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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095908/limiting-treatment-and-shortening-of-life-data-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-germany-on-frequencies-determinants-and-patients-involvement
#1
Birte Malena Dahmen, Jochen Vollmann, Stephan Nadolny, Jan Schildmann
BACKGROUND: Limiting treatment forms part of practice in many fields of medicine. There is a scarcity of robust data from Germany. Therefore, in this paper, we report results of a survey among German physicians with a focus on frequencies, aspects of decision making and determinants of limiting treatment with expected or intended shortening of life. METHODS: Postal survey among a random sample of physicians working in the area of five German state chambers of physicians using a modified version of the questionnaire of the EURELD Consortium...
January 17, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093897/presence-of-early-stage-cancer-does-not-impair-the-early-protein-metabolic-response-to-major-surgery
#2
Mariëlle P K J Engelen, V Suzanne Klimberg, Arianna Allasia, Nicolaas Ep Deutz
BACKGROUND: Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093353/vitamin-d-metabolites-in-captivity-should-we-measure-free-or-total-25-oh-d-to-assess-vitamin-d-status
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Bikle, Roger Bouillon, Ravi Thadhani, Inez Schoenmakers
There is general consensus that serum 25(OH)D is the best biochemical marker for nutritional vitamin D status. Whether free 25(OH)D would be a better marker than total 25(OH)D is so far unclear. Free 25(OH)D can either be calculated based on the measurement of the serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), albumin, and the affinity between 25(OH)D and its binding proteins in physiological situations. Free 25(OH)D can also be measured directly by equilibrium dialysis, ultrafitration or immunoassays...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092150/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-supplements
#4
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091998/palliative-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-gallic-acid-and-lemongrass-oil-dietary-supplementation-on-growth-performance-digestibility-carcass-traits-and-antioxidant-status-of-heat-stressed-growing-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#5
Adham A Al-Sagheer, Ahmed H Daader, Hassan A Gabr, Elham A Abd El-Moniem
This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089648/diabetes-and-cardiorenal-syndrome-understanding-the-triple-threat
#6
Srikanta Banerjee, Raymond Panas
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is known to be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), a recently defined syndrome, is characterized by a primary renal failure that progressively leads to cardiac dysfunction. The effect of diabetes on cardiorenal syndrome has not been explored in a multi-ethnic population. In this retrospective secondary analysis the hypothesis was tested if diabetes modifies the effect of CVD on CKD...
January 9, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088628/methods-needed-to-measure-predictive-accuracy-a-study-of-diabetic-patients
#7
Hafiz M R Khan, Sarah Mende, Aamrin Rafiq, Kemesha Gabbidon, P Hemachandra Reddy
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it can result in several complications such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, and blindness making it a major medical and public health concern in the United States. Statistical methods are important to detect risk factors and identify the best sampling plan to determine predictive bounds for diabetic patients' data. The main objective of this paper is to identify the best fit bootstrapping sampling method and to draw the predictive bound considering diabetes patient data...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088461/changes-in-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-or-liver-failure-on-the-waitlist-for-liver-transplantation
#8
David Goldberg, Ivo C Ditah, Kia Saeian, Mona Lalehzari, Andrew Aronsohn, Emmanuel C Gorospe, Michael Charlton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concurrent to development of more effective drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), infection, there has been an increase in the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data indicate that liver transplantation prolongs survival times of patient with acute hepatitis associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We compared data on disease prevalence in the population with data from liver transplantation waitlists to evaluate changes in the burden of liver disease in the United States...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#9
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087414/consumption-of-low-calorie-sweeteners-among-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#10
Allison C Sylvetsky, Yichen Jin, Elena J Clark, Jean A Welsh, Kristina I Rother, Sameera A Talegawkar
BACKGROUND: Consumption of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) has increased markedly during the past several decades, yet the prevalence of LCS consumption in recent years is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe LCS consumption in the United States and to characterize consumption by sociodemographic subgroups, source, frequency, eating occasion, and location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2009 to 2012...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087413/nesfatin-1-modulates-murine-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-in-a-nutritional-state-dependent-manner
#11
Stephen J Kentish, Hui Li, Claudine L Frisby, Amanda J Page
Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic peptide produced within the gastrointestinal tract and has well defined central effects. We aimed to determine if nesfatin-1 can modulate gastric vagal afferent signals in the periphery and further whether this is altered in different nutritional states. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks or fasted overnight. Plasma nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2; nesfatin-1 precursor)/nesfatin-1 levels were assayed, the expression of NUCB2 in the gastric mucosa and adipose tissue was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087388/unravelling-the-role-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cancer-through-the-foxo3-foxm1-axis
#12
Paula Saavedra-García, Katie Nichols, Zimam Mahmud, Lavender Yuen-Nam Fan, Eric W-F Lam
Obesity and cachexia represent divergent states of nutritional and metabolic imbalance but both are intimately linked to cancer. There is an extensive overlap in their signalling pathways and molecular components involved such as fatty acids (FAs), which likely play a crucial role in cancer. Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are responsible of a wide range of transcriptional programmes during normal development, and the FOXO3-FOXM1 axis is associated with cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. Free fatty acids (FFAs), FA synthesis and β-oxidation are associated with cancer development and progression...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086921/a-randomized-controlled-trial-focusing-on-socio-economic-status-for-promoting-vegetable-intake-among-adults-using-a-web-based-nutrition-intervention-programme-study-protocol
#13
Saki Nakamura, Takayo Inayama, Takashi Arao
BACKGROUND: Web-based nutritional education programmes appear to be comparable to those delivered face-to-face. However, no existing web-based nutrition education or similar programme has yet been evaluated with consideration of socio-economic status. The objective of a nutritional education programme of promoting vegetable intake designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the results of intervention and to determine how socio-economic status influences the programme effects...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081054/quickstats-prevalence-of-untreated-dental-caries-%C3%A2-in-permanent-teeth-among-children-and-adolescents-aged-6-19-years-by-age-group-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-united-states-2011-2014
#14
(no author information available yet)
During 2011-2014, 13.3% of children and adolescents aged 6-19 years had untreated dental caries in their permanent teeth. The percentage of children and adolescents with untreated dental caries increased with age: 6.1% among those aged 6-11 years, 14.5% among those aged 12-15 years, and 22.6% among those aged 16-19 years.
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080904/photoreceptor-degeneration-in-a-mountain-lion-cub-puma-concolor
#15
Andrew R DiSalvo, Christopher M Reilly, K Tomo Wiggans, Leslie W Woods, Ray F Wack, Deana L Clifford
An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080899/health-and-nutritional-assessment-of-free-ranging-eastern-indigo-snakes-drymarchon-couperi-in-georgia-united-states
#16
S Emmanuelle Knafo, Terry M Norton, Mark Mitchell, Dirk J Stevenson, Natalie Hyslop, Robert Poppenga, Marcie Oliva, Tai Chen, Carolyn Cray, Samantha E J Gibbs, Lance Durden, Nancy Stedman, Stephen Divers, Ellen Dierenfeld
Clinical pathology and nutritional parameters are useful in evaluating and monitoring threatened and endangered wildlife populations, but reference ranges for most snake species are lacking. From 2001 to 2005, health assessments were performed on 58 eastern indigo snakes (EIS) (Drymarchon couperi) captured in the wild in southeastern Georgia, United States. Health and nutritional assessments performed included hematology, serum biochemistry, fat-soluble vitamins, heavy metals, pesticide contaminants, parasitology, and surveys of other pathogens...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079710/electronic-health-record-data-versus-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-a-comparison-of-overweight-and-obesity-rates
#17
Luke M Funk, Ying Shan, Corrine I Voils, John Kloke, Lawrence P Hanrahan
BACKGROUND: Estimating population-level obesity rates is important for informing policy and targeting treatment. The current gold standard for obesity measurement in the United States-the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-samples <0.1% of the population and does not target state-level or health system-level measurement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using body mass index (BMI) data from the electronic health record (EHR) to assess rates of overweight and obesity and compare these rates to national NHANES estimates...
January 10, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#18
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077151/multi-strategic-intervention-to-enhance-implementation-of-healthy-canteen-policy-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Luke Wolfenden, Nicole Nathan, Lisa M Janssen, John Wiggers, Kathryn Reilly, Tessa Delaney, Christopher M Williams, Colin Bell, Rebecca Wyse, Rachel Sutherland, Libby Campbell, Christophe Lecathelinais, Chris Oldmeadow, Megan Freund, Sze Lin Yoong
BACKGROUND: Internationally, governments have implemented school-based nutrition policies to restrict the availability of unhealthy foods from sale. The aim of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy. The impact of the intervention on the energy, total fat, and sodium of children's canteen purchases and on schools' canteen revenue was also assessed. METHODS: Australian primary schools with a canteen were randomised to receive a 12-14-month, multi-strategic intervention or to a no intervention control group...
January 11, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076923/how-schools-can-promote-healthy-development-for-newly-arrived-immigrant-and-refugee-adolescents-research-priorities
#20
Clea A McNeely, Lyn Morland, S Benjamin Doty, Laurie L Meschke, Summer Awad, Altaf Husain, Ayat Nashwan
BACKGROUND: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. METHODS: The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative...
February 2017: Journal of School Health
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