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Vitamin malnutrition zinc children

Olamide A Akande, Dorothy Nakimbugwe, Ivan M Mukisa
Malnutrition is one of the foremost causes of death among children below 5 years in developing countries. Development of nutrient-dense food formulations using locally available crops has been proposed as a means to combat this menace. This study optimized the extrusion process for the production of a nutritious amaranth-based porridge flour. Least cost formulations containing grain amaranth, groundnut, iron-rich beans, pumpkin, orange-fleshed sweet potato, carrot, and maize were developed and evaluated by a sensory panel ( n  = 30) for acceptability using the 9-point hedonic scale...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Graciela Terán, Washington Cuna, Froilán Brañez, Kristina E M Persson, Martín E Rottenberg, Susanne Nylén, Celeste Rodriguez
Children in the Bolivian Andes are exposed to endemic infections and meager nourishment, and live under poor hygienic conditions. The prevention of children malnutrition is a priority in many countries including Bolivia. In this study, the health status of schoolchildren in Taraco, a Puna district, at 4,000 meters above sea level (masl) and in Caranavi, at 650 masl in the wealthier subtropical valleys, was compared. The weight, height, and hematological and biochemical parameters in blood, parasites in stool, and clinical information in 120 children from rural Taraco and in 96 from semi-urban Caranavi, both predominantly of Aymara ethnicity, were registered...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Clifford W Lo
OBJECTIVE: An important aspect of malnutrition is deficiency of different micronutrients during pregnancy or early childhood. We systematically reviewed the role of nutrition in child growth (weight or height gain) and development. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was done on PubMed/Cochrane Library browsing through 38,795 abstracts until December 31, 2016 to select systematic reviews/meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplementation...
October 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Gustavo Cediel-Giraldo, Erika Castaño-Moreno, Diego Gaitán-Charry
Several reports have described in the last decade the coexistence of accelerated increase of obesity with micronutrient deficiencies in developed countries, and is becoming evident in developing nations. This condition may be especially deleterious in children and adolescents with consequences in metabolic risk and growth since early in life. This review describes the evidence of double burden malnutrition during growth period focused on six nutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, sodium, folic acid and vitamin B12) and its biological mechanisms associated with non-communicable disease through span life...
August 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
Joseph L Roberts, Aryeh D Stein
A large body of evidence suggests that the first 1000 d from conception is a critical window in which interventions to address malnutrition will be most effective, but little is known about the impact on linear growth of nutritional interventions in children ≥2 y of age. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of several nutrition-based interventions, specifically iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamin A, multiple (≥2) micronutrients, protein, and food, at improving growth in children ≥2 y of age...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Tae Hwan Han, Jin Lee, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. METHODS: Hair mineral analyses were performed in 56 children (age, 1-15 years) presenting with malnutrition, poor growth, poor appetite, anorexia, with/without other GI symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation) from August 2012 to March 2015...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Marion Fiorentino, Edwige Landais, Guillaume Bastard, Alicia Carriquiry, Frank T Wieringa, Jacques Berger
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
Roger Ponka, Elie Fokou, Eric Beaucher, Michel Piot, Frédéric Gaucheron
Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Cameroon. The research study was conducted to determine nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. These dishes were Ekomba, prepared from maize flour with roasted peanuts paste; Ekwang, prepared from crushed cocoyam tubers and cocoyam leaves; Tenue militaire, prepared from dried maize flour and cocoyam leaves and Koki, prepared from dried crushed cowpea seeds. The samples were subjected to proximate, minerals, carotenoids, and amino acids analyses...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Magali Leyvraz, Arnaud Laillou, Sabuktagin Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Nurul Alam, Santhia Ireen, Dora Panagides
Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24-59 months old, 1428 children 6-14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study's objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods...
September 2, 2016: Nutrients
Mary Adjepong, Pius Agbenorku, Patricia Brown, Ibok Oduro
Burn injury can be detrimental to the health of individuals, meanwhile victims lose proteins and micronutrients in wound exudates. Victims also experience extensive protein catabolism. These make them prone to malnutrition. Burn patients also suffer a lot of emotional trauma that reduce nutrient intake. The aim of this paper was to review primary evidence on the effect of antioxidant micronutrients on the recovery rate of burn patients. Electronic databases such as PubMed, BioMed, and Cochrane were systematically searched between January 1, 2014, and January 30, 2014...
2016: Burns and trauma
Dominique Turck, Christian P Braegger, Carla Colombo, Dimitri Declercq, Alison Morton, Ruzha Pancheva, Eddy Robberecht, Martin Stern, Birgitta Strandvik, Sue Wolfe, Stephane M Schneider, Michael Wilschanski
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is both a frequent feature and a comorbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF), with nutritional status strongly associated with pulmonary function and survival. Nutritional management is therefore standard of care in CF patients. ESPEN, ESPGHAN and ECFS recommended guidelines to cover nutritional management of patients with CF. METHODS: The guidelines were developed by an international multidisciplinary working group in accordance with officially accepted standards...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Parminder S Suchdev, O Yaw Addo, Reynaldo Martorell, Frederick Ke Grant, Laird J Ruth, Minal K Patel, Patricia C Juliao, Rob Quick, Rafael Flores-Ayala
BACKGROUND: Although the use of micronutrient powders (MNPs) is considered the preferred approach for childhood anemia control, concerns about iron-related morbidity from clinical trials have challenged programmatic scale-up. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the effects of community-based sales of MNPs on diarrhea-, fever-, cough-, and malaria-morbidity episodes in children 6-35 mo of age. DESIGN: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in rural Western Kenya where 60 villages were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups...
March 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rufina N B Ayogu, Ngozi M Nnam, Mirabel Mbah
BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent malnutrition is a function of inadequate intake. Cookies are favourite snacks of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This work determined the nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions of two local cowpea (oraludi and apama) flours and evaluated the organoleptic properties of their wheat-based cookies. DESIGN: The two local cowpea species were processed into flours separately and blended with wheat on a 56-g protein basis...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Afzal Shah, Farid Ullah Shah, Salah Ud-Din Khan, Usman Ali Rana, Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Zahoor Ahmad
A cross-sectional study was designed to diagnose the prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies in apparently healthy preschool children in Pakistan. Children with any organic illnesses, abnormal blood parameters or genetic disorder were excluded. Amongst the studied samples, 56 % were healthy, 7 % were overweight, 7 % were obese, and 30 % were underweight. The body mass index (BMI) of female children was reduced compared to male children, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, zinc and iron deficiencies, ranging from moderate to severe, were found in 50 % and 25 % of the studied population, respectively...
2015: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Magali Leyvraz, Arnaud Laillou, Sabuktagin Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Nurul Alam, Santhia Ireen, Dora Panagides
Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24-59 months old; 1428 children 6-14 years old; and 1412 non-pregnant, non-lactating women. The study's objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of fortification of key staple foods...
December 2, 2015: Nutrients
İnci Ergürhan İlhan, Neriman Sarı, Şule Yeşil, Tuba Eren, Nurdan Taçyıldız
Children are at greater risk for malnutrition due to increased needs of nutrients to obtain appropriate growth, and they exhibit elevated substrate needs due to cancer and its treatment. This study aimed to report anthropometric and biochemical evaluation of nutritional status in children with cancer at initial presentation and during treatment. A prospective, controlled study was performed in the pediatric oncology department of a tertiary care center. Control group consisted of the siblings of patients. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, serum lipids, trace minerals, C-reactive protein (CRP), and vitamins were compared in patients and controls at initial presentation and at 6th month after the onset of treatment...
2015: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Regan L Bailey, Keith P West, Robert E Black
Micronutrients are essential to sustain life and for optimal physiological function. Widespread global micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) exist, with pregnant women and their children under 5 years at the highest risk. Iron, iodine, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies are the most widespread MNDs, and all these MNDs are common contributors to poor growth, intellectual impairments, perinatal complications, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is the most common MND worldwide and leads to microcytic anemia, decreased capacity for work, as well as impaired immune and endocrine function...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Theodore H Tulchinsky
Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform...
April 2015: Nutrients
Aamer Imdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Deficiencies of multiple micronutrients are prevalent among women of reproductive age and young children, and represent a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in these women and children. The role of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood has been evaluated in randomized trials. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy has a positive effect on birthweight and reduces prevalence of low birthweight and small for gestational age babies. It had comparable effects on prevalence of anemia regarding iron-folate supplementation...
2012: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Mary Edith Penny
Linear growth retardation or stunting may occur with or without low weight-for-age, but in both cases stunted or moderately malnourished children are deficient in micronutrients. Pregnancy and the first 2 years are critical periods. Dietary deficiency of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are especially common and often occur together. Zinc is essential for adequate growth, and supplements have been shown to increase intrauterine femur length and to prevent stunting. However, in general, supplements which provide a mixture of micronutrients have been more successful in preventing stunting and are simpler to take and distribute...
2012: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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