiulong Xu, Huimou Liu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Reassortment between different influenza viruses is a crucial way to generate novel influenza viruses with unpredictable virulence and transmissibility, which may threaten the public health. As currently in China, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes are endemic in poultry in many areas, while they are prone to reassort with each other naturally. In order to evaluate the risk of the reassortment to public health, A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 [GS/10(H5N1)] virus was used as a backbone to generate a series of reassortants, each contained a single internal gene derived from the predominant S genotype of the A/Chicken/Jiangsu/WJ57/2012 [WJ/57(H9N2)]...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Daniel Lodwick, Lindsey Asti, Katherine Deans, Peter Minneci, Daryl McLeod
OBJECTIVE: To survey variations in recommended initial management of newborn spina bifida (SB). METHODS: Members of an international pediatric urology listserve and Pediatric Urology Nurse Specialists Organization were surveyed on practice patterns for newborn SB. Pediatric urologists (PU), nurse practitioners (NP) and physician assistants (PA) practicing in the United States were included. RESULTS: 63 practitioners (48% PU and 52% NP/PA) were included...
August 8, 2016: Urology
Zeeshan Khaliq, Mikael Leijon, Sándor Belák, Jan Komorowski
BACKGROUND: The underlying strategies used by influenza A viruses (IAVs) to adapt to new hosts while crossing the species barrier are complex and yet to be understood completely. Several studies have been published identifying singular genomic signatures that indicate such a host switch. The complexity of the problem suggested that in addition to the singular signatures, there might be a combinatorial use of such genomic features, in nature, defining adaptation to hosts. RESULTS: We used computational rule-based modeling to identify combinatorial sets of interacting amino acid (aa) residues in 12 proteins of IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes...
2016: BMC Genomics
Yafen Song, Xiaowei Wu, Nianchen Wang, Guowen Ouyang, Nannan Qu, Jin Cui, Yan Qi, Ming Liao, Peirong Jiao
Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shota Takagiwa, Osamu Kanasugi, Kentaro Nakamura, Masahito Kushida
In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa...
April 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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