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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677210/provider-reported-barriers-and-solutions-to-improve-testing-among-tuberculosis-patients-eligible-for-drug-susceptibility-test-a-qualitative-study-from-programmatic-setting-in-india
#1
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Arun M Kokane, Akash Ranjan Singh, Malik Parmar, Manoj Verma, Prabha Desikan, Sheeba Naz Khan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: In a study conducted in Bhopal district (a setting with facility for molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST)) located in central India in 2014-15, we found high levels of pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)-meaning TB patients who were eligible for DST, were not being tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored the health care provider perspectives into barriers and suggested solutions for improving DST...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665707/relationship-between-kurtosis-and-bi-exponential-characterization-of-high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-imaging-application-to-prostate-cancer
#2
Roshan A Karunamuni, Joshua Kuperman, Tyler M Seibert, Natalie Schenker, Rebecca Rakow-Penner, V S Sundar, Jose R Teruel, Pal E Goa, David S Karow, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White
Background High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging has application in the detection of cancerous tissue across multiple body sites. Diffusional kurtosis and bi-exponential modeling are two popular model-based techniques, whose performance in relation to each other has yet to be fully explored. Purpose To determine the relationship between excess kurtosis and signal fractions derived from bi-exponential modeling in the detection of suspicious prostate lesions. Material and Methods This retrospective study analyzed patients with normal prostate tissue (n = 12) or suspicious lesions (n = 13, one lesion per patient), as determined by a radiologist whose clinical care included a high b-value diffusion series...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652589/distributed-newton-methods-for-deep-neural-networks
#3
Chien-Chih Wang, Kent Loong Tan, Chun-Ting Chen, Yu-Hsiang Lin, S Sathiya Keerthi, Dhruv Mahajan, S Sundararajan, Chih-Jen Lin
Deep learning involves a difficult nonconvex optimization problem with a large number of weights between any two adjacent layers of a deep structure. To handle large data sets or complicated networks, distributed training is needed, but the calculation of function, gradient, and Hessian is expensive. In particular, the communication and the synchronization cost may become a bottleneck. In this letter, we focus on situations where the model is distributedly stored and propose a novel distributed Newton method for training deep neural networks...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629201/anesthesia-and-fast-track-in-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-vats-from-evidence-to-practice
#4
REVIEW
Marzia Umari, Stefano Falini, Matteo Segat, Michele Zuliani, Marco Crisman, Lucia Comuzzi, Francesco Pagos, Stefano Lovadina, Umberto Lucangelo
In thoracic surgery, the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques has allowed the development of fast-track protocols, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be wisely administered because often linked to late discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalatory anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628663/distribution-of-laboratory-parameters-in-trauma-population
#5
Prashant Bhandarkar, Ranabir Pal, Ashok Munivenkatappa, Nobhojit Roy, Vineet Kumar, Amit Agrawal
Background: Biochemical laboratory investigations help plan optimum management and communication in short- as well as long-term outcome to trauma victims. Objective: To assess the status of real-time values of biochemical laboratory investigations of different trauma patients and their association with overall mortality. Materials and Methods: Data based on prospective, observational registry of "Towards Improved Trauma Care Outcomes" (TITCO) from four Indian city hospitals...
January 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627807/risk-of-perinatal-mortality-in-the-first-year-of-midwifery-practice-in-new-zealand-analysis-of-a-retrospective-national-cohort
#6
Lynn C Sadler, Judith McAra-Couper, Deborah Pittam, Michelle R Wise, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there was an increased risk of perinatal mortality among mothers booked for care with community lead maternity carer (LMC) midwives in their first compared with later years of practice. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using linked national maternity, mortality and workforce data; adjusted analysis using logistic regression. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Women under community LMC midwifery care birthing 2008-2014...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627583/hispanic-ethnicity-stress-psychophysiology-and-paradoxical-health-outcomes-a-review-with-conceptual-considerations-and-a-call-for-research
#7
REVIEW
John M Ruiz, David Sbarra, Patrick R Steffen
It is not wise to generalize psychophysiological findings from WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) samples to all people and yet this occurs frequently in research. Case-in-point is our understanding of psychophysiological responses to stress which suggest universality despite our knowledge that these pathways are moderated by factors such as ethnicity and culture. Here we discuss the epidemiological phenomenon commonly referred to as the Hispanic health paradox to illustrate the importance of culture in understanding stress...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623576/understanding-racial-ethnic-differences-in-breast-cancer-related-physical-well-being-the-role-of-patient-provider-interactions
#8
Devon K Check, Neetu Chawla, Marilyn L Kwan, Laura Pinheiro, Janise M Roh, Isaac J Ergas, Anita L Stewart, Tatjana Kolevska, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi
PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic differences in cancer symptom burden are well documented, but limited research has evaluated modifiable factors underlying these differences. Our objective was to examine the role of patient-provider interactions to help explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and cancer-specific physical well-being (PWB) among women with breast cancer. METHODS: The Pathways Study is a prospective cohort study of 4505 women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013...
April 5, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623154/choosing-wisely-together-physical-and-occupational-therapy-consultation-for-acute-neurology-inpatients
#9
John C Probasco, Annette Lavezza, Andre Cassell, Tenise Shakes, Angie Feurer, Holly Russell, Hilary Sporney, Margie Burnett, Chepkorir Maritim, Victor Urrutia, H Adrian Puttgen, Michael Friedman, Erik H Hoyer
Background: Although many hospitalized neuroscience patients have physical and occupational therapy (rehabilitation) needs, patients with none or minimal physical impairments frequently receive rehabilitation consultation, diverting from patients with greatest need. Methods: A multidisciplinary team on the general and cerebrovascular neurology acute inpatient services mapped the rehabilitation consultation process, resulting in multiple implemented interventions including physician education on appropriate acute rehabilitation consultations, modification of multidisciplinary rounds, and discussion of patient rehabilitation needs throughout hospitalization...
April 2018: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615167/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-evaluation-of-pathogen-burden-and-drug-resistance-trends-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Muhammad Saeed, Farhan Rasheed, Raja Kamran Afzal, Shahida Hussain, Saba Riaz, Adeel Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathogen burden and antibiotic-resistance trends of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among hospitalised patients at a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, hospital record-based, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Microbiology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: A total of 5,960 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of bacterial infections, admitted to the hospital...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605024/benchmarking-rectal-cancer-care-institutional-compliance-with-a-longitudinal-checklist
#11
William C Chapman, Pamela Choi, Alexander T Hawkins, Steven R Hunt, Matthew L Silviera, Paul E Wise, Matthew G Mutch, Sean C Glasgow
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons published the Rectal Cancer Surgery Checklist, a consensus document listing 25 essential elements of care for all patients undergoing radical surgery for rectal cancer. The authors herein examine checklist adherence in a mature, multisurgeon specialty academic practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of patients undergoing elective radical resection for rectal adenocarcinoma over a 23-mo period was conducted...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600232/geographical-distribution-of-cervical-cancer-in-odisha-a-5-year-retrospective-study-at-a-regional-cancer-center
#12
Pradeep Kumar Hota, Niharika Panda, Bhagyalaxmi Nayak, Sagarika Samantaray
Background: Cancer cervix and breast are the two major female health problems in India. A hospital-based, 5-year (2010-2014) retrospective study was conducted at a regional cancer center of Odisha to analyze the present burden of cancer cervix in this state, which has a population of more than 45.5 million at present. Materials and Methods: All the patients suffering from cancer cervix that was treated by radiotherapy during 2010-2014 at this center were analyzed year wise for age, stage of disease, and native area...
January 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599393/prevalence-of-stroke-risk-factors-disability-and-care-needs-in-older-adults-in-singapore-results-from-the-wise-study
#13
Wen Lin Teh, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Esmond Seow, Vathsala Sagayadevan, Saleha Shafie, Shazana Shahwan, Yunjue Zhang, Siow Ann Chong, Li Ling Ng, Mythily Subramaniam
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to establish the prevalence of stroke, and to explore the association between stroke prevalence and sociodemographic and health factors, disability, cognitive functioning and care needs among older adult residents in Singapore. SETTING: Data were drawn from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study-a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted from 2012 to 2013 on older adults living in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were Singapore residents (citizens and permanent residents) 60 years and above who were living in Singapore during the survey period ...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593905/conceptions-of-healthy-aging-held-by-relatives-of-older-persons-in-isan-thai-culture-a-phenomenographic-study
#14
Pornpun Manasatchakun, Åsa Roxberg, Margareta Asp
In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590009/from-choosing-wisely-to-using-wisely-increasing-the-value-of-cancer-care-through-clinical-research
#15
Allen S Lichter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581202/real-world-effects-of-medications-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-uk-population-based-non-interventional-cohort-study-with-validation-against-randomised-trial-results
#16
Kevin Wing, Elizabeth Williamson, James R Carpenter, Lesley Wise, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Liam Smeeth, Jennifer K Quint, Ian Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease affecting 3 million people in the UK, in which patients exhibit airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD treatment guidelines are largely informed by randomised controlled trial results, but it is unclear if these findings apply to large patient populations not studied in trials. Non-interventional studies could be used to study patient groups excluded from trials, but the use of these studies to estimate treatment effectiveness is in its infancy...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577739/choosing-wisely-and-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-ophthalmic-surgery-there-is-more-than-meets-the-eye
#17
Andrea Grosso, Piero Ceruti, Giuseppe Scarpa, Franco Giardini, Giorgio Marchini, Emanuela Aragona, Fabrizio Bert, Francesco Bandello, Roberta Siliquini
BACKGROUND: One of the directions of modern ophthalmology is toward an odontoiatric model, and new settings of eye care are becoming the standard of care: one day surgery and also office-based therapies. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of three tertiary-care centers in Italy and analysis of the literature. RESULTS: We provide readers with state-of-the-art measures of prophylaxis in ophthalmic surgery. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Role of antibiotics is criticized in the light of stewardship antimicrobial paradigm...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576826/the-relative-value-of-education-of-emergency-physicians-in-patient-outcome-a-retrospective-analysis-at-a-single-center-in-developing-india
#18
Shastri Vandana, Singh Shubnum, Kole Tamorish
BACKGROUND: There is a considerable paucity with regards to the research available on the quality and quantity of clinical teaching in the national emergency department (ED) setups. With the onset of the age of modern medicine, the outlook towards to the time worn tradition of triage and detailed medical evaluation must be revoked. Despite the variety of programs being conducted in the country, a comparable entity common to all is patients' clinical outcomes which can be measured using simple parameters which can be easily acquired compiling hospital registry entries...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573967/human-challenge-trials-in-vaccine-development-rockville-md-usa-september-28-30-2017
#19
Marc F D Baay, Thomas L Richie, Pieter Neels
The International Alliance for Biological Standardization organized the second workshop on human challenge trials (HCT) in Rockville, MD, in September 2017. The objective of this meeting was to examine the use of HCT, in response to the continuing human suffering caused by infectious diseases, preventable by the development of new and improved vaccines. For this, the approach of HCT could be valuable, as HCT can provide key safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and efficacy data, and can be used to study host-pathogen biology...
March 21, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573391/interventional-management-of-hyperhidrosis-in-secondary-care-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
R Wade, A Llewellyn, J Jones-Diette, K Wright, S Rice, A M Layton, N J Levell, D Craig, N Woolacott
BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is uncontrollable excessive sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature. The symptoms of hyperhidrosis can significantly affect quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of treatments available in secondary care for the management of primary hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Fifteen databases (including trial registers) were searched to July 2016 to identify studies of secondary care treatments for primary hyperhidrosis...
March 24, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
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