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Inferior Olive

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903015/neurosurgical-resident-training-in-germany
#1
Martin N Stienen, Jens Gempt, Oliver P Gautschi, Andreas K Demetriades, David Netuka, Dominique E Kuhlen, Karl Schaller, Florian Ringel
Introduction Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873048/the-usefulness-of-radiological-grading-scales-to-predict-pain-intensity-functional-impairment-and-health-related-quality-of-life-after-surgery-for-lumbar-degenerative-disc-disease
#2
Oliver P Gautschi, Martin N Stienen, Holger Joswig, Nicolas R Smoll, Karl Schaller, Marco V Corniola
PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to determine the relationship of radiological grading scales of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) with postoperative pain intensity, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Response to surgical treatment at 6 weeks (W6) on the visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry-Disability (ODI) and Roland-Morris Disability Index (RMDI), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, EuroQol (EQ) 5D, and Short-Form Health-Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) was compared between patients with different Modic (MOD) and Pfirrmann (PFI) grades...
November 21, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859792/ex-vivo-liver-resection-with-replacement-of-inferior-vena-cava-without-the-use-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#3
Stipislav Jadrijević, Oliver Šuman, Daniel Martin Jakus, Pavo Kostopeč, Nataša Višković Filipčić, Karin Zibar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832380/endoscopic-approach-routes-in-the-posterior-fossa-cisterns-through-the-retrosigmoid-keyhole-craniotomy-an-anatomical-study
#4
Peter Kurucz, Gabor Baksa, Lajos Patonay, Firas Thaher, Michael Buchfelder, Oliver Ganslandt
Endoscopy in cerebellopontine angle surgery is an increasingly used technique. Despite of its advantages, the shortcomings arising from the complex anatomy of the posterior fossa are still preventing its widespread use. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this study was to define the anatomy of different endoscopic approaches through the retrosigmoid craniotomy and their limitations by surgical windows. Anatomical dissections were performed on 25 fresh human cadavers to describe the main approach-routes...
November 10, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801958/nasal-obstructive-disorders-induce-medical-treatment-failure-in-pediatric-persistent-allergic-rhinitis-the-nodpar-study
#5
Franklin S Mariño-Sánchez, Meritxell Valls-Mateus, Karen Ruiz-Echevarría, Isam Alobid, Paulina Cardenas-Escalante, Rosa Jiménez-Feijoo, Jaime Lozano-Blasco, María T Giner-Muñoz, Jesús Rodríguez-Jorge, Oliver Haag, Ana M Plaza-Martin, Joaquim Mullol
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disease among children. To characterize the disease, a modified classification of severity (m-ARIA) has recently been validated in AR children. When medical treatment fails, surgery for nasal obstructive disorders (NOD) may be a therapeutic option. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of NOD and their influence in medical treatment response among children with persistent AR (PER). METHODS: In a prospective, real-life study, 130 pediatric PER patients (13...
November 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773445/abdominal-organ-motion-during-inhalation-and-exhalation-breath-holds-pancreatic-motion-at-different-lung-volumes-compared
#6
Eelco Lens, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Daniël R Tekelenburg, Zdenko van Kesteren, Michael J Parkes, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Aart J Nederveen, Astrid van der Horst, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Contrary to what is commonly assumed, organs continue to move during breath-holding. We investigated the influence of lung volume on motion magnitude during breath-holding and changes in velocity over the duration of breath-holding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects performed 60-second inhalation breath-holds in room-air, with lung volumes of ∼100% and ∼70% of the inspiratory capacity, and exhalation breath-holds, with lung volumes of ∼30% and ∼0% of the inspiratory capacity...
November 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767209/active-integration-of-glutamatergic-input-to-the-inferior-olive-generates-bi-directional-postsynaptic-potentials
#7
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749342/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients-admitted-to-intensive-care-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-multicenter-cohort-analysis-of-in-hospital-mortality-over-15-years
#8
Andrew A Udy, Chelsey Vladic, Edward Robert Saxby, Jeremy Cohen, Anthony Delaney, Oliver Flower, Matthew Anstey, Rinaldo Bellomo, David James Cooper, David V Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to describe in-hospital mortality in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients requiring ICU admission. Secondary aims were to identify clinical characteristics associated with inferior outcomes, to compare subarachnoid hemorrhage mortality with other neurological diagnoses, and to explore the variability in subarachnoid hemorrhage standardized mortality ratios. DESIGN: Multicenter, binational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation Adult Patient Database...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733568/nucleus-prepositus-hypoglossi-lesions-produce-a-unique-ocular-motor-syndrome
#9
Sung-Hee Kim, David S Zee, Sascha du Lac, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. METHODS: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. RESULTS: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716274/current-perspectives-on-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-in-diabetes
#10
Oliver Schnell, Lars Rydén, Eberhard Standl, Antonio Ceriello
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common diabetes-associated complications, as well as a leading cause for death in type 2 diabetes patients (T2D). Despite the well-known correlation between the two, up until the 2008 FDA industry guidance for licensing of new anti-hyperglycemic drugs, which required an investigation of cardiovascular outcomes (CVO) of glucose-lowering agents, only a few studies had looked into the relationship between glucose lowering drugs and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Thereafter, CVOT design has focused on non-inferiority short-term studies on high-risk patient populations aiming at capturing CV safety issues...
October 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626964/chaotic-resonance-in-coupled-inferior-olive-neurons-with-the-llin%C3%A3-s-approach-neuron-model
#11
Sou Nobukawa, Haruhiko Nishimura
It is well known that cerebellar motor control is fine-tuned by the learning process adjusted according to rich error signals from inferior olive (IO) neurons. Schweighofer and colleagues proposed that these signals can be produced by chaotic irregular firing in the IO neuron assembly; such chaotic resonance (CR) was replicated in their computer demonstration of a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type compartment model. In this study, we examined the response of CR to a periodic signal in the IO neuron assembly comprising the Llinás approach IO neuron model...
September 14, 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620513/dopaminergic-projections-of-the-subparafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-to-the-auditory-brainstem
#12
Alexander A Nevue, Richard A Felix, Christine V Portfors
Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis...
November 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595834/prospective-evaluation-of-reduced-dose-computed-tomography-for-the-detection-of-low-contrast-liver-lesions-direct-comparison-with-concurrent-standard-dose-imaging
#13
B Dustin Pooler, Meghan G Lubner, David H Kim, Oliver T Chen, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of reduced-dose (RD) contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) with standard-dose (SD) CECT for detection of low-contrast liver lesions. METHODS: Seventy adults with non-liver primary malignancies underwent abdominal SD-CECT immediately followed by RD-CECT, aggressively targeted at 60-70 % dose reduction. SD series were reconstructed using FBP. RD series were reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR (Veo). Three readers-blinded to clinical history and comparison studies-reviewed all series, identifying liver lesions ≥4 mm...
September 5, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590050/influence-of-obesity-on-the-outcome-of-non-surgical-periodontal-therapy-a-systematic-review
#14
Fabienne A Gerber, Philipp Sahrmann, Oliver A Schmidlin, Christian Heumann, Jürg Hans Beer, Patrick R Schmidlin
BACKGROUND: Obesity and periodontitis are important chronic health problems. Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of periodontitis. Whether obesity also affects the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy is to date still unclear. METHODS: A systematic review of studies referenced in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Biosis and Web of Science was performed. Titles, abstracts and finally full texts were scrutinized for possible inclusion by two independent investigators...
2016: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547831/the-10-hz-frequency-a-fulcrum-for-transitional-brain-states
#15
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, B Luster, S Mahaffey, F J Urbano, C Phillips
A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition...
2016: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540355/heterogeneous-expression-of-t-type-ca-2-channels-defines-different-neuronal-populations-in-the-inferior-olive-of-the-mouse
#16
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Marcel T G de Jeu
The neurons in the inferior olive express subthreshold oscillations in their membrane potential. This oscillatory activity is known to drive synchronous activity in the cerebellar cortex and plays a role in motor learning and motor timing. In the past years, it was commonly thought that olivary neurons belonged to a unique population of oscillating units and that oscillation properties were exclusively dependent on network settings and/or synaptic inputs. The origin of olivary oscillations is now known to be a local phenomenon and is generated by a combination of conductances...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535367/the-inferior-olive-is-essential-for-long-term-maintenance-of-a-simple-motor-skill
#17
Xiang Yang Chen, Yu Wang, Yi Chen, Lu Chen, Jonathan R Wolpaw
The inferior olive (IO) is essential for operant down-conditioning of the rat soleus H-reflex, a simple motor skill. To evaluate the role of the IO in long-term maintenance of this skill, the H-reflex was down-conditioned over 50 days, the IO was chemically ablated, and down-conditioning continued for up to 102 more days. H-reflex size just before IO ablation averaged 62(±2SE)% of its initial value (p<0.001 vs. initial). After IO ablation, H-reflex size rose to 75-80% over ~10 days, remained there for ~30 days, rose over 10 days to above its initial value, and averaged 140(±14)% for the final 10 days of study (p<0...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513157/no-need-for-routine-drainage-after-pancreatic-head-resection-the-dual-center-randomized-controlled-pandra-trial-isrctn04937707
#18
Helmut Witzigmann, Markus K Diener, Stefan Kienkötter, Inga Rossion, Thomas Bruckner, Bärbel Werner, Olaf Pridöhl, Olga Radulova-Mauersberger, Heike Lauer, Phillip Knebel, Alexis Ulrich, Oliver Strobel, Thilo Hackert, Markus W Büchler
OBJECTIVE: This dual-center, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial aimed to prove that omission of drains does not increase reintervention rates after pancreatic surgery. BACKGROUND: There is considerable uncertainty regarding intra-abdominal drainage after pancreatoduodenectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing pancreatic head resection with pancreaticojejunal anastomosis were randomized to intra-abdominal drainage versus no drainage. Primary endpoint was overall reintervention rate (relaparotomy or radiologic intervention)...
September 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506652/nicotine-evokes-kinetic-tremor-by-activating-the-inferior-olive-via-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#19
Naofumi Kunisawa, Higor A Iha, Saki Shimizu, Kentaro Tokudome, Takahiro Mukai, Masato Kinboshi, Tadao Serikawa, Yukihiro Ohno
Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504204/altered-cerebellar-circuitry-following-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-rats
#20
Nishant P Visavadiya, Joe E Springer
Cerebellar function is critical for coordinating movement and motor learning. However, events occurring in the cerebellum following spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been investigated in detail. We provide evidence of SCI-induced cerebellar synaptic changes involving a loss of granule cell parallel fiber input to distal regions of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. This is accompanied by an apparent increase in synaptic contacts to Purkinje cell proximal dendrites, presumably from climbing fibers originating in the inferior olive...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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