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Nicolas A Nuñez, Stefano Comai, Eduard Dumitrescu, Maykel F Ghabrash, John Tabaka, Marie Saint-Laurent, Stephen Vida, Theodore Kolivakis, Allan Fielding, Nancy Low, Pablo Cervantes, Linda Booij, Gabriella Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Some authors have hypothesized that Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression (TRD-UP) should be considered within the bipolar spectrum disorders and that hidden bipolarity may be a risk factor for TRD-UP. However, there are neither studies comparing clinical and sociodemographic data of patients with TRD-UP versus Bipolar (BP) disorders nor are there any examining differences versus Bipolar type I (BP-I) and Bipolar type II (BP-II). METHODS: Charts analysis was conducted on 194 patients followed at the Mood Disorders Clinic of the McGill University Health Center...
March 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Ryan J Post, Melissa R Warden
Major depressive disorder can manifest as different combinations of symptoms, ranging from a profound and incapacitating sadness, to a loss of interest in daily life, to an inability to engage in effortful, goal-directed behavior. Recent research has focused on defining the neural circuits that mediate separable features of depression in patients and preclinical animal models, and connections between frontal cortex and brainstem neuromodulators have emerged as candidate targets. The development of methods permitting recording and manipulation of neural circuits defined by connectivity has enabled the investigation of prefrontal-neuromodulatory circuit dynamics in animal models of depression with exquisite precision, a systems-level approach that has brought new insights by integrating these fields of depression research...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
E M Veltman, F Lamers, H C Comijs, M L Stek, R C van der Mast, D Rhebergen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that inflammatory and cortisol dysregulation are underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the aetiology of major depressive disorder, particularly in younger adults. However, findings of biological disturbances in late-life depression have been divergent, probably due to the even greater heterogeneity of depression in older adults with aging processes influencing biological factors. Using empirically derived subtypes may enable the identification of biological disturbances underlying depression in older adults...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lucas Primo de Carvalho Alves, Neusa Sica da Rocha
OBJECTIVES: Melancholic depression is a type of depression which is closely related to biological variables than are other types of depression. Its clinical features can be assessed using six items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6 ). Previous studies have shown, using item response theory, that the symptom depressed mood is the least severe melancholic feature; work and activities, somatic symptoms and psychic anxiety are of moderate severity; and feelings of guilt and psychomotor retardation are the most severe...
March 8, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Marlijn Vermeiden, Astrid M Kamperman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
BACKGROUND: In patients suffering from major depressive disorder, non-response to initial antidepressant monotherapy is relatively common. The use of treatment algorithms may optimize and enhance treatment outcome. METHODS: A single-center 3-phase treatment algorithm was evaluated for inpatients with major depressive disorder, i.e. phase I (n = 85): 7 weeks optimal antidepressant monotherapy (imipramine or venlafaxine); phase II (n = 39): 4 weeks subsequent plasma level-targeted dose lithium addition in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant monotherapy; and phase III (n = 8): subsequent electroconvulsive therapy in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant‑lithium treatment...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Maricel Oró-Piqueras
This article aims at analysing four of Julian Barnes's novels with protagonists either entering or in their old age in order to discern to what extent conceptions of ageing, old age and death are depicted in Barnes's fiction and develop throughout his writing career. Barnes's memoir Nothing to Be Frightened Of (2008) will also be central in the discussion, since, in it, the author reflects on conceptions of old age and death from different philosophers and authors intermingling them with his own personal experience and that of his family, specially his parents...
March 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
Richard Musil, Florian Seemüller, Sebastian Meyer, Ilja Spellmann, Mazda Adli, Michael Bauer, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Peter Brieger, Gerd Laux, Wolfram Bender, Isabella Heuser, Robert Fisher, Wolfgang Gaebel, Rebecca Schennach, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Michael Riedel
Subtyping depression is important in order to further delineate biological causes of depressive syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and outcome characteristics of distinct subtypes of depression and to assess proportion and features of patients fulfilling criteria for more than one subtype. Melancholic, atypical and anxious subtypes of depression were assessed in a naturalistic sample of 833 inpatients using DSM-IV specifiers based on operationalized criteria. Baseline characteristics and outcome criteria at discharge were compared between distinct subtypes and their overlap...
March 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Marboh Goretti Iaisuklang, Arif Ali
Context: Psychological distress is higher in women working in sex industry. The various psycho social issues are associated with female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). The host of psychosocial vulnerabilities including, childhood sexual abuse, exposure to childhood physical abuse, poverty, interpersonal violence in adulthood, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance use, forms a fertile ground for psychiatric morbidity. Aim: This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity among FCSWs in Shillong, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
M Dold, L Bartova, J Mendlewicz, D Souery, A Serretti, S Porcelli, J Zohar, S Montgomery, S Kasper
OBJECTIVE: This multicenter, multinational, cross-sectional study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes associated with augmentation/combination treatment strategies in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment features of 1410 adult MDD patients were compared between MDD patients treated with monotherapy and augmentation/combination medication using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ancova), and Spearman's correlation analyses...
February 28, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Greg Perlman, Molly Gromatsky, Kate Lee Salis, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (aNSSI) is associated with abnormal scores on personality traits, such as high neuroticism. However, no studies to date have examined personality facets of self-injury in a cohort younger than college-age. Plus, adolescent psychopathologies, especially Depressive Disorders, are associated with a similar personality profile and are highly comorbid with aNSSI. Consequently, it remains unclear whether personality provides insights about aNSSI in youth beyond that due to underlying psychopathology...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Malin Appelquist, Louise Brådvik, Marie Åsberg
Mental illness in a hospital in a medium-sized town in Sweden was studied. Consecutive case records from 1896 to 1905, and also from 2011, were selected. In the historical sample, neurasthenia was the most common diagnosis, followed by affective disorders and alcohol abuse. ICD-10 diagnoses corresponded well with the historical diagnoses. Melancholia resembled modern criteria for depression. Mania, insania simplex and paranoia indicated more severe illness. Abuse was more common among men and hysteria among women...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Linda van Diermen, Seline van den Ameele, Astrid M Kamperman, Bernard C G Sabbe, Tom Vermeulen, Didier Schrijvers, Tom K Birkenhäger
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be the most effective treatment in severe major depression. The identification of reliable predictors of ECT response could contribute to a more targeted patient selection and consequently increased ECT response rates. Aims To investigate the predictive value of age, depression severity, psychotic and melancholic features for ECT response and remission in major depression. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA statement...
February 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kalina Yordanova
What psychological response does war and forced displacement evoke in victims? How do survivors of war communicate their experiences to their children? Finally, what culture does the psychological response to loss shape? Using data collected through interviews, psychological consultations, and children's drawings from two sources-the ongoing Syrian civil war and the Bosnian war of 1992-1995, this paper suggests that the experience of the war generation becomes the organizing axis of their identity and that of their children...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Natalie J Sachs-Ericsson, Greg Hajcak, Julia L Sheffler, Ian H Stanley, Edward A Selby, Guy G Potter, David C Steffens
BACKGROUND: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) may exhibit smaller striatal volumes reflecting deficits in the reward circuit. Deficits may change with age and be more pronounced among the melancholic subtype. Limited research has investigated striatal volume differences in older adults and by depression subtypes. METHOD: We used baseline data from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. We examined volumetric differences in the putamen and caudate nucleus among older adults (60 years and older), comparing healthy control participants (n = 134) to depressed participants (n = 226), and comparing nonmelancholic depressed participants (n = 93) to melancholic depressed participants (n = 133)...
January 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Linnéa Nöbbelin, Mats Bogren, Cecilia Mattisson, Louise Brådvik
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common disorder in both men and women, and the recurrence rate is high. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence in depression in the Lundby Study. METHODS: The Lundby Study is a community-based longitudinal study with focus on mental health. The study started in 1947 and three follow-ups have been carried out since, the last one in 1997. The population consists of 3563 subjects. Data from 508 subjects afflicted by depression was gathered...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Frank Euteneuer, Katharina Dannehl, Adriana Del Rey, Harald Engler, Manfred Schedlowski, Winfried Rief
Depression has been associated with peripheral inflammatory processes and alterations in cellular immunity. Growing evidence suggests that immunological alterations may neither be necessary nor sufficient to induce depression in general, but seem to be associated with specific features. Using baseline data from the Outcome of Psychological Interventions in Depression trial, this exploratory study examines associations between depression subtypes and pathogenetic characteristics (i.e., melancholic vs non-melancholic depression, chronic vs non-chronic depression, age of onset, cognitive-affective and somatic symptom dimensions) with plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and numbers of leukocyte subpopulations in 98 patients with major depression (MD) and 30 age and sex-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Katherine A Grisanzio, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Michelle Yuyun Wang, Abdullah P Rashed Ahmed, Zoe Samara, Leanne M Williams
Importance: The symptoms that define mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders are highly overlapping across disorders and heterogeneous within disorders. It is unknown whether coherent subtypes exist that span multiple diagnoses and are expressed functionally (in underlying cognition and brain function) and clinically (in daily function). The identification of cohesive subtypes would help disentangle the symptom overlap in our current diagnoses and serve as a tool for tailoring treatment choices...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
E David Leonardo, Alex Dranovsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
Germán Morong R, Víctor Brangier P
During the first Modern Era (15th-17th c.), bodily health and expressions of physiognomy were explained under the doctrine of humors. This doctrine -based on Corpus Hipocraticum-established a close relation between humors (blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile), qualities (dry, moist, warm, and cold) and the elements (water, air, earth, and fire). One of these humors -black bile-, commonly a hallmark of the melancholic temperament, was associated to the complexion and nature of American Indians. This accusation was legitimized by the empirical examination of the physiognomy of a subject that was melancholic, sad and pusillanimous...
July 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
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