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"knowledge network"

Vivian M Nguyen, Nathan Young, Steven J Cooke
Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. In conservation and natural resource management, however, we are lagging behind. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean that we urgently need to be using the best knowledge possible in forming decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. While the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KMb) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies...
October 21, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Richard D Holmes
Data sourcesAMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX, ASSIA, Social Policy and Practice, HMIC (Health Management Information Consortium), The Knowledge Network, Intute, MedNar, Copac, EPPI-Centre, EThOS, OpenGrey and TRIP databases. Searches were limited to publications in the English language published after 1994.Study selectionStudies set in general practice that investigated promoting good oral health in adult or child patients were considered. Study quality was assessed using NICE public health guidance checklists...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Bo Zou, Feng Guo, Jinyu Guo
BACKGROUND: While past research has recognized the importance of the dynamic nature of absorptive capacity, there is limited knowledge on how to generate a fair and comprehensive analytical framework. Based on interviews with 24 Chinese firms, this study develops a system-dynamics model that incorporates an important feedback loop among absorptive capacity, technological innovation, and product life cycle (PLC). RESULTS: The simulation results reveal that (1) PLC affects the dynamic process of absorptive capacity; (2) the absorptive capacity of a firm peaks in the growth stage of PLC, and (3) the market demand at different PLC stages is the main driving force in firms' technological innovations...
2016: SpringerPlus
Julien Dorier, Isaac Crespo, Anne Niknejad, Robin Liechti, Martin Ebeling, Ioannis Xenarios
BACKGROUND: Prior knowledge networks (PKNs) provide a framework for the development of computational biological models, including Boolean models of regulatory networks which are the focus of this work. PKNs are created by a painstaking process of literature curation, and generally describe all relevant regulatory interactions identified using a variety of experimental conditions and systems, such as specific cell types or tissues. Certain of these regulatory interactions may not occur in all biological contexts of interest, and their presence may dramatically change the dynamical behaviour of the resulting computational model, hindering the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms and reducing the usefulness of model predictions...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Chie Hoon Song, Janghyeok Yoon, Namuk Ko, Jeung-Whan Han
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics is a biomedical novelty in drug design and disease control whose mechanisms play a significant role in transferring environmental signals to determine patterns of gene expression. Systematic identification of the main trends in epigenetics patenting activity provides insights into fundamental building blocks of this research field and policy guidance to funding agencies. OBJECTIVE: The review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the research and development trend in epigenetics by mapping the knowledge structure in patent landscape...
August 25, 2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
M Ostrowski, L Paulevé, T Schaub, A Siegel, C Guziolowski
Boolean networks (and more general logic models) are useful frameworks to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be learned from a prior knowledge network structure and multiplex phosphoproteomics data. However, most efficient and scalable training methods focus on the comparison of two time-points and assume that the system has reached an early steady state. In this paper, we generalize such a learning procedure to take into account the time series traces of phosphoproteomics data in order to discriminate Boolean networks according to their transient dynamics...
July 30, 2016: Bio Systems
Tian Bai, Leiguang Gong, Ye Wang, Yan Wang, Casimir A Kulikowski, Lan Huang
BACKGROUND: Biomedical information and knowledge, structural and non-structural, stored in different repositories can be semantically connected to form a hybrid knowledge network. How to compute relatedness between concepts and discover valuable but implicit information or knowledge from it effectively and efficiently is of paramount importance for precision medicine, and a major challenge facing the biomedical research community. RESULTS: In this study, a hybrid biomedical knowledge network is constructed by linking concepts across multiple biomedical ontologies as well as non-structural biomedical knowledge sources...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Tami S Rowen, Thomas W Gaither, Mohannad A Awad, E Charles Osterberg, Alan W Shindel, Benjamin N Breyer
Importance: Pubic hair grooming is an increasingly prevalent trend. Several studies have sought to characterize its prevalence, associated demographics, and motivations. Objective: To characterize current pubic hair grooming practices in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative survey was conducted in January 2013 of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in the United States via the GfK Group (formerly Knowledge Networks) panel members...
June 29, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Karen S Mitchell, Erika J Wolf
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with eating disorders (EDs) and addictive behaviors, including the relatively new construct food addiction. However, few studies have investigated mechanisms that account for these associations, and men are underrepresented in studies of EDs and food addiction. We examined whether lifetime PTSD symptoms were associated with current food addiction and ED symptoms, and whether emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), which has been associated with both PTSD and EDs, mediated these relations, in a sample of trauma-exposed, male (n=642) and female (n=55) veterans...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Sarah M Bankoff, Lauren K Richards, Brooke Bartlett, Erika J Wolf, Karen S Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. METHOD: Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jingbo Meng, Margaret McLaughlin, Katrina Pariera, Sheila Murphy
This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans...
June 2016: Journal of Health Communication
Miroslav Andjelković, Bosiljka Tadić, Marija Mitrović Dankulov, Milan Rajković, Roderick Melnik
The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals...
2016: PloS One
S Scherf, M Limburg, R Wimmers, I Middelkoop, H Lingsma
BACKGROUND: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy after ischaemic stroke significantly reduces mortality and morbidity. Actual thrombolysis rates are disappointingly low in many western countries. It has been suggested that higher patient volume is related to shorter door-to-needle-time (DNT) and increased thrombolysis rates. We address a twofold research question: a) What are trends in national thrombolysis rates and door-to-needle times in the Netherlands between 2005-2012? and b) Is there a relationship between stroke patient volume per hospital, thrombolysis rates and DNT? METHODS: We used data from the Stroke Knowledge Network Netherlands dataset...
2016: BMC Neurology
Caroline Adam, Louise Potvin
On the basis of the social exclusion framework put forth by the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN), we propose a framework that conceives social exclusion as a mechanism that limits access to rights, resources and capabilities needed for a healthy life. While it is widely accepted that drivers of social exclusion are structural, the consequences are experienced by individuals in their everyday lives. This article proposes an adaptation of the SEKN framework, illustrating additional basic elements that should be considered in the study of exclusionary mechanisms...
April 20, 2016: Health Promotion International
Michael Siegel, Ashley Galloway, Craig S Ross, Jane Binakonsky, David H Jernigan
We sought, for the first time, to identify the extent of jello shot consumption among underage youth. We conducted a study among a national sample of 1,031 youth, aged 13 to 20, using a pre-recruited internet panel maintained by GfK Knowledge Networks to assess past 30-day consumption of jello shots. Nearly one-fifth of underage youth have consumed jello shots in the past 30 days and jello shots make up an average of nearly 20% of their overall alcohol intake. Jello shot users in our sample were approximately 1...
2016: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
Xiang-Min Gu, Zhi-Hui Li, Zhong-Jie He, Zhe-Wei Zhao, Shuang-Qing Liu
BACKGROUND: The optimal time to save a person who has had a sudden cardiac arrest is within the first few minutes of the incident. Early compression and early defibrillation should be performed at this time. Timeliness is the key to successful CPR; as such, Prof. He proposed the "platinum 10 min" system to study early CPR issues. This paper systematically evaluates the success rates of heartbeat restoration within the "platinum 10 min" among patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest...
2016: Military Medical Research
Stuart Lubarsky, Valérie Dory, Marie-Claude Audétat, Eugène Custers, Bernard Charlin
Script theory proposes an explanation for how information is stored in and retrieved from the human mind to influence individuals' interpretation of events in the world. Applied to medicine, script theory focuses on knowledge organization as the foundation of clinical reasoning during patient encounters. According to script theory, medical knowledge is bundled into networks called 'illness scripts' that allow physicians to integrate new incoming information with existing knowledge, recognize patterns and irregularities in symptom complexes, identify similarities and differences between disease states, and make predictions about how diseases are likely to unfold...
2015: Canadian Medical Education Journal
Robert E Black
Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research...
June 2016: Journal of Global Health
Katelyn Southard, Tyler Wince, Shanice Meddleton, Molly S Bolger
Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Joanna G Katzman, Kevin Galloway, Cynthia Olivas, Kimberly McCoy-Stafford, Daniel Duhigg, George Comerci, Summers Kalishman, Chester C Buckenmaier, Laura McGhee, Kristin Joltes, Andrea Bradford, Brian Shelley, Jessica Hernandez, Sanjeev Arora
Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is an evidence-based model that provides high-quality medical education for common and complex diseases through telementoring and comanagement of patients with primary care clinicians. In a one to many knowledge network, the ECHO model helps to bridge the gap between primary care clinicians and specialists by enhancing the knowledge, skills, confidence, and practice of primary care clinicians in their local communities. As a result, patients in rural and urban underserved areas are able to receive best practice care without long waits or having to travel long distances...
March 2016: Military Medicine
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