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Tobias Otto, Fred R H Zijlstra, Rainer Goebel
Investing mental effort is costly, and the investment has to be matched by a reward to make a person engage in task performance. However, the neural structures underlying the continued management of mental effort are not known. Previous work has identified left-lateralized structures, most prominently the left anterior Insular Cortex (aIC) as regions implied in post-hoc evaluation and also anticipation of mental effort investment. We present a study aimed at identifying neural structures that are sensitive to changes in both task load and fatigue-induced state load...
2018: PloS One
Martin Samdal, Helge H Haugland, Cato Fjeldet, Marius Rehn, Mårten Sandberg
INTRODUCTION: Physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in Norway are an adjunct to existing search and rescue services. Our aims were to study the epidemiological, operational, and medical aspects of HEMS daylight static rope operations performed in the southeastern part of the country and to examine several quality dimensions that are characteristic of this service. METHODS: We reviewed the static rope operations performed at 3 HEMS bases during a 3-y period and applied a set of quality indicators designed for physician-staffed emergency medical services to evaluate the quality of care...
June 13, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Arhana Chattopadhyay, Clifford C Sheckter, Chao Long, Yvonne Karanas
Air ambulances rapidly transport burn patients to regional centers, expediting treatment. However, limited guidelines on transport introduce the risk for inappropriate triage and overuse. Given the additional costs of air vs ground transport, evaluation of transportation use is prudent. A retrospective review of all burn patients transported by helicopter to a single burn center from May 2013 to January 2016 was performed. Data gathered included patient demographics, transfer origin, burn characteristics, and inpatient hospital stay...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Daniela Sb Barros, Alina L Evans, Jon M Arnemo, Fredrik Stenbacka, Göran Ericsson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and physiological responses in moose to thiafentanil administration for immobilization. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study. ANIMALS: Eleven (six males and five females) free-ranging adult moose (Alces alces). METHODS: Each moose was darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg thiafentanil during March 2014 in northern Sweden. Physiological evaluation included vital signs and blood gases...
March 31, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Michael J Lee, Sasha C Voss, Daniel Franklin, Ian R Dadour
This study investigated the potential of aircraft mounted thermal imaging (AMTI) to locate surficial decomposing remains (clothed and unclothed) through detection of heat generated by larval aggregations of carrion feeding insects. Two trials were carried out, each utilising four pig cadavers (40-45kg) as human analogues and exposing them to insect activity in autumn and winter on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. The Western Australia Police Air Wing helicopter, fitted with a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) camera, was utilised to obtain the AMTI footage of carcasses over time...
May 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Samir Zeghlache, Hemza Mekki, Abderrahmen Bouguerra, Ali Djerioui
In this paper, a robust controller for a Six Degrees of Freedom (6 DOF) coaxial octorotor helicopter control is proposed in presence of actuator faults. Radial Base Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Fuzzy Logic Control approach (FLC) and Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique are used to design a controller, named Fault Tolerant Control (FTC), for each subsystem of the octorotor helicopter. The proposed FTC scheme allows avoiding difficult modeling, attenuating the chattering effect of the SMC, reducing the rules number of the fuzzy controller, and guaranteeing the stability and the robustness of the system...
June 6, 2018: ISA Transactions
Luzhao Chen, Peilin Wu, Wanhua Zhu, Yongqiang Feng, Guangyou Fang
An aeromagnetic survey is an important method in magnetic anomaly detection and geophysical prospecting. The magnetic field is typically measured by optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) installed on the aircraft. The measurement accuracy of the OPM is easily affected by the platform-generated magnetic fields. Therefore, aeromagnetic compensation is necessary. The traditional compensation model only considers the permanent, induced, and eddy current interference magnetic field of the aircraft platform. However, the interference field produced by the avionics system, and the relative motion between the aircraft and the magnetometer, are still not taken into account...
June 6, 2018: Sensors
Rachel Zayas
Critical care transport began in the 1970s as a response to the growing need to be able to transport critically ill and injured patients to tertiary care centers for higher levels of care or specialized treatments. Patients in critical condition now are transported great distances to receive potentially lifesaving treatment and interventions. Modes of critical care transport include ambulances, helicopters, and airplanes. Critical care transport teams consist of highly skilled paramedics, registered nurses, respiratory therapists, nurse practitioners, and physicians...
2018: AACN Advanced Critical Care
Javier Gimenez, Daniel C Gandolfo, Lucio R Salinas, Claudio Rosales, Ricardo Carelli
A novel kinematic formation controller based on null-space theory is proposed to transport a cable-suspended payload with two rotorcraft UAVs considering collision avoidance, wind perturbations, and properly distribution of the load weight. An accurate 6-DoF nonlinear dynamic model of a helicopter and models for flexible cables and payload are included to test the proposal in a realistic scenario. System stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov theory and several simulation results show the good performance of the approach...
June 1, 2018: ISA Transactions
N Jane Harms, Thomas S Jung, Maria Hallock, Katherina Egli
Decreased access to potent narcotics for wildlife applications has stimulated the need to explore alternative drug combinations for ungulate immobilizations. A combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) has been used for some ungulate species, but information on its use in bison ( Bison bison) is limited. We conducted field trials using BAM, in conjunction with atipamezole and naltrexone as antagonists, for reversible field immobilization of bison during ground- and helicopter-based operations...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ciaran S Hill, Aaron L McLean, Mark H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of death and a major cause of morbidity in children and young adults worldwide. Despite this, our understanding of epidemiological factors relating to this type of injury is incomplete. The objective of this study was to explore a variety of factors relating to these injuries including mechanism, timing of emergency response, prehospital management, radiological diagnosis, neurosurgical care, and final outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of all pediatric traumas attending a single large, densely populated urban area within a 2-year period was undertaken, and all cases with significant pediatric traumatic brain injury, as defined by a computed tomography scan showing an intracranial injury, were included for further analysis...
June 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Aytekin Ünlü, Soner Yılmaz, Özlem Yalçın, Metin Uyanık, Patrizio Petrone, Rıza Aytaç Çetinkaya, İbrahim Eker, Murat Urkan, Taner Özgürtaş, İsmail Yaşar Avcı, Nazif Zeybek
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of injury related pre-hospital mortality. We investigated worst case scenarios and possible requirements of Turkish Military. As we plan to use blood resources during casualty transport, the impact of transport related mechanical stress on PRBC (packed red blood cell) were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The in vitro experiment was performed in the environmental test laboratories of ASELSAN®. Operational vibrations of potential casualty transport mediums such as Sikorsky Helicopters, Kirpi® Armoured Vehicle and NATO vibration standardsoftware MIL-STD-810G were recorded...
May 28, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Susanne J Spano, Arla G Hile, Ratnali Jain, Philip R Stalcup
INTRODUCTION: The baseline characteristics and medical morbidity of hikers on the 354 km (220 mi) John Muir Trail (JMT) have not been previously reported. METHODS: Using online and on-site recruitment, hikers completing the JMT in 2014 were directed to an online 83-question survey. Pearson correlations, regression models, and descriptive statistics were applied to data, reported as mean±SD (range). Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents, 57% were men aged 43±14 (13-76) y; they hiked 15...
June 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jo Røislien, Pieter L van den Berg, Thomas Lindner, Erik Zakariassen, Oddvar Uleberg, Karen Aardal, J Theresia van Essen
BACKGROUND: Helicopter emergency medical services are important in many health care systems. Norway has a nationwide physician manned air ambulance service servicing a country with large geographical variations in population density and incident frequencies. The aim of the study was to compare optimal air ambulance base locations using both population and incident data. METHODS: We used municipality population and incident data for Norway from 2015. The 428 municipalities had a median (5-95 percentile) of 4675 (940-36,264) inhabitants and 10 (2-38) incidents...
May 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Clay M Elswick, Deidre Wyrick, Lori A Gurien, Malik Rettiganti, Marie Gowen, Ambre' Pownall, Diaa Bahgat, R Todd Maxson, Eylem Öcal, Gregory W Albert
INTRODUCTION: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have provided benefit for severely injured patients. However, HEMS are likely overused for the transportation of both adult and pediatric trauma patients. In this study, we aim to evaluate the degree of overuse of helicopter as a mode of transport for head-injured children. In addition, we propose criteria that can be used to determine if a particular patient is suitable for air versus ground transport. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients who were transported to our facility for head injuries...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Roxana-Elena Avrămescu, Mihaela Violeta Ghica, Cristina Dinu-Pîrvu, Răzvan Prisada, Lăcrămioara Popa
Since ancient times humans observed animal and plants features and tried to adapt them according to their own needs. Biomimetics represents the foundation of many inventions from various fields: From transportation devices (helicopter, airplane, submarine) and flying techniques, to sports' wear industry (swimming suits, scuba diving gear, Velcro closure system), bullet proof vests made from Kevlar etc. It is true that nature provides numerous noteworthy models (shark skin, spider web, lotus leaves), referring both to the plant and animal kingdom...
May 22, 2018: Materials
Heath G Jones, Nathaniel T Greene, Michael R Chen, Cierrah M Azcona, Brandon J Archer, Efrem R Reeves
BACKGROUND: During ground operations, rotary-wing aircraft engines and subsystems produce noise hazards that place airfield personnel at risk for hearing damage. The noise exposure levels outside the aircraft during various operating conditions, and the distances from aircraft at which they drop to safe levels, are not readily available. The current study measured noise levels at various positions around the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter for three operating conditions typically used when the aircraft is on the ground...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Fethi Bouak, Oshin Vartanian, Kevin Hofer, Bob Cheung
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute mild hypoxic hypoxia (HH) and physical activity on physiological measures, signs and symptoms, mood, fatigue, cognition, and performance on a simulated flight task were investigated between 8000 (8K; 2438 m) and 14,000 ft (14K; 4267 m). METHOD: In a hypobaric chamber, 16 military helicopter pilots were randomly exposed to 4 altitudes and 3 physical exertion levels. After each exercise period, participants identified targets on a designated flight path on a desktop simulator and completed a cognitive test battery...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Heather E Wright Beatty, Andrew J Law, J Russell Thomas, Viresh Wickramasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Rotary wing pilot neck strain is increasing in prevalence due to the combined effects of head supported mass (e.g., Night Vision Goggles, head mounted displays) and whole-body vibration. This study examined the physiological responses of pilots during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) representative of the National Research Council's Bell 412 helicopter in forward flight. WBV levels were measured and evaluated using the ISO-2631-1-1997 WBV standards. METHODS: Twelve pilots (aged 20-59 yr, 7 of the 12 with 20+ years flight experience) underwent six 15-min vibration trials on a human rated shaker platform...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Terry W McMahon, David G Newman
INTRODUCTION: Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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