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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571509/a-long-history-of-breakdowns-a-historiographical-review
#1
Dániel Margócsy
The introduction to this special issue argues that network breakdowns play an important and unacknowledged role in the shaping and emergence of scientific knowledge. It focuses on transnational scientific networks from the early modern Republic of Letters to 21st-century globalized science. It attempts to unite the disparate historiography of the early modern Republic of Letters, the literature on 20th-century globalization, and the scholarship on Actor-Network Theory. We can perceive two, seemingly contradictory, changes to scientific networks over the past four hundred years...
May 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466752/what-makes-a-robot-social
#2
Raya A Jones
Rhetorical moves that construct humanoid robots as social agents disclose tensions at the intersection of science and technology studies (STS) and social robotics. The discourse of robotics often constructs robots that are like us (and therefore unlike dumb artefacts). In the discourse of STS, descriptions of how people assimilate robots into their activities are presented directly or indirectly against the backdrop of actor-network theory, which prompts attributing agency to mundane artefacts. In contradistinction to both social robotics and STS, it is suggested here that to view a capacity to partake in dialogical action (to have a 'voice') is necessary for regarding an artefact as authentically social...
April 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460211/controversies-about-cervical-cancer-screening-a-qualitative-study-of-roma-women-s-non-participation-in-cervical-cancer-screening-in-romania
#3
Trude Andreassen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Florian Nicula, Ofelia Suteu, Andreea Itu, Minodora Bumbu, Aida Tincu, Giske Ursin, Kåre Moen
Romania has Europe's highest incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. While a free national cervical cancer-screening programme has been in operation since 2012, participation in the programme is low, particularly in minority populations. The aim of this study was to explore Roma women's (non)participation in the programme from women's own perspectives and those of healthcare providers and policy makers. We carried out fieldwork for a period of 125 days in 2015/16 involving 144 study participants in Cluj and Bucharest counties...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433927/performing-boundary-work-the-emergence-of-a-new-practice-in-a-hybrid-operating-room
#4
Kajsa Lindberg, Lars Walter, Elena Raviola
This paper addresses the processes of boundary work, in relation to the introduction of new technology, unfolding during the emergence of new medical practices. Inspired by Gieryn's fluid and practical view of boundaries and boundary work, and by Actor-Network Theory's description of scripting processes, we study the processes of negotiating and (re-)constructing boundaries in order to reveal both the interactions between different kinds of boundary work and their situatedness in the context of the emerging practice...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429970/taking-data-seriously-the-value-of-actor-network-theory-in-rethinking-patient-experience-data
#5
Amit Desai, Giulia Zoccatelli, Mary Adams, Davina Allen, Sally Brearley, Anne Marie Rafferty, Glenn Robert, Sara Donetto
Hospitals are awash with patient experience data, much of it collected with the ostensible purpose of improving the quality of patient care. However, there has been comparatively little consideration of the nature and capacities of data itself. Using insights from actor-network theory, we propose that paying attention to patient experience data as having agency in particular hospital interactions allows us to better trace how and in what circumstances data lead (or fail to lead) to quality improvement.
April 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380169/-responsible-research-and-development-translating-absences-from-nanotechnology-in-portugal
#6
Paulo F C Fonseca, Tiago Santos Pereira
This article analyzes how responsible innovation has been discussed and implemented in the context of one of the Portuguese government's main activities to foster nanotechnology. Through the actor-network theory and the sociology of absences, we investigate the process of coproduction at the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory to identify how concerns about responsible development have been implemented or ignored in the rules and practices. The institute emerged from a sociotechnical imagination that views it as an autonomous unit for producing technological innovations aimed exclusively at increasing competitiveness in a global market, which has been an obstacle to the materialization of robust responsible development practices...
January 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018016/an-ethical-moment-in-data-sharing
#7
Catherine Heeney
This study draws on interviews with forty-nine members of a biomedical research community in the UK that is involved in negotiating data sharing and access. During an interview, an interviewee used the words "ethical moment" to describe a confrontation between collaborators in relation to data sharing. In this article, I use this as a lens for thinking about relations between "the conceptual and the empirical" in a way that allows both analyst and actor to challenge the status quo and consider other ethical possibilities...
January 2017: Science, Technology & Human Values
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789102/nps-and-the-methadone-queue-spillages-of-space-and-time
#8
Liviu Alexandrescu
BACKGROUND: Between 2008 and 2013, powder-stimulants sold by 'head shops' as novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or 'legal highs' have displaced heroin among groups of injecting substance users in Bucharest, Romania. Rising HIV-infection rates and other medical or social harms have been reported to follow this trend. METHODS: The study builds on two sets of original (N=30) and existing (N=20) interview data and on observations collected mainly at the site of a methadone substitution treatment facility...
October 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768995/non-medical-use-of-prescription-drugs-among-illicit-drug-users-a-case-study-on-an-online-drug-forum
#9
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
January 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577541/care-in-place-a-case-study-of-assembling-a-carescape
#10
Dara Ivanova, Iris Wallenburg, Roland Bal
In this article we analyse the process of the multiple ways place and care shape each other and are co-produced and co-functioning. The resulting emerging assemblage of this co-constituent process we call a carescape. Focusing on a case study of a nursing home on a Dutch island, we use place as a theoretical construct for analysing how current changes in healthcare governance interact with mundane practices of care. In order to make the patterns of care in our case explicit, we use actor-network theory (ANT) sensibilities and especially the concept of assemblage...
August 31, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572490/a-tool-for-exploring-the-dynamics-of-innovative-interventions-for-public-health-the-critical-event-card
#11
Ana Claudia Figueiro, Sydia Rosana de Araújo Oliveira, Zulmira Hartz, Yves Couturier, Jocelyne Bernier, Maria do Socorro Machado Freire, Isabella Samico, Maria Guadalupe Medina, Ronice Franco de Sa, Louise Potvin
OBJECTIVES: Public health interventions are increasingly represented as complex systems. Research tools for capturing the dynamic of interventions processes, however, are practically non-existent. This paper describes the development and proof of concept process of an analytical tool, the critical event card (CEC), which supports the representation and analysis of complex interventions' evolution, based on critical events. METHODS: Drawing on the actor-network theory (ANT), we developed and field-tested the tool using three innovative health interventions in northeastern Brazil...
March 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492825/unpacking-complexity-in-public-health-interventions-with-the-actor-network-theory
#12
Angèle Bilodeau, Louise Potvin
This article proposes a sociologically informed theoretical and methodological framework to address the complexity of public health interventions (PHI). It first proposes three arguments in favour of using the Actor-Network Theory (ANT) for the framework. ANT: (1) deals with systems made of human and non-human entities and proposes a relational view of action; (2) provides an understanding of the intervention-context interactions and (3) is a tool for opening the intervention's black box. Three principles derived from ANT addressing theoretical problems with conceptualisation of PHI as complex systems are proposed: (1) to focus on the process of connecting the network entities instead of their stabilised form; (2) both human and non-human entities composing networks have performative capacities and (3) network and intervention shape one another...
August 4, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490299/collaboration-and-entanglement-an-actor-network-theory-analysis-of-team-based-intraprofessional-care-for-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure
#13
A McDougall, M Goldszmidt, E A Kinsella, S Smith, L Lingard
Despite calls for more interprofessional and intraprofessional team-based approaches in healthcare, we lack sufficient understanding of how this happens in the context of patient care teams. This multi-perspective, team-based interview study examined how medical teams negotiated collaborative tensions. From 2011 to 2013, 50 patients across five sites in three Canadian provinces were interviewed about their care experiences and were asked to identify members of their health care teams. Patient-identified team members were subsequently interviewed to form 50 "Team Sampling Units" (TSUs), consisting of 209 interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460832/the-dispositions-of-things-the-non-human-dimension-of-power-and-ethics-in-patient-centred-medicine
#14
John Gardner, Alan Cribb
This article explores power relations between clinicians, patients and families as clinicians engage in patient-centred ethical work. Specifically, we draw on actor-network theory to interrogate the role of non-human elements in distributing power relations in clinical settings, as clinicians attempt to manage the expectations of patients and families. Using the activities of a multidisciplinary team providing deep brain stimulation to children with severe movement disorders as an example, we illustrate how a patient-centred tool is implicated in establishing relations that constitute four modes of power: 'power over', 'power to', "power storage" and "power/discretion"...
September 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418047/surgical-education-and-training-in-an-outer-metropolitan-hospital-a-qualitative-study-of-surgical-trainers-and-trainees
#15
Debra Nestel, Jennifer Harlim, Melanie Bryant, Rajay Rampersad, David Hunter-Smith, Bob Spychal
The landscape of surgical training is changing. The anticipated increase in the numbers of surgical trainees and the shift to competency-based surgical training places pressures on an already stretched health service. With these pressures in mind, we explored trainers' and trainees' experiences of surgical training in a less traditional rotation, an outer metropolitan hospital. We considered practice-based learning theories to make meaning of surgical training in this setting, in particular Actor-network theory...
July 14, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336239/professional-reinventions-swedish-psychologists-1990-2010
#16
Peter Skagius, Ann-Charlotte Münger
Since the early 20th century, the Swedish psychology profession has undergone several changes in its essential tasks, epistemological foundations, and social roles. These changes occurred through an ongoing "tuning" with Swedish society, in which the profession strove to appear relevant to society's concerns and problems as well as enroll others to share the profession's goals and aims. Studying the history of the profession can thus shed light on the changing definitions and contours of the psychology profession itself as well as on the organization of the society in which it acts...
November 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296886/the-importance-challenges-and-prospects-of-taking-work-practices-into-account-for-healthcare-quality-improvement
#17
Davina Allen
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to underline the importance of taking work practices into account for quality improvement (QI) purposes, highlight some of the challenges of doing so, and suggest strategies for future research and practice. Patient status at a glance, a Lean-inspired QI intervention designed to alleviate nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function, is deployed as an illustrative case. Design/methodology/approach - Ethnographic data and practice-based theories are utilised to describe nurses' knowledge mobilisation work...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284075/the-dsm-and-professional-practice-research-clinical-and-institutional-perspectives
#18
Michael Halpin
How mental illnesses are defined has significant ramifications, given the substantial social and individual repercussions of these conditions. Using actor-network theory, I analyze how mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in their work. Drawing on observations of a neuropsychological laboratory and interviews with 27 professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, psychologists), I investigate how the DSM is used in research, clinical, and institutional work. In research, the DSM influences study design and exclusion/inclusion criteria...
June 2016: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255935/fetishes-and-factishes-durkheim-and-latour
#19
Bjørn Schiermer
This paper defends the concept of 'fetishism' as an explanatory parameter in sociological theorizing on Durkheimian grounds, while at the same time paying due attention to important insights regarding the role of objects in social life, originating from Actor-Network Theory (ANT). It critically assesses the current critique of the concept of fetishism propagated by ANT protagonist Bruno Latour. Latour and suggests a compromise between these two 'schools'. First, to place the paper firmly in context, I analyse some examples of modern fetishism and outline the themes of the ensuing discussion...
September 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946803/-autonomy-and-consent-to-care-a-socio-legal-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Pierre Pariseau-Legault, Frédéric Doutrelepont
During the last decades, medical paternalism was rejected in favour of the patient's right to self-determination and, by extension, to its right to consent or refuse care offered to him. In the clinical setting, the obligation to inform user and to obtain its free and informed consent about such care is widely recognized, but rarely problematized. The aim of this paper is to analyze the construct of a consent to care and the different conceptualizations of autonomy that are part of this juridical vehicle. A socio-legal analysis was conducted through a narrative review of literature relative to nursing sciences, humanities, philosophy and bioethics, and legal sciences...
December 2015: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
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