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Hidden curriculum

Alan Whaley, William E Gillis
BACKGROUND: Hospitals throughout the United States establish leadership and management programs for their middle managers. Despite their pervasiveness and an increased emphasis on physician leadership, there is limited research regarding the development programs designed for clinical and nonclinical health care middle managers. PURPOSE: Using two theoretical lenses, signaling and institutional theory, this exploratory study investigates mid-sized hospital development programs from the perspective of top management team (TMT) members...
October 14, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Megan Delisle, Ruby Grymonpre, Rebecca Whitley, Debrah Wirtzfeld
Clinical errors due to human mistakes are estimated to result in 400,000 preventable deaths per year. Strategies to improve patient safety often rely on healthcare workers' ability to speak up with concerns. This becomes difficult during critical decision-making as a result of conflicting opinions and power differentials, themes underrepresented in many interprofessional initiatives. These elements are prominent in our interprofessional initiative, namely Crucial Conversations. We sought to evaluate this initiative as an interprofessional learning (IPL) opportunity for pre-licensure senior healthcare students, as a way to foster interprofessional collaboration, and as a method of empowering students to vocalise their concerns...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Kirsten Meisinger, Diana Wohler
Effective implementation of robust team-based care in the United States requires significant training for all team members. This education is integral to creating a culture of collaboration and respect among interprofessional members of the health care team. The lack of interprofessional clinical educational experiences contributes to a "hidden curriculum" that reinforces the problematic view that medicine is at the top of a hierarchy among health professions. However, learners themselves have started resisting this view by integrating cross-disciplinary team-based training into their own education...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Christopher Chung, Hubert Maisonneuve, Eva Pfarrwaller, Marie-Claude Audétat, Alain Birchmeier, Lilli Herzig, Thomas Bischoff, Johanna Sommer, Dagmar M Haller
BACKGROUND: Switzerland is facing an impending primary care workforce crisis since almost half of all primary care physicians are expected to retire in the next decade. Only a minority of medical students choose a primary care specialty, further deepening the workforce shortage. It is therefore essential to identify ways to promote the choice of a primary care career. The aim of the present study was to explore students' views about the undergraduate primary care teaching curriculum and different teaching formats, and to evaluate the possible impact of these views on students' perceptions of primary care...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Rajiv Mahajan, Blessed Winston Aruldhas, Monika Sharma, Dinesh K Badyal, Tejinder Singh
Professionalism is the attributes, behaviors, commitments, values, and goals that characterize a profession. In medical professional, it encompasses strong societal role and involves emotional component too. On the other hand, ethics is the study of morality - careful and systematic analysis of moral decisions and behaviors and practicing those decisions. Medical ethics focuses primarily on issues arising out of the practice of medicine. It is generally believed that professionalism and ethics are caught by watching your teachers and seniors and not taught formally...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Tara L Braun, Larry H Hollier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Kyle E Karches, Daniel P Sulmasy
Medical educators and powerful physician organizations agree on the importance of professionalism for the formation of good physicians. However, the many definitions of professionalism found in the literature lack content and differ significantly, undermining attempts to describe and implement professionalism curricula. The work of the contemporary moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre on the virtues may help provide some of the content that the concept of professionalism currently lacks. MacIntyre shows the importance of the virtues, particularly justice, courage, and truthfulness, for the success of any "practice," defined as a form of cooperative human activity...
July 2016: Family Medicine
Tim J Wilkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Medical Education
Alberto Giubilini, Sharyn Milnes, Julian Savulescu
In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Kathleen MacMillan
The issues of missed or inadequately provided basic nursing care and related complications are being identified as worldwide phenomena of interest. Without being aware of it, educators and practicing nurses may be teaching nursing students that fundamental nursing care is unimportant, uncomplicated and not really nursing's responsibility. This paper explores the concept of the "hidden curriculum" in nursing education, as it relates to fundamental nursing care and calls for greater partnerships between education and service to uncover the hidden curriculum; to effectively shape it to achieve alignment between classroom and practice; and, ultimately, to improve care processes and patient outcomes through collaboration...
2016: Nursing Leadership
Judy Baird, Keyna Bracken, Lawrence E M Grierson
CONTEXT: Medical learners are vulnerable to the social power used by preceptors. Furthermore, an individual's perceived level of personal empowerment has been identified as a predictor of positive behaviour in education environments. The degree to which medical students feel empowered in their clinical environments factors largely into how vulnerable they are to having their professional values influenced negatively by structural and cultural aspects of these environments. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between clerks' perceptions of personal empowerment and the social power employed by their preceptors...
July 2016: Medical Education
Chrystal Jaye, Tony Egan, Sarah Parker
Medical training as a process of professional socialization has been well explored within the fields of medical education, medical sociology and medical anthropology. Our contribution is to outline a bio-power, more specifically an anatomo-politics, of medical education. The current research aimed to explore perspectives on what is commonly termed the 'hidden curriculum'. We conducted interviews with pre-clinical medical students, clinical teachers and medical educators within a New Zealand medical school. In this paper, we outline ways that respondents described the juxtaposition of the undeclared or hidden aspects of medical education with the formal declared curriculum...
August 2006: Anthropology & Medicine
Tiffany C Kenison, Andrea Madu, Edward Krupat, Luis Ticona, Iris M Vargas, Alexander R Green
PURPOSE: Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience lower-quality health care and are at higher risk of experiencing adverse events than fluent English speakers. Despite some formal training for health professions students on caring for patients with LEP, the hidden curriculum may have a greater influence on learning. The authors designed this study to characterize the hidden curriculum that medical and nursing students experience regarding the care of patients with LEP...
May 10, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sharon Casapulla, Randall Longenecker, Elizabeth A Beverly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical Jazz is a small-group strategy in medical education designed to develop interpersonal skills and improve doctor-patient and interprofessional relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore medical students' and faculty facilitators' perceived value of Clinical Jazz. METHODS: We conducted a modified Nominal Group Process with participating medical students (n=21), faculty facilitators (n=5), and research team members (n=3)...
May 2016: Family Medicine
Alireza Esteghamati, Hamidreza Baradaran, Alireza Monajemi, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mehrnaz Geranmayeh
INTRODUCTION: In medical education, particularly in residency courses, most of the training occurs in real clinical environments. Workplace-based learning profoundly affects students' knowledge, attitudes, and practice; therefore, it should be properly planned.  Due to the extensiveness   of the clinical   environment   and   its   importance in training residents, investigating how residents learn in these environments and detecting factors that influence effectiveness will help curriculum designers to promote residents' learning by improving their learning environment...
April 2016: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
Kelby Smith-Han, Helen Martyn, Anthony Barrett, Helen Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Experiencing the death of a patient can be one of the most challenging aspects of clinical medicine for medical students. Exploring what students' learn from this difficult experience may contribute to our understanding of how medical students become doctors, and provide insights into the role a medical school may play in this development. This research examined medical students' responses of being involved personally in the death of a patient. METHOD: Ten undergraduate medical students were followed through their three years of clinical medical education...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Subha Ramani, Karen Mann, David Taylor, Harish Thampy
This AMEE Guide provides a framework to guide medical educators engaged in the design and implementation of "Resident as Teacher" programs. The suggested approaches are based on established models of program development: the Program Logic model to guide program design, the Dundee three-circle model to inform a systematic approach to planning educational content and the Kirkpatrick pyramid, which forms the backbone of program evaluation. The Guide provides an overview of Resident as Teacher curricula, their benefits and impact, from existing literature supplemented by insights from the authors' own experiences, all of whom are engaged in teaching initiatives at their own institutions...
July 2016: Medical Teacher
Dorotea Mutabdzic, Georges Azzie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Annals of Surgery
William J Robertson
How might heteronormativity be reproduced and become internalized through biomedical practices? Based on in-depth, person-centered interviews, this paper explores the ways heteronormativity works into medical education through the hidden curriculum. As experienced by my informants, case studies often reinforce unconscious heteronormative orientations and heterosexist/homophobic stereotypes about queer patients among straight and queer medical students alike. I introduce the concept of the irrelevance narrative to make sense of how queer medical students take up a heteronormative medical gaze...
March 15, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Nancy R Angoff, Laura Duncan, Nichole Roxas, Helena Hansen
PROBLEM: Medical student mistreatment, as well as patient and staff mistreatment by all levels of medical trainees and faculty, is still prevalent in U.S. clinical training. Largely missing in interventions to reduce mistreatment is acknowledgement of the abuse of power produced by the hierarchical structure in which medicine is practiced. APPROACH: Beginning in 2001, Yale School of Medicine has held annual "Power Day" workshops for third year medical students and advanced practice nursing students, to define and analyse power dynamics within the medical hierarchy and hidden curriculum using literature, guest speakers, and small groups...
June 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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