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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153629/elevated-fingernail-cortisol-levels-in-major-depressive-episodes
#1
Andres Herane-Vives, Susanne Fischer, Valeria de Angel, Toby Wise, Eric Cheung, Kia-Chong Chua, Danilo Arnone, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare
BACKGROUND: The extent to which cortisol levels are elevated in major depressive episodes (MDE), and hence could act as a biomarker of illness, remains unclear. Although patient characteristics may explain some of this variation - for example elevated cortisol being more often found in patients with severe, psychotic or melancholic depression - problems with the methods used to measure cortisol may also have contributed to the inconsistent findings. Fingernails are a novel sample that can be used to assess aggregate cortisol concentrations over a 15-day period, and may provide a more accurate reflection of longer term cortisol level changes in MDE and help clarify this issue...
November 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150144/atypical-depression-and-non-atypical-depression-is-hpa-axis-function-a-biomarker-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135134/treating-the-incurables-cancer-asylums-in-18th-and-19th-century
#3
Marianna Karamanou, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Kostas Markatos, Georgios Karaoglanis, George Androutsos
For centuries several hypotheses were formulated on cancer's pathogenesis such as contagiousness, melancholy, heredity and sexuality. In the 18th and 19th century, despite the advent of medical thought and practice, cancer was considered an incurable and contagious disease. Hospitals were refusing to treat cancer patients while the social stigma which followed the disease made primordial the need for the establishment of special institutions. In our article we will present the cancer asylums which counterbalanced the prejudices of the time and contributed to the establishment of modern cancer hospitals...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103192/lipid-peroxidation-and-immune-biomarkers-are-associated-with-major-depression-and-its-phenotypes-including-treatment-resistant-depression-and-melancholia
#4
Magdalena Sowa-Kućma, Krzysztof Styczeń, Marcin Siwek, Paulina Misztak, Rafał J Nowak, Dominika Dudek, Janusz K Rybakowski, Gabriel Nowak, Michael Maes
To examine immune-inflammatory and oxidative (I&O) biomarkers in major depression (MDD) and its related phenotypes, we recruited 114 well-phenotyped depressed patients and 50 healthy controls and measured serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 60 and 80 kDa (sTNF-R1/R2), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Obtained results indicate that MDD is characterized by increased sIL-1RA, sTNF-R1, and TBARS concentrations...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079491/biological-research-on-burnout-depression-overlap-long-standing-limitations-and-on-going-reflections
#5
Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent
In this commentary, we discuss seldom-noticed methodological problems affecting biological research on burnout and depression and make recommendations to overcome the limitations of past studies conducted in this area. First, we suggest that identified subtypes of depression (e.g., depression with melancholic features and depression with atypical features) should be taken into account in future biological research on burnout and depression, given that different subtypes of depression have been associated with distinct autonomic and neuroendocrine profiles...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055250/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-diagnostic-uncertainty-of-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Taichi Mogi, Hiroyuki Toda, Aihide Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Physicians do not always confidently diagnose psychiatric disorders. The present study was conducted to identify the clinical characteristics of patients in whom a definitive diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) could not be established. METHODS: The participants were 199 consecutive outpatients with MDD, who were comprehensively diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The physician in charge of each patient quantified his/her sense of self-confidence in diagnosing the patient with MDD using the self-rating questionnaire in which the score ranged from 1 (not at all confident) to 5 (definitely MDD)...
October 16, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042881/clinical-validation-of-the-psychotic-depression-assessment-scale-hamilton-depression-rating-scale-6-and-brief-psychiatric-rating-scale-5-results-from-the-clinical-research-center-for-depression-study
#7
Seon-Cheol Park, Eun Young Jang, Jae-Min Kim, Tae-Youn Jun, Min-Soo Lee, Jung-Bum Kim, Hyeon-Woo Yim, Yong Chon Park
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the psychotic depression assessment scale (PDAS), which includes the six-item melancholia subscale from the Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD-6) and the five-item psychosis subscale from the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS-5). Data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study, which is a 52-week naturalistic trial, were analyzed. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with psychotic depression from the CRESCEND study met our inclusion criteria...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033570/atypical-depression-current-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Dorota Łojko, Janusz K Rybakowski
The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022850/the-devolution-of-melancholia-into-psychosis-the-case-of-a-child-whose-mother-was-unable-to-grieve
#9
Yaakov Roitman
The author explores the intersubjective aspect of the devolution of melancholia into psychosis, particularly as it involves the unconscious intersubjective role of the mother. The author considers the possibility that maternal inability to mourn contributes significantly to the foreclosure of the child's "tertiary processes" (the processes involved in the child's development of a differentiated autonomous self and symbolization). In the clinical case presented in detail in this paper, the child's undifferentiated experience with his mother (who was unable to grieve) left no room for the father as the necessary third element in the child's maturational processes...
October 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022214/two-new-species-of-trouessartia-canestrini-1899-astigmata-trouessartiidae-from-passeriform-birds-in-brazil
#10
Fabio A Hernandes
Two new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae) are described from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Brazil: T. calcealgiana n. sp. from Philydor atricapillus (Wied) (Furnariidae), and T. gigaphallus n. sp. from Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot (Tyrannidae). Both species have unique features, such as the large hook-like seta sR on trochanters III in T. calcealgiana, and the large male genitalia in T. gigaphallus, which are at least twice as long as normally found in most species of Trouessartia...
November 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990833/prevalence-of-restless-legs-symptoms-according-to-depressive-symptoms-and-depression-type-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Piritta Auvinen, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Hannu Koponen, Hannu Kautiainen, Katariina Korniloff, Tiina Ahonen, Mauno Vanhala
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. AIMS: To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire...
October 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987022/debate-on-defining-melancholia-a-core-mood-disorder
#12
Lucas Primo de Carvalho Alves, Neusa Sica da Rocha
OBJECTIVES: Recently, a debate article by Parker et al. was published regarding the biological type of depression, melancholia, in which they discussed its clinical presentation, particularly that involving psychomotor disturbances. However, there is one feature of melancholia that is frequently forgotten, to which this article aims to devote special attention: ruminative thoughts of guilt. METHODS: A critical review of the literature. RESULTS: The symptom of ruminative thoughts of guilt has been described historically in melancholia, and some recent data, such as neurobiological abnormalities and poor prognosis, support it as an important feature of depression...
October 7, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980139/evidence-of-depression-associated-circadian-rhythm-disruption-and-regret-in-prostate-cancer-patients-after-surgery
#13
Joanne Christie, Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, David Christie
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) patients' regret that their surgery harmed them, and their scores on the two key symptoms of major depressive disorder (depressed mood, anhedonia) and a symptom of melancholic depression (disruption to circadian rhythm). METHODS: Forty PCa patients who had received surgery for their PCa completed a postal survey including background information, regret about surgery that 'did them a lot of harm' and three items drawn from the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale measuring depressed mood, anhedonia and circadian rhythm disruption...
December 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971468/post-operative-delirium-in-elderly-people-diagnostic-and-management-issues-of-post-operative-delirium-in-elderly-people
#14
Christina Florou, Dimitrios Theofilopoulos, Styliani Tziaferi, Maria Chania
Hippocrates a Greek physician commonly known as the Father of Medicine was the first to describe delirium, 'phrenitis', differencing it from other disorders such as melancholia and mania. Since then, it still remains a clinical problem which is not yet resolved.Postoperative delirium is a common medical problem that occurs preferentially in surgical patients aged 65 years and older. It is a true medical emergency that requires immediate professional attention and treatment. Faced by health professionals and especially nurses it is often undetected, misdiagnosed, and under-treated as a complication by them during clinical care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958456/associations-between-symptoms-of-depression-and-heart-rate-variability-an-exploratory-study
#15
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni, Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Luana M Aparicio, Andrew H Kemp, Isabela Benseñor, Paulo A Lotufo, Renerio Fraguas
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity by many, but not all studies. This inconsistency could be due to the association of HRV with specific depressive symptoms. Here, we investigated the association of HRV parameters with components of depressive symptoms from 120 MDD patients, at baseline of a published trial comparing the effect of sertraline to transcranial direct current stimulation. We used Principal Component Analysis to extract components of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17), the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Beck Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (BDI)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956628/rotation-therapy-for-maniacs-melancholics-and-idiots-theory-practice-and-perception-in-european-medical-and-literary-case-histories
#16
Sheila Dickson
This article examines the development and use of rotation therapy in the emerging field of psychiatry at the beginning of the 19th century, and the cross-fertilization between British, Irish, German, French and other European proponents of 'Cox's Swing'. Its short-lived popularity is linked to prevalent Enlightenment thought, to the development of an industrial and technological society, to the modern medical theories of irritability, and to the new practice of 'moral management' of the mentally ill. Case studies documenting the use of the Swing are considered from these perspectives, and are compared with contemporary public reactions in the form of publications in newspapers and of a literary text by German Romantic author Ludwig Achim von Arnim...
September 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941779/historical-and-conceptual-aspects-of-motor-disorders-in-the-psychoses
#17
German E Berrios, Ivana S Marková
Historical epistemology is a useful method to understand the longitudinal construction of the movement disorders in psychiatry. Four periods can be identified in such a process. The first, extending from Classical times to the work of Griesinger, included disorders such as catalepsy, crocidism, epilepsy and paralysis. The second period, stretching from Griesinger to Kahlbaum, concentrated on the study of melancholia attonita, stupor and catatonia. The third period, covering the time from Kahlbaum to WWI, witnessed important conceptual shifts such as: the transformation of madness into psychoses; the redefinition of movement and motility in psychiatry; the appearance of self-contained syndromes as dyskinesias, tics, akathisia, complex disorders like the cases of encephalitis lethargica, etc...
September 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931368/depression-differed-by-midnight-cortisol-secretion-alexithymia-and-anxiety-between-diabetes-types-a-cross-sectional-comparison
#18
Eva O Melin, Maria Thunander, Mona Landin-Olsson, Magnus Hillman, Hans O Thulesius
BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of depression is found in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Melancholia and atypical depression differ by cortisol secretion and clinical features. The aim was to compare the clinical presentation of T1D and T2D patients in relation to self-reported depression, self-reported anxiety, alexithymia, obesity, and midnight salivary cortisol (MSC). METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional design. The participants were consecutively recruited from one hospital diabetes outpatient clinic: 24 T2D patients (31-59 years) and 148 T1D patients (32-59 years)...
September 20, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929992/mood-disorders-and-circulating-levels-of-inflammatory-markers-in-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#19
J Glaus, R von Känel, A M Lasserre, M-P F Strippoli, C L Vandeleur, E Castelao, M Gholam-Rezaee, C Marangoni, E-Y N Wagner, P Marques-Vidal, G Waeber, P Vollenweider, M Preisig, K R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders. METHODS: The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867391/are-there-differences-in-lipid-peroxidation-and-immune-biomarkers-between-major-depression-and-bipolar-disorder-effects-of-melancholia-atypical-depression-severity-of-illness-episode-number-suicidal-ideation-and-prior-suicide-attempts
#20
Magdalena Sowa-Kućma, Krzysztof Styczeń, Marcin Siwek, Paulina Misztak, Rafał J Nowak, Dominika Dudek, Janusz K Rybakowski, Gabriel Nowak, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are accompanied by activated immune & oxidative (I&O) pathways. METHODS: To compare I&O biomarkers between MDD and BD we assessed serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; a lipid peroxidation marker), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), sIL-6R, IL-α, sIL-1R antagonist (sIL-1RA), tumor necrosis factor receptor 60kDa/80kDa (sTNFR60/R80) in 114 MDD and 133 BD patients, and 50 healthy controls...
September 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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