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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755579/exploring-ptsd-in-emergency-operators-of-a-major-university-hospital-in-italy-a-preliminary-report-on-the-role-of-gender-age-and-education
#1
Claudia Carmassi, Camilla Gesi, Martina Corsi, Ivan M Cremone, Carlo A Bertelloni, Enrico Massimetti, Maria Cristina Olivieri, Ciro Conversano, Massimo Santini, Liliana Dell'Osso
Background: Emergency services personnel face frequent exposure to potentially traumatic events, with the potential for chronic symptomatic distress. The DSM-5 recently recognized a particular risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among first responders (criterion A4) but data are still scarce on prevalence rates and correlates. Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the possible role of age, gender, and education training in a sample of emergency personnel diagnosed with DSM-5 PTSD...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729440/can-threat-detection-be-enhanced-using-processing-strategies-by-police-trainees-and-officers
#2
Alexandre Williot, Isabelle Blanchette
The ability to detect threatening stimuli is an important skill for police officers. No research has yet examined whether implementing different information processing strategies can improve threat detection in police officers and police trainees. The first aim of our study was to compare the effect of strategies accentuating the processing of the emotional or the semantic dimension of stimuli on attention towards threatening and neutral information. The second aim was to consider the impact of PTSD symptoms on threat detection, as a function of processing strategies, in police officers and trainees...
May 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728331/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-assisted-psychotherapy-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-military-veterans-firefighters-and-police-officers-a-randomised-double-blind-dose-response-phase-2-clinical-trial
#3
Michael C Mithoefer, Ann T Mithoefer, Allison A Feduccia, Lisa Jerome, Mark Wagner, Joy Wymer, Julie Holland, Scott Hamilton, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Amy Emerson, Rick Doblin
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in military personnel and first responders, many of whom do not respond to currently available treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treating chronic PTSD in this population. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 trial at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in the USA. We included service personnel who were 18 years or older, with chronic PTSD duration of 6 months or more, and who had a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-IV) total score of 50 or greater...
April 30, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727073/efficacy-safety-and-durability-of-repeated-ketamine-infusions-for-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-treatment-resistant-depression
#4
C Sophia Albott, Kelvin O Lim, Miriam K Forbes, Christopher Erbes, Susanna J Tye, John G Grabowski, Paul Thuras, Tegan M Batres-Y-Carr, Joseph Wels, Paulo R Shiroma
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the efficacy, safety, and durability of repeated ketamine infusions for the treatment of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in a sample of veterans. METHODS: Individuals with comorbid DSM-5-defined PTSD and DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder (N = 15) received 6 intravenous ketamine infusions (0.5 mg/kg) on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule over a 12-day period from May 2015 to June 2016...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651735/coroners-and-ptsd-treatment-implications
#5
REVIEW
Raymond B Flannery, Thomas Greenhalgh
Experimental studies have documented the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders. These studies have routinely included police, firefighters, and paramedics. However, there is another group of first responders that are at risk for PTSD but that has received less research attention. This group is comprised of coroners. This paper reviewed the published data concerning coroners and PTSD and outlined various treatments for addressing coronial PTSD. The findings, the differing treatments, and a detailed methodological inquiry are presented...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574927/parental-posttraumatic-stress-and-child-behavioral-problems-in-world-trade-center-responders
#6
Mai Uchida, Huifen Feng, Adriana Feder, Natalie Mota, Clyde B Schechter, Hilary D Woodworth, Caroline G Kelberman, Michael Crane, Philip Landrigan, Jacqueline Moline, Iris Udasin, Denise Harrison, Benjamin J Luft, Craig Katz, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: We investigated trans-generational associations between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders and behavioral problems in their children. METHODS: Participants were WTC responders-8034 police and 8352 non-traditional (eg, construction workers)-with one or more children at the time of their first visit to the World Trade Center Health Program (WTC-HP). Self-report questionnaires were administered approximately 4 years after the 9/11 WTC attack...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371881/improving-the-capacity-of-community-based-workers-in-australia-to-provide-initial-assistance-to-iraqi-refugees-with-mental-health-problems-an-uncontrolled-evaluation-of-a-mental-health-literacy-course
#7
Maria Gabriela Uribe Guajardo, Shameran Slewa-Younan, Betty Ann Kitchener, Haider Mannan, Yaser Mohammad, Anthony Francis Jorm
Background: Australia is a multicultural nation with a humanitarian program that welcomes a large number of Iraqi refugees. Despite the high prevalence of trauma related disorders, professional help-seeking in this group is very low. This study sought to evaluate a face-to-face mental health literacy (MHL) Course that teaches community-based workers how to provide initial help to Iraqi refugees with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related problems. Methods: An uncontrolled pre, post and follow-up design was used to measure improvement in MHL in community-based workers assisting Iraqi refugees...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098105/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-suicide-obsessions-in-a-first-responder-without-previous-diagnosis-of-ocd-or-history-of-suicide-attempts
#8
Vivekananda Rachamallu, Michael M Song, Haiying Liu, Charles L Giles, Terry McMahon
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a distressing and often debilitating disorder characterized by obsessions, compulsions, or both that are time-consuming and cause impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. There are many published studies reporting higher risk of suicidality in OCD patients, as well as studies describing increased risk of suicidality in OCD patients with other comorbid psychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075426/trauma-and-ptsd-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#9
Ronald C Kessler, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J Bromet, Graça Cardoso, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Rumyana V Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yueqin Huang, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate M Scott, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Karestan C Koenen
Background : Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective : To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method : WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988816/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-post-disaster-distress-in-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-after-chilean-earthquake-and-tsunami
#10
Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi, Felipe Cornejo, Andrés Fresno, Carolina Rojas, Camila Serrano
OBJECTIVE: This is the first time that the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-disaster stress (CBT-PD) in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been tested outside the United States of America. DESIGN: Quasi-experiment with three groups. In the quasi-control group, complete CBT-PD was applied even though its members did not have PTSD; in quasi-experimental conditions, participants received complete treatment because they had this diagnosis; and in the third group, participants with PTSD received an abbreviated treatment (double sessions) due to organisational requirements...
October 5, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981313/work-related-trauma-alienation-and-posttraumatic-and-depressive-symptoms-in-medical-examiner-employees
#11
Elizabeth Brondolo, Pegah Eftekharzadeh, Christine Clifton, Joseph E Schwartz, Douglas Delahanty
OBJECTIVE: First-responder employees, including firefighters, police, and medical examiners, are at risk for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of exposure to workplace trauma. However, pathways linking workplace trauma exposure to mental health symptoms are not well understood. In the context of social-cognitive models of depression/PTSD, we examined the role of negative cognitions as mediators of the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of workplace trauma exposure to symptoms of depression/PTSD in medical examiner (ME) employees...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957577/war-and-well-being-the-association-between-forgiveness-social-support-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-well-being-during-and-after-war
#12
Michael Weinberg, Hila Harel, Michal Shamani, Keren Or-Chen, Pnina Ron, Sharon Gil
Exposure to war can lead to numerous traumatic experiences affecting the daily lives and personal well-being of the civilian population. However, no research to date has examined the associations between postwar well-being and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, tendency to forgive, and social support during and following war. Authors examined a sample of 160 Israeli civilians who were exposed to rocket and missile fire during the 2014 Gaza War. Time 1 (Tl) started approximately one week after the beginning of the war and ended four weeks later following the first 72-hour ceasefire declaration by the United Nations...
October 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900387/social-isolation-in-early-versus-late-adolescent-mice-is-associated-with-persistent-behavioral-deficits-that-can-be-improved-by-neurosteroid-based-treatment
#13
Andrea Locci, Philippe Geoffroy, Michel Miesch, Ayikoe-Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Graziano Pinna
Early trauma and stress exposure during a critical period of life may increase the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. The first-choice treatment for MDD and PTSD are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Unfortunately, half of MDD and PTSD patients show resistance to the therapeutic effects of these drugs and more efficient treatments are essential. Both MDD and PTSD patients present reduced levels of allopregnanolone (Allo), a potent endogenous positive allosteric modulator of GABA action at GABAA receptors which are normalized by SSRIs in treatment responders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743198/do-acute-benefits-of-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-endure
#14
John C Markowitz, Tse-Hwei Choo, Yuval Neria
OBJECTIVE: The Psychotherapies for Chronic PTSD randomised trial found that three 14-week psychotherapies acutely benefitted patients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research has reported sustained follow-up benefits for prolonged exposure (PE) and relaxation therapy (RT), but few comparable data exist for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). We describe 3-month follow-up for acute responders to all 3 treatments. METHOD: Acute responders, defined a priori as ≥30% improved from baseline, were reevaluated after 3-month no-treatment follow-up by independent evaluators using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667201/study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-cognitive-processing-therapy-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-among-japanese-patients-the-safety-power-intimacy-esteem-trust-spinet-study
#15
Masaya Ito, Masaru Horikoshi, Patricia A Resick, Akiko Katayanagi, Mitsuhiro Miyamae, Yuriko Takagishi, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Ayako Kanie, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Toshiaki A Furukawa
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is widely regarded as a safe and effective first-line treatment for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, no comparative studies have been conducted to examine the treatment outcomes in an Asian population. The aim of the present trial is to investigate the efficacy of CPT (individual format) as a treatment for PTSD in a population of Japanese patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A 16-week, single-centre, assessor-masked, randomised, parallel-group superiority trial has been designed to compare the efficacy of CPT in conjunction with treatment as usual (mostly pharmacotherapy and clinical monitoring) versus treatment as usual alone...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611606/long-term-sertraline-intake-reverses-the-behavioral-changes-induced-by-prenatal-stress-in-rats-in-a-sex-dependent-way
#16
Inês Pereira-Figueiredo, Orlando Castellano, Adelaida S Riolobos, Graça Ferreira-Dias, Dolores E López, Consuelo Sancho
Early life stress is a major factor underlying the vulnerability to respond to stressful events later in life. The present study attempted to evaluate the role of prenatal stress affecting the development of stress-related disorders and their reversion by postnatal exposure to Sertraline (SERT), a front-line medication for medication for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. To achieve this, adult male and female prenatally stressed (PS) or unstressed (Controls) offspring rats, following oral chronic treatment with SERT (5 mg/kg/day; from 1 month to 4 months old), or not, were studied prior to and after a traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445653/describing-the-mental-health-profile-of-first-responders-a-systematic-review-formula-see-text
#17
Sara Jones
BACKGROUND: First responders (FRs) are responsible for providing multiple services during various critical events. Considering the frequency, nature, and intensity of duty-related traumatic exposures, the cumulative impact on FRs' mental health is of paramount importance. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe how duty-related trauma exposure can affect the comprehensive mental health profile of FRs, including firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and paramedics...
May 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374650/changes-in-the-trauma-narratives-of-youth-receiving-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-relation-to-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#18
Marie Knutsen, Tine K Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To understand the meaning of trauma narration, we examined changes in the trauma narratives of youth receiving trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and explored the relationship between changes in narratives and in posttraumatic stress. METHOD: The sample consisted of 12 non-responders and 12 maximum-responders to treatment (M = 14.3, SD = 2.35, range = 10-17; 75% girls). The youth were assessed with the Clinical-Administered PTSD-Scale for Children and Adolescents both pre- and post-treatment...
April 4, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365535/a-systematic-review-of-the-usefulness-of-pre-employment-and-pre-duty-screening-in-predicting-mental-health-outcomes-amongst-emergency-workers
#19
REVIEW
Ruth E Marshall, Josie S Milligan-Saville, Philip B Mitchell, Richard A Bryant, Samuel B Harvey
Despite a lack of proven efficacy, pre-employment or pre-duty screening, which alleges to test for vulnerability to PTSD and other mental health disorders, remains common amongst emergency services. This systematic review aimed to determine the usefulness of different factors in predicting mental disorder amongst emergency workers and to inform practice regarding screening procedures. Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE to identify cohort studies linking pre-employment or pre-duty measures in first responders with later mental health outcomes...
July 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349778/neuropsychological-measurement-of-inhibitory-control-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-exploratory-antisaccade-paradigm
#20
Matthew Reinhard, Nathaniel Allen, Ling M Wong, Barbara L Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to uncover inhibitory control dynamics and assess antisaccade eye-tracking tasks for relevance in a veteran posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) population. METHOD: Participants were 36 veterans enrolled at the Washington DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The groups (PTSD diagnosed vs. controls) did not vary between age and sex. Participants completed a testing battery of clinical neuropsychological measures and two different eye-tracking conditions, one that utilized face stimuli and one with standard shape stimuli, which test pro- (PS) and antisaccade (AS) eye movements...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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