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Vitamin malnutrition zinc children

Joseph L Roberts, Aryeh D Stein
A large body of evidence suggests that the first 1000 d from conception is a critical window in which interventions to address malnutrition will be most effective, but little is known about the impact on linear growth of nutritional interventions in children ≥2 y of age. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of several nutrition-based interventions, specifically iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamin A, multiple (≥2) micronutrients, protein, and food, at improving growth in children ≥2 y of age...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Tae Hwan Han, Jin Lee, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. METHODS: Hair mineral analyses were performed in 56 children (age, 1-15 years) presenting with malnutrition, poor growth, poor appetite, anorexia, with/without other GI symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation) from August 2012 to March 2015...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Marion Fiorentino, Edwige Landais, Guillaume Bastard, Alicia Carriquiry, Frank T Wieringa, Jacques Berger
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
Roger Ponka, Elie Fokou, Eric Beaucher, Michel Piot, Frédéric Gaucheron
Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Cameroon. The research study was conducted to determine nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. These dishes were Ekomba, prepared from maize flour with roasted peanuts paste; Ekwang, prepared from crushed cocoyam tubers and cocoyam leaves; Tenue militaire, prepared from dried maize flour and cocoyam leaves and Koki, prepared from dried crushed cowpea seeds. The samples were subjected to proximate, minerals, carotenoids, and amino acids analyses...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Magali Leyvraz, Arnaud Laillou, Sabuktagin Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Nurul Alam, Santhia Ireen, Dora Panagides
Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24-59 months old, 1428 children 6-14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study's objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods...
September 2, 2016: Nutrients
Mary Adjepong, Pius Agbenorku, Patricia Brown, Ibok Oduro
Burn injury can be detrimental to the health of individuals, meanwhile victims lose proteins and micronutrients in wound exudates. Victims also experience extensive protein catabolism. These make them prone to malnutrition. Burn patients also suffer a lot of emotional trauma that reduce nutrient intake. The aim of this paper was to review primary evidence on the effect of antioxidant micronutrients on the recovery rate of burn patients. Electronic databases such as PubMed, BioMed, and Cochrane were systematically searched between January 1, 2014, and January 30, 2014...
2016: Burns and trauma
Dominique Turck, Christian P Braegger, Carla Colombo, Dimitri Declercq, Alison Morton, Ruzha Pancheva, Eddy Robberecht, Martin Stern, Birgitta Strandvik, Sue Wolfe, Stephane M Schneider, Michael Wilschanski
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is both a frequent feature and a comorbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF), with nutritional status strongly associated with pulmonary function and survival. Nutritional management is therefore standard of care in CF patients. ESPEN, ESPGHAN and ECFS recommended guidelines to cover nutritional management of patients with CF. METHODS: The guidelines were developed by an international multidisciplinary working group in accordance with officially accepted standards...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Parminder S Suchdev, O Yaw Addo, Reynaldo Martorell, Frederick Ke Grant, Laird J Ruth, Minal K Patel, Patricia C Juliao, Rob Quick, Rafael Flores-Ayala
BACKGROUND: Although the use of micronutrient powders (MNPs) is considered the preferred approach for childhood anemia control, concerns about iron-related morbidity from clinical trials have challenged programmatic scale-up. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the effects of community-based sales of MNPs on diarrhea-, fever-, cough-, and malaria-morbidity episodes in children 6-35 mo of age. DESIGN: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in rural Western Kenya where 60 villages were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups...
March 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rufina N B Ayogu, Ngozi M Nnam, Mirabel Mbah
BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent malnutrition is a function of inadequate intake. Cookies are favourite snacks of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This work determined the nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions of two local cowpea (oraludi and apama) flours and evaluated the organoleptic properties of their wheat-based cookies. DESIGN: The two local cowpea species were processed into flours separately and blended with wheat on a 56-g protein basis...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Afzal Shah, Farid Ullah Shah, Salah Ud-Din Khan, Usman Ali Rana, Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Zahoor Ahmad
A cross-sectional study was designed to diagnose the prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies in apparently healthy preschool children in Pakistan. Children with any organic illnesses, abnormal blood parameters or genetic disorder were excluded. Amongst the studied samples, 56 % were healthy, 7 % were overweight, 7 % were obese, and 30 % were underweight. The body mass index (BMI) of female children was reduced compared to male children, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, zinc and iron deficiencies, ranging from moderate to severe, were found in 50 % and 25 % of the studied population, respectively...
2015: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Magali Leyvraz, Arnaud Laillou, Sabuktagin Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Nurul Alam, Santhia Ireen, Dora Panagides
Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24-59 months old; 1428 children 6-14 years old; and 1412 non-pregnant, non-lactating women. The study's objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of fortification of key staple foods...
December 2015: Nutrients
İnci Ergürhan İlhan, Neriman Sarı, Şule Yeşil, Tuba Eren, Nurdan Taçyıldız
Children are at greater risk for malnutrition due to increased needs of nutrients to obtain appropriate growth, and they exhibit elevated substrate needs due to cancer and its treatment. This study aimed to report anthropometric and biochemical evaluation of nutritional status in children with cancer at initial presentation and during treatment. A prospective, controlled study was performed in the pediatric oncology department of a tertiary care center. Control group consisted of the siblings of patients. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, serum lipids, trace minerals, C-reactive protein (CRP), and vitamins were compared in patients and controls at initial presentation and at 6th month after the onset of treatment...
2015: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Regan L Bailey, Keith P West, Robert E Black
Micronutrients are essential to sustain life and for optimal physiological function. Widespread global micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) exist, with pregnant women and their children under 5 years at the highest risk. Iron, iodine, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies are the most widespread MNDs, and all these MNDs are common contributors to poor growth, intellectual impairments, perinatal complications, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is the most common MND worldwide and leads to microcytic anemia, decreased capacity for work, as well as impaired immune and endocrine function...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Theodore H Tulchinsky
Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform...
April 2015: Nutrients
Aamer Imdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Deficiencies of multiple micronutrients are prevalent among women of reproductive age and young children, and represent a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in these women and children. The role of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood has been evaluated in randomized trials. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy has a positive effect on birthweight and reduces prevalence of low birthweight and small for gestational age babies. It had comparable effects on prevalence of anemia regarding iron-folate supplementation...
2012: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Mary Edith Penny
Linear growth retardation or stunting may occur with or without low weight-for-age, but in both cases stunted or moderately malnourished children are deficient in micronutrients. Pregnancy and the first 2 years are critical periods. Dietary deficiency of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are especially common and often occur together. Zinc is essential for adequate growth, and supplements have been shown to increase intrauterine femur length and to prevent stunting. However, in general, supplements which provide a mixture of micronutrients have been more successful in preventing stunting and are simpler to take and distribute...
2012: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Aamer Imdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Despite numerous advances and improvements in child health, malnutrition still remains as one of the main public health challenges of the 21st century, particularly in developing countries. It undermines the survival, growth and development of children, and is associated with almost 35% of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. An estimated 178 million children are stunted globally, and an additional 19 million children have severe acute malnutrition (wasting). These conditions are very often associated with concomitant micronutrient deficiencies, and among these, vitamin A, iron, zinc and iodine deficiencies are the most prevalent in childhood...
2012: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Scott B Ickes, Linda S Adair, Catherine A Brahe, Harsha Thirumurthy, Baguma Charles, Jennifer A Myhre, Margaret E Bentley, Alice S Ammerman
Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) can help treat undernutrition; however, the dietary adequacy of children supplemented with LNS, and household utilisation patterns are not well understood. We assessed diet adequacy and the quality of complementary foods by conducting a diet assessment of 128 Ugandan children, ages 6-59 months, who participated in a 10-week programme for children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM, defined as weight-for-age z-score < -2). Caregivers were given a weekly ration of 650 kcal day(-1) (126 g day(-1) ) of a peanut/soy LNS...
December 2015: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Zaida Herrador, Luis Sordo, Endalamaw Gadisa, Antonio Buño, Rubén Gómez-Rioja, Jose Manuel Iturzaeta, Lisset Fernandez de Armas, Agustín Benito, Abraham Aseffa, Javier Moreno, Carmen Cañavate, Estefania Custodio
INTRODUCTION: The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May-December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children...
2014: PloS One
Eduardo Atalah, Hugo Amigo, Patricia Bustos
BACKGROUND: Chile has probably experienced Latin America's fastest nutritional transition, as evidenced by very low rates of stunting, but the country shows a high prevalence of obesity in most population groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the existence of a double burden of nutritional problems in Chile on the basis of available data. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected by the Health Ministry (height and weight for children aged <6 y and for adults aged ≥65 y), the Education Ministry (height and weight in the first year of primary school and the first year of high school), the 2003 and 2009-2010 National Health Surveys [body mass index (BMI) and anemia prevalence], the 2010-2011 National Food Consumption Survey (ENCA; food consumption, height, and weight), and a Food Insecurity Survey of elderly adults (aged 65-74 y) in Santiago (height, weight, and food insecurity)...
December 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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