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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933039/the-contribution-of-mathematical-modeling-to-understanding-dynamic-aspects-of-rumen-metabolism
#1
André Bannink, Henk J van Lingen, Jennifer L Ellis, James France, Jan Dijkstra
All mechanistic rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interactions between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932340/is-walk-score-associated-with-hospital-admissions-from-chronic-diseases-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-high-socioeconomic-status-australian-city-state
#2
Soumya Mazumdar, Vincent Learnihan, Thomas Cochrane, Hai Phung, Bridget O'Connor, Rachel Davey
OBJECTIVES: To explore patterns of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).To ascertain the effect of the neighbourhood built environmental features and especially walkability on health outcomes, specifically for hospital admissions from NCDs. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of public hospital episode data (2007-2013). SETTING: Hospitalisations from the ACT, Australia at very small geographic areas. PARTICIPANTS: Secondary data on 75 290 unique hospital episodes representing 39 851 patients who were admitted to ACT hospitals from 2007 to 2013...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927729/offsetting-the-effects-of-medical-expenses-on-older-adults-household-food-budgets-an-analysis-of-the-standard-medical-expense-deduction
#3
Grace Bagwell Adams, Jung Sun Lee, Vibha Bhargava, David A Super
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides critical nutrition assistance to over 40 million Americans each month. Low-income older adults (60 and older) and disabled participants experience additional budgetary constraints because of high out-of-pocket medical expenses. In recent years, some states have adopted a "Standard Medical Expense Deduction" (SMED) for senior and disabled beneficiaries, making it easier to report medical expenses in the SNAP application process. We conduct a descriptive national analysis that shows increases in benefit levels and reporting of medical expenses for states that have implemented SMED...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927637/options-for-basing-dietary-reference-intakes-dris-on-chronic-disease-endpoints-report-from-a-joint-us-canadian-sponsored-working-group
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Yetley, Amanda J MacFarlane, Linda S Greene-Finestone, Cutberto Garza, Jamy D Ard, Stephanie A Atkinson, Dennis M Bier, Alicia L Carriquiry, William R Harlan, Dale Hattis, Janet C King, Daniel Krewski, Deborah L O'Connor, Ross L Prentice, Joseph V Rodricks, George A Wells
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926646/treatment-of-a-pregnant-patient-in-a-persistent-vegetative-state
#5
Matthew P Romagano, William E Scorza, Stephen E Lammers, Carole Dorr, John C Smulian
BACKGROUND: Brain injury leading to a persistent vegetative state during pregnancy involves difficult medical and ethical decisions. CASE: A 21-year-old multigravid woman entered a persistent vegetative state at 20 1/7 weeks of gestation after cardiac arrest with postanoxic brain injury from a suspected drug overdose. The clinical disciplines responsible for her case formed a collaborative care plan involving ventilator, nutrition, and medication support of the mother and regular fetal monitoring and ultrasound testing...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926559/preoperative-immunonutrition-and-elective-colorectal-resection-outcomes
#6
Lucas W Thornblade, Thomas K Varghese, Xu Shi, Eric K Johnson, Amir Bastawrous, Richard P Billingham, Richard Thirlby, Alessandro Fichera, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of arginine-enriched nutritional supplements (immunonutrition) in reducing complications after surgery. The effectiveness of preoperative immunonutrition has not been evaluated in a community setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether immunonutrition before elective colorectal surgery improves outcomes in the community at large. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study with a propensity score-matched comparative effectiveness evaluation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925598/evaluation-of-adherence-to-nutritional-intervention-through-trajectory-analysis
#7
Beatriz Sevilla-Villanueva, Karina Gibert, Miquel Sanchez-Marre, Montserrat Fito, Maria-Isabel Covas
Classical Pre-Post Intervention Studies are often analyzed using traditional statistics. Nevertheless, the nutritional interventions have small effects on the metabolism and traditional statistics are not enough to detect these subtle nutrient effects. Generally, this kind of studies assumes that the participants are adhered to the assigned dietary intervention and directly analyzes its effects over the target parameters. Thus, the evaluation of adherence is generally omitted. Although, sometimes, participants do not effectively adhere to the assigned dietary guidelines...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925144/nutrition-screening-practices-amongst-australian-residential-aged-care-facilities
#8
J Kellett, G Kyle, C Itsiopoulos, M Naunton
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Australia who use a nutrition screening tool on residents to identify those at risk of malnutrition, and to review practice following identification of residents as being at high risk of malnutrition. DESIGN: Multi-center, cross sectional observational study. SETTING: Residential Aged Care Facilities. PARTICIPANTS: The Director of Nursing at each site was contacted by telephone and asked questions relating to current nutrition screening practices at their residential aged care facility...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924588/antioxidant-micronutrients-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers
#9
Iain L C Chapple, Helen R Griffiths, Mike R Milward, Martin R Ling, Melissa M Grant
Chronic inflammatory diseases are the major causes of mortality in humans and recent research has improved our understanding of the major impact of life-style factors upon inflammatory diseases and conditions. One of the most influential of these is nutrition, which may drive both pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory cascades at molecular and cellular levels. There are a variety of model systems that may be employed to investigate the impact of micronutrients and macronutrients upon inflammatory pathways, many of which operate through oxidative stress, either at the level of controlling the redox state of the cell and downstream redox-regulated gene transcription factors, and other acting as free radical generating or scavenging agents...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922188/oral-health-status-of-children-in-los-angeles-county-and-in-the-united-states-1999-2004
#10
Bruce A Dye, Clemencia M Vargas, Cheryl D Fryar, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Robert Isman
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain and compare the oral health status and related sociodemographic risk indicators in children in Los Angeles (LA) County with children in the United States. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 were used to calculate prevalence estimates for children aged 2-13 years living in LA County and in the United States. Sociodemographic indicators were evaluated using multiple logistic regression modeling...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920072/clinic-blood-pressure-underestimates-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-an-untreated-employer-based-us-population-results-from-the-masked-hypertension-study
#11
Joseph E Schwartz, Matthew M Burg, Daichi Shimbo, Joan E Broderick, Arthur A Stone, Joji Ishikawa, Richard Sloan, Tyla Yurgel, Steven Grossman, Thomas G Pickering
BACKGROUND: Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is consistently superior to clinic blood pressure (CBP) as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk. A common perception is that ABP is usually lower than CBP. The relationship of the CBP minus ABP difference to age has not been examined in the United States. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, 888 healthy, employed, middle-aged (mean±SD age, 45±10.4 years) individuals (59% female, 7.4% black, 12% Hispanic) with screening BP <160/105 mm Hg and not taking antihypertensive medication completed 3 separate clinic BP assessments and a 24-hour ABP recording for the Masked Hypertension Study...
December 6, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919768/proximal-femoral-fractures-in-centenarians-a-retrospective-analysis-of-39-patients
#13
A Morice, N Reina, G Gracia, P Bonnevialle, J-M Laffosse, K Wytrykowski, E Cavaignac, N Bonnevialle
BACKGROUND: A corollary of the current population ageing in France is an increase in proximal femoral fractures (PFFs), particularly among centenarians. The outcomes of PFF in centenarians in France are unknown. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of centenarians with PFFs both to assess: 1) assess clinical outcomes according to geriatric and trauma scores, 2) and to determine whether routine surgery is warranted. HYPOTHESIS: Morbidity and mortality in a single-centre cohort of centenarians with surgically treated PFFs are consistent with previous reports...
December 2, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917489/nutrition-quality-of-us-school-snack-foods-a-first-look-at-2011-2014-bid-records-in-8-school-districts
#14
Y Claire Wang, Amber Hsiao, Peter Chamberlin, McKenzie Largay, Abbie Archibald, Andrew Malone, JoAnn Stevelos
BACKGROUND: As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant with the Smart Snacks standard prior to its full implementation is unknown. METHODS: We repurposed a previously untapped database, Interflex, of public bid records to examine the nutritional quality of snacks and desserts procured by school districts...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917468/dry-skin-conditions-are-related-to-the-recovery-rate-of-skin-temperature-after-cold-stress-rather-than-to-blood-flow
#15
Yasuko Yoshida-Amano, Tomoko Nomura, Yoshinori Sugiyama, Kayoko Iwata, Yuko Higaki, Masanori Tanahashi
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. METHODS: Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916891/comparison-of-site-specific-bone-mineral-densities-between-endurance-runners-and-sprinters-in-adolescent-women
#16
Aoi Ikedo, Aya Ishibashi, Saori Matsumiya, Aya Kaizaki, Kumiko Ebi, Satoshi Fujita
We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916608/functional-properties-of-hepatocytes-in-vitro-are-correlated-with-cell-polarity-maintenance
#17
Anja Zeigerer, Anne Wuttke, Giovanni Marsico, Sarah Seifert, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Marino Zerial
Exploring the cell biology of hepatocytes in vitro could be a powerful strategy to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and function of the liver in vivo. However, this approach relies on appropriate in vitro cell culture systems that can recapitulate the cell biological and metabolic features of the hepatocytes in the liver whilst being accessible to experimental manipulations. Here, we adapted protocols for high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis to compare two primary hepatocyte culture systems, monolayer and collagen sandwich, with respect to the distribution of two distinct populations of early endosomes (APPL1 and EEA1-positive), endocytic capacity, metabolic and signaling activities...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914522/the-validity-of-us-nutritional-surveillance-usda-s-loss-adjusted-food-availability-data-series-1971-2010
#18
Edward Archer, Diana M Thomas, Samantha M McDonald, Gregory Pavela, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill, Steven N Blair
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 1971-2010 United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability (LAFA) per capita caloric consumption estimates. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated for nationally representative samples of US adults, 20-74 years, using the Institute of Medicine's predictive equations with "low-active" (TEE L-ACT) and "sedentary" (TEE SED) physical activity values. TEE estimates were subtracted from LAFA estimates to create disparity values (kcal/d)...
November 2016: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913000/surgical-prehabilitation-in-patients-with-cancer-state-of-the-science-and-recommendations-for-future-research-from-a-panel-of-subject-matter-experts
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Carli, Julie K Silver, Liane S Feldman, Andrea McKee, Sean Gilman, Chelsia Gillis, Celena Scheede-Bergdahl, Ann Gamsa, Nicole Stout, Bradford Hirsch
This review by a 10-member panel of experts in surgical prehabilitation addresses processes that may improve oncologic care. Surgical prehabilitation is the process on the continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of surgical treatment. The panel focused on the current state-of-the-science and recommended future research that would help to identify the elements that enhance preoperative physical, nutritional, and psychological health in anticipation of surgery, mitigate the burden of disease, facilitate the return of patient health status to baseline values, decrease postoperative morbidity, and reduce health care costs...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912939/dietary-supplementation-is-more-prevalent-among-adults-with-arthritis-in-the-united-states-population
#20
Patrick B Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Sparse data are available to describe the prevalence of dietary supplementation among individuals with arthritis. Using a nationally representative sample, this investigation assessed the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Americans self-reporting arthritis. SETTING AND DESIGN: Data from 4606 participants of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed, including from 1170 participants self-reporting arthritis...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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