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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161583/cumulative-exposure-to-work-related-traumatic-events-and-current-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-new-york-city-s-first-responders
#1
Lupo Geronazzo-Alman, Ruth Eisenberg, Sa Shen, Cristiane S Duarte, George J Musa, Judith Wicks, Bin Fan, Thao Doan, Guia Guffanti, Michaeline Bresnahan, Christina W Hoven
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events (CE) is a foreseeable risk for psychiatric disorders in first responders (FRs). Our objective was to examine the impact of work-related CE that could serve as predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in FRs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional examination of previous CE and past-month PTSD outcomes and depression in 209 FRs. METHODS: Logistic (probable PTSD; probable depression) and Poisson regressions (PTSD score) of the outcomes on work-related CE indexes, adjusting for demographic variables...
April 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055082/association-of-dsm-iv-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-with-traumatic-experience-type-and-history-in-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#2
Howard Liu, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Josep Maria Haro, Hristo Hinkov, Norito Kawakami, Karestan C Koenen, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate M Scott, Victoria Shahly, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Oye Gureje, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
Importance: Previous research has documented significant variation in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) depending on the type of traumatic experience (TE) and history of TE exposure, but the relatively small sample sizes in these studies resulted in a number of unresolved basic questions. Objective: To examine disaggregated associations of type of TE history with PTSD in a large cross-national community epidemiologic data set. Design, Setting, and Participants: The World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys assessed 29 TE types (lifetime exposure, age at first exposure) with DSM-IV PTSD that was associated with 1 randomly selected TE exposure (the random TE) for each respondent...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960095/low-pre-treatment-end-tidal-co2-predicts-dropout-from-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-related-disorders
#3
David F Tolin, Amber L Billingsley, Lauren S Hallion, Gretchen J Diefenbach
Recent clinical trial research suggests that baseline low end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2, the biological marker of hyperventilation) may predict poorer response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders. The present study examined the predictive value of baseline ETCO2 among patients treated for such disorders in a naturalistic clinical setting. Sixty-nine adults with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-5 anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder completed a 4-min assessment of resting ETCO2, and respiration rate (the first minute was analyzed)...
March 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956724/natural-disasters-planning-for-psychological-first-aid
#4
Stephanie T Wynn
Natural disasters leave survivors suffering physically, psychologically, and spiritually. An EF4 tornado on April 27, 2011, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, known as April's Fury, raised the question of how mental health practitioners (MHPs) might respond to address psychological needs, rather than being exclusively assigned to offer physical support immediately following a disaster. This article proposes planning ahead for MHPs to provide psychological first aid (PFA) in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophe. Combating psychological issues early will hopefully help reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in survivors...
January 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923359/dosage-effectiveness-and-safety-of-sertraline-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-japanese-clinical-setting-a-retrospective-study
#5
Toshiko Kamo, Masaharu Maeda, Misari Oe, Hiroshi Kato, Jun Shigemura, Kazuhiko Kuribayashi, Yuko Hoshino
BACKGROUND: Many of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment guidelines recognize the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line pharmacological treatment. In Japan, there were no published studies investigating the effectiveness and safety of sertraline for PTSD in a clinical setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical chart review of the dosage, effectiveness, and safety of sertraline for the PTSD treatment in Japan. Data were collected from medical charts of patients of PTSD, caused by various types of trauma, who were treated with sertraline between July 2006 and October 2012 during their regular clinical practice...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870416/sex-specific-mechanisms-for-responding-to-stress
#6
REVIEW
Debra A Bangasser, Brittany Wicks
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794690/neural-substrates-of-overgeneralized-conditioned-fear-in-ptsd
#7
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Philip C Burton, Shai M Chazin, Adrienne B Manbeck, Tori Espensen-Sturges, Samuel E Cooper, Scott R Sponheim, Shmuel Lissek
OBJECTIVE: Heightened generalization of fear from an aversively reinforced conditioned stimulus (CS+, a conditioned danger cue) to resembling stimuli is widely accepted as a pathogenic marker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, a distress response to benign stimuli that "resemble" aspects of the trauma is a central feature of the disorder. To date, the link between overgeneralization of conditioned fear and PTSD derives largely from clinical observations, with limited empirical work on the subject...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738377/an-open-label-pilot-study-of-adjunctive-asenapine-for-the-treatment-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Patricia Pilkinton, Carlos Berry, Seth Norrholm, Al Bartolucci, Badari Birur, Lori L Davis
OBJECTIVE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remain the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, adjunctive atypical antipsychotics are often used to target residual or refractory symptoms. Asenapine is a novel atypical antipsychotic that possesses a high serotonin (5-HT2A) to dopamine (D2) affinity ratio and alpha-adrenergic antagonism, which may be advantageous in treating PTSD. This pilot study aimed to identify the therapeutic potential of asenapine as an adjunctive treatment for PTSD...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733167/mental-health-among-clients-of-the-sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre-msic
#9
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673351/the-role-of-clinical-experience-diagnosis-and-theoretical-orientation-in-the-treatment-of-posttraumatic-and-dissociative-disorders-a-vignette-and-survey-investigation
#10
Martin J Dorahy, Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Christa Krüger, Bethany L Brand, Vedat Şar, Jan Ewing, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Pam Stavropoulos, Warwick Middleton
Controversy exists regarding the merits of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus a phased approach when prominent dissociative symptoms are present. The first aim of this study was to examine the degree to which diagnosing dissociation in two traumatized patients' vignettes influenced clinicians' preference for phase-oriented treatment and whether clinicians' treatment experience contributed to their treatment preference. The second aim was to assess the extent to which participants had observed traumatized patients worsen when treated with exposure therapy or phase-oriented therapy and whether the theoretical orientation and treatment experience of the clinician were related to the observed deterioration...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623049/latent-typologies-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-world-trade-center-responders
#11
Sarah R Horn, Robert H Pietrzak, Clyde Schechter, Evelyn J Bromet, Craig L Katz, Dori B Reissman, Roman Kotov, Michael Crane, Denise J Harrison, Robin Herbert, Benjamin J Luft, Jacqueline M Moline, Jeanne M Stellman, Iris G Udasin, Philip J Landrigan, Michael J Zvolensky, Steven M Southwick, Adriana Feder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating and often chronic psychiatric disorder. Following the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, thousands of individuals were involved in rescue, recovery and clean-up efforts. While a growing body of literature has documented the prevalence and correlates of PTSD in WTC responders, no study has evaluated predominant typologies of PTSD in this population. Participants were 4352 WTC responders with probable WTC-related DSM-IV PTSD. Latent class analyses were conducted to identify predominant typologies of PTSD symptoms and associated correlates...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612367/toward-preventing-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-development-and-testing-of-a-pilot-predeployment-stress-inoculation-training-program
#12
Laurel Hourani, Stephen Tueller, Paul Kizakevich, Gregory Lewis, Laura Strange, Belinda Weimer, Stephanie Bryant, Ellen Bishop, Robert Hubal, James Spira
The objective of this pilot study was to design, develop, and evaluate a predeployment stress inoculation training (PRESIT) preventive intervention to enable deploying personnel to cope better with combat-related stressors and mitigate the negative effects of trauma exposure. The PRESIT program consisted of three predeployment training modules: (1) educational materials on combat and operational stress control, (2) coping skills training involving focused and relaxation breathing exercises with biofeedback, and (3) exposure to a video multimedia stressor environment to practice knowledge and skills learned in the first two modules...
September 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441417/veterans-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-ptsd-on-their-parenting-and-children
#13
Michelle D Sherman, Jenna L Gress Smith, Kristy Straits-Troster, Jessica L Larsen, Abigail Gewirtz
Although considerable research has examined the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on couples and partners, relatively little is known about how it can affect parenting, children, and the parent-child relationship. Although adverse effects of parental PTSD on child functioning have been documented, the processes by which these outcomes occur are unknown. Further, parents' perspectives of how their PTSD affects parenting and children have yet to be studied. This 3-site, mixed methods exploratory study included 19 veteran parents who had a diagnosis of PTSD...
July 21, 2016: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429749/chronic-occupational-exposures-can-influence-the-rate-of-ptsd-and-depressive-disorders-in-first-responders-and-military-personnel
#14
Anthony Walker, Andrew McKune, Sally Ferguson, David B Pyne, Ben Rattray
BACKGROUND: First responders and military personnel experience rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) far in excess of the general population. Although exposure to acute traumatic events plays a role in the genesis of these disorders, in this review, we present an argument that the occupational and environmental conditions where these workers operate are also likely contributors. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: First responders and military personnel face occupational exposures that have been associated with altered immune and inflammatory activity...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343386/prediction-of-individual-differences-in-fear-response-by-novelty-seeking-and-disruption-of-contextual-fear-memory-reconsolidation-by-ketamine
#15
Florian Duclot, Iara Perez-Taboada, Katherine N Wright, Mohamed Kabbaj
Only a portion of the population exposed to trauma will develop persistent emotional alterations characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which illustrates the necessity for identifying vulnerability factors and novel pharmacotherapeutic alternatives. Interestingly, clinical evidence suggests that novelty seeking is a good predictor for vulnerability to the development of excessive and persistent fear. Here, we first tested this hypothesis by analyzing contextual and cued fear responses of rats selected for their high (high responders, HR) or low (low responders, LR) exploration of a novel environment, indicator of novelty seeking...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155244/roles-of-inter-individual-differences-and-intra-individual-acute-elevations-in-early-smoking-lapse-in-people-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Eric A Dedert, Terrell A Hicks, Paul A Dennis, Patrick S Calhoun, Jean C Beckham
Existing models of the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and smoking have almost exclusively examined mean symptom levels, rather than the acute elevations that might trigger smoking lapse immediately or increase risk of a smoking lapse in the next few hours. We examined ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of PTSD symptom clusters and smoking in the first week of a quit attempt in 52 people with PTSD. In multilevel models including PTSD symptom means, acute elevations, and lagged acute elevations together as simultaneous predictors of odds of smoking in the same models, pre-quit smoking occasions were significantly related to acute elevations in symptoms, including PTSD totals (OR=1...
September 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139234/fear-conditioning-in-mouse-lines-genetically-selected-for-binge-like-ethanol-drinking
#17
John C Crabbe, Jason P Schlumbohm, Wyatt Hack, Amanda M Barkley-Levenson, Pamela Metten, K Matthew Lattal
The comorbidity of substance- and alcohol-use disorders (AUD) with other psychiatric conditions, especially those related to stress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is well-established. Binge-like intoxication is thought to be a crucial stage in the development of the chronic relapsing nature of the addictions, and self-medication through binge-like drinking is commonly seen in PTSD patients. We have selectively bred two separate High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1 and HDID-2) mouse lines to reach high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after a 4-h period of access to 20% ethanol starting shortly after the onset of circadian dark...
May 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106853/the-epidemiology-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-united-states-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii
#18
Risë B Goldstein, Sharon M Smith, S Patricia Chou, Tulshi D Saha, Jeesun Jung, Haitao Zhang, Roger P Pickering, W June Ruan, Boji Huang, Bridget F Grant
OBJECTIVES: To present current, nationally representative US findings on the past-year and lifetime prevalences, sociodemographic correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, associated disability, and treatment of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Face-to-face interviews with 36,309 adults in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. PTSD, alcohol and drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5...
August 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065068/treatment-decision-making-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-impact-of-patient-and-therapist-characteristics
#19
Natalie E Hundt, Juliette M Harik, Terri L Barrera, Jeffrey A Cully, Melinda A Stanley
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess how patient and provider factors influence the use of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This study used a 2 × 2 survey design to assess providers' willingness to select EBPs for patients presented in clinical case vignettes. PTSD providers (N = 185) were randomized and asked to respond to 1 of 4 case vignettes in which the patients' age and alcohol use comorbidity were manipulated...
April 11, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988628/the-bidirectional-associations-between-psychotic-experiences-and-dsm-iv-mental-disorders
#20
John J McGrath, Sukanta Saha, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Laura Andrade, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J Bromet, Mark Oakley Browne, Jose M Caldas de Almeida, Wai Tat Chiu, Koen Demyttenaere, John Fayyad, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Margreet Ten Have, Chiyi Hu, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Carmen C W Lim, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Nancy Sampson, José Posada-Villa, Kenneth S Kendler, Ronald C Kessler
OBJECTIVE: While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of psychotic experiences and mental disorders. Using data from World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, the authors assessed the bidirectional temporal associations between psychotic experiences and mental disorders. METHOD: The WMH Surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of psychotic experiences and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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