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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735798/the-etiology-of-essential-tremor-genes-versus-environment
#1
Franziska Hopfner, Rick C Helmich
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by bilateral upper limb action tremor. Here we review the pathophysiology (cerebral mechanisms) and etiology (genetic and environmental risk factors) of ET. METHODS: We reviewed the literature (until June 2017) by searching PubMed for relevant papers. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of ET involves oscillatory activity in the cortico-olivo-cerebello-thalamic circuit, evidenced by electrophysiological and metabolic imaging...
July 17, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706504/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-and-palatal-or-oculopalatal-tremor
#2
REVIEW
Caroline Tilikete, Virginie Desestret
Hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive is mainly observed in patients developing palatal tremor (PT) or oculopalatal tremor (OPT). This syndrome manifests as a synchronous tremor of the palate (PT) and/or eyes (OPT) that may also involve other muscles from the branchial arches. It is associated with hypertrophic inferior olivary degeneration that is characterized by enlarged and vacuolated neurons, increased number and size of astrocytes, severe fibrillary gliosis, and demyelination. It appears on MRI as an increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity and enlargement of the inferior olive...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659467/motor-learning-in-a-complex-balance-task-and-associated-neuroplasticity-a-comparison-between-endurance-athletes-and-non-athletes
#3
Oliver Seidel, Daniel Carius, Rouven Kenville, Patrick Ragert
Studies suggested that motor expertise is associated with functional and structural brain alterations, which positively affect sensorimotor performance and learning capabilities. The purpose of the present study was to unravel differences in motor skill learning and associated functional neuroplasticity between endurance athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA). For this purpose, participants had to perform a multimodal balance task (MBT) training on two sessions which were separated by one week. Before and after MBT-training, a static balance task (SBT) had to be performed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649766/inferior-olivary-projection-to-the-zebrin-ii-stripes-in-lobule-ixcd-of-the-pigeon-flocculus-a-retrograde-tracing-study
#4
Douglas R Wylie, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Jeremy R Corfield, Iulia Craciun, David J Graham, Peter L Hurd
Zebrin II (ZII; a.k.a. aldolase C) is expressed heterogeneously in Purkinje cells (PCs) such that there are sagittal stripes of high expression (ZII+) interdigitated with stripes of little or no expression (ZII-). The pigeon flocculus receives visual-optokinetic information and is important for generating compensatory eye movements. It consists of 4 sagittal zones based on PC complex spike activity (CSA) in response to rotational optokinetic stimuli. There are two zones where CSA responds best to rotation about the vertical axis (VA), interdigitated with two zones where CSA responds best to rotation about an horizontal axis (HA)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647281/serotonergic-modulation-of-nicotine-induced-kinetic-tremor-in-mice
#5
Naofumi Kunisawa, Higor A Iha, Yuji Nomura, Misaki Onishi, Nami Matsubara, Saki Shimizu, Yukihiro Ohno
We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT), significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT1A antagonist)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595839/piezosurgery-for-sagittal-split-osteotomy-procedure-duration-and-postoperative-sensory-perturbation
#6
Robert Köhnke, Andreas Kolk, Lan Kluwe, Oliver Ploder
PURPOSE: To evaluate piezosurgery for bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) for its duration and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) perturbation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective randomized study, the authors evaluated 100 BSSO procedures in 50 patients. Piezoelectric (group I) and conventional (group II) osteotomies were carried out on each side of the mandible of a patient by 2 specialists. The surgeons had at least 1 year of experience using piezosurgery...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587761/itv-mid-ventilation-gating-or-couch-tracking-a-comparison-of-respiratory-motion-management-techniques-based-on-4d-dose-calculations
#7
Stefanie Ehrbar, Alexander Jöhl, Adrianna Tartas, Luisa Sabrina Stark, Oliver Riesterer, Stephan Klöck, Matthias Guckenberger, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion-management techniques (MMT) aim to ensure tumor dose coverage while sparing lung tissue. Dynamic treatment-couch tracking of the moving tumor is a promising new MMT and was compared to the internal-target-volume (ITV) concept, the mid-ventilation (MidV) principle and the gating approach in a planning study based on 4D dose calculations. METHODS: For twenty patients with lung lesions, planning target volumes (PTV) were adapted to the MMT and stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments were prepared with the 65%-isodose enclosing the PTV...
June 3, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573183/fiducial-markers-coupled-with-3d-pet-ct-offer-more-accurate-radiation-treatment-delivery-for-locally-advanced-esophageal-cancer
#8
Jasmine A Oliver, Puja Venkat, Jessica M Frakes, Jason Klapman, Cynthia Harris, Jaime Montilla-Soler, Gautamy C Dhadham, Baderaldeen A Altazi, Geoffrey G Zhang, Eduardo G Moros, Ravi Shridhar, Sarah E Hoffe, Kujtim Latifi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  The role of three-dimensional positron emission tomography/computed tomography (3 D PET/CT) in esophageal tumors that move with respiration and have potential for significant mucosal inflammation is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between gross tumor volumes derived from 3 D PET/CT and endoscopically placed fiducial markers. METHODS:  This was a retrospective, IRB approved analysis of 40 patients with esophageal cancer with fiducials implanted and PET/CT...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562425/rotational-and-collic-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-testing-in-normal-developing-children-and-children-with-combined-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Younes Lotfi, Nima Rezazadeh, Abdollah Moossavi, Hojjat Allah Haghgoo, Reza Rostami, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Faride Badfar, Sedigheh Farokhi Moghadam, Vahid Sadeghi-Firoozabadi, Yousef Khodabandelou
OBJECTIVES: Vestibular dysfunction in childhood can have a major effect on a child's developmental process. Balance function has been reported to be poorer in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than in their typically developing peers. Due to contradictory available evidence and the paucity of research on vestibular function specifically in children with combined ADHD (cADHD), we designed this aged-matched study to assess vestibular function in children with cADHD...
May 26, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502684/metastatic-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-unknown-origin-arising-in-the-femoral-nerve-sheath
#10
Nicholas Candy, Adam Young, Kieren Allinson, Oliver Carr, Jason McMillen, Rikin Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin is a rare condition, usually presenting with lesions in the liver and/or lung. We present the first reported case of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin arising in the femoral nerve sheath. CASE DESCRIPTION: Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated what was thought to be a schwannoma in the left femoral nerve sheath in the proximal femoral triangle, immediately inferior to the anterior inferior iliac spine...
August 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473646/genetic-factors-and-orofacial-motor-learning-selectively-influence-variability-in-central-sulcus-morphology-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#11
William D Hopkins, Oliver Coulon, Adrien Meguerditchian, Michelle Autrey, Kendall Davidek, Lindsay Mahovetz, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been shown to learn the use of novel attention-getting (AG) sounds to capture the attention of humans as a means of requesting or drawing their attention to a desired object or food. There are significant individual differences in the use of AG sounds by chimpanzees and, here, we examined whether changes in cortical organization of the central sulcus (CS) were associated with AG sound production. MRI scans were collected from 240 chimpanzees, including 122 that reliably produced AG sounds and 118 that did not...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464996/the-effect-of-endorectal-balloon-on-anorectal-dose-during-postoperative-volumetric-arc-radiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer
#12
Tino Streller, Urs Rusch, Maria D Herraiz Lablanca, Ira Minneken, Yousef Najafi, Binaya Shrestha, Susanne Oertel, Oliver Riesterer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of endorectal balloon (ERB) on anorectal dose during postoperative VMAT of prostate cancer. METHODS: In ten patients referred for salvage radiotherapy CTs were obtained without ERB and with air-filled ERB of 50ml and 100ml. CTs were repeated weekly (4-6 control CTs) and registered to the respective planning CT. For each planning CT, a VMAT plan was made with defined anorectal dose constraints and propagated on the respective control CTs...
April 29, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#13
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400923/significance-of-inferior-wall-ischemia-in-non-dominant-right-coronary-artery-anatomy
#14
Ali Osama Malik, Oliver Abela, Subodh Devabhaktuni, Arhama Aftab Malik, Gayle Allenback, Chowdhury H Ahsan, Sanjay Malhotra, Jimmy Diep
AIM: To investigate the relationship of inferior wall ischemia on myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-dominant right coronary artery anatomy. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive patients who presented to the emergency department with primary complaint of chest pain. Only patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were included. Patients who showed a reversible defect on SPECT MPI and had coronary angiography during the same hospitalization was analyzed...
March 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374839/genetic-silencing-of-olivocerebellar-synapses-causes-dystonia-like-behaviour-in-mice
#15
Joshua J White, Roy V Sillitoe
Theories of cerebellar function place the inferior olive to cerebellum connection at the centre of motor behaviour. One possible implication of this is that disruption of olivocerebellar signalling could play a major role in initiating motor disease. To test this, we devised a mouse genetics approach to silence glutamatergic signalling only at olivocerebellar synapses. The resulting mice had a severe neurological condition that mimicked the early-onset twisting, stiff limbs and tremor that is observed in dystonia, a debilitating movement disease...
April 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371468/tremorolytic-effect-of-5-chloro-5-deoxy-%C3%A2-enba-a-potent-and-selective-adenosine-a1-receptor-agonist-evaluated-in-the-harmaline-induced-model-in-rats
#16
Barbara Kosmowska, Krystyna Ossowska, Urszula Głowacka, Jadwiga Wardas
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the role of adenosine A1 receptors in the harmaline-induced tremor in rats using 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA), a brain-penetrant, potent, and selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist. METHODS: Harmaline was injected at a dose of 15 mg/kg ip and tremor was measured automatically in force-plate actimeters by an increased averaged power in the frequency band of 9-15 Hz (AP2) and by tremor index (a difference in power between AP2 and averaged power in the frequency band of 0-8 Hz)...
May 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358246/effects-of-direct-renin-inhibition-versus-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-on-angiotensin-profiles-in-non-diabetic-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Marlies Antlanger, Sebastian Bernhofer, Johannes J Kovarik, Chantal Kopecky, Christopher C Kaltenecker, Oliver Domenig, Marko Poglitsch, Marcus D Säemann
BACKGROUND: Direct renin inhibition (DRI) is clinically inferior to other blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Thus far, the underlying molecular causes of this finding remain unknown. METHODS: Twenty four patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages III-IV and albuminuria were randomized to DRI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Employing a novel mass-spectrometry method, the concentrations of renin, aldosterone and plasma angiotensin peptides [Ang I, Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-5), Ang-(2-8), Ang-(3-8)] were quantified before and after an 8-week treatment...
April 17, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339744/determining-the-analytical-specificity-of-pcr-based-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-ia-what-is-aspergillus
#18
C Oliver Morton, P Lewis White, Rosemary A Barnes, Lena Klingspor, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Katrien Lagrou, Stéphane Bretagne, Willem Melchers, Carlo Mengoli, Angela M Caliendo, Massimo Cogliati, Yvette Debets-Ossenkopp, Rebecca Gorton, Ferry Hagen, Catriona Halliday, Petr Hamal, Kathleen Harvey-Wood, Katia Jaton, Gemma Johnson, Sarah Kidd, Martina Lengerova, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Chris Linton, Laurence Millon, C Orla Morrissey, Melinda Paholcsek, Alida Fe Talento, Markus Ruhnke, Birgit Willinger, J Peter Donnelly, Juergen Loeffler
A wide array of PCR tests has been developed to aid the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), providing technical diversity but limiting standardisation and acceptance. Methodological recommendations for testing blood samples using PCR exist, based on achieving optimal assay sensitivity to help exclude IA. Conversely, when testing more invasive samples (BAL, biopsy, CSF) emphasis is placed on confirming disease, so analytical specificity is paramount. This multicenter study examined the analytical specificity of PCR methods for detecting IA by blind testing a panel of DNA extracted from a various fungal species to explore the range of Aspergillus species that could be detected, but also potential cross reactivity with other fungal species...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331964/the-hypomorphic-tert-a1062t-variant-is-associated-with-increased-treatment-related-toxicity-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Anna Both, Jürgen Krauter, Frederik Damm, Felicitas Thol, Gudrun Göhring, Michael Heuser, Oliver Ottmann, Michael Lübbert, Mohammed Wattad, Lothar Kanz, Günter Schlimok, Aruna Raghavachar, Walter Fiedler, Hartmut Kirchner, Wolfram Brugger, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Gerhard Heil, Arnold Ganser, Katharina Wagner
Hypomorphic germline variants in TERT, the gene encoding the reverse transcriptase component of the human telomerase complex, occur with a frequency of 3-5% in acute myeloid leukemia. We analyzed the clinical and prognostic impact of the most common TERT A1062T variant in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia intensively treated within two prospective multicenter trials. Four hundred and twenty patients (age 17-60 years) were analyzed for the TERT A1062T variant by direct sequencing. Fifteen patients (3...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324299/fatal-familial-insomnia-clinical-aspects-and-molecular-alterations
#20
REVIEW
Franc Llorens, Juan-José Zarranz, Andre Fischer, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatal familiar insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant inherited prion disease caused by D178N mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP D178N) accompanied by the presence of a methionine at the codon 129 polymorphic site on the mutated allele. FFI is characterized by severe sleep disorder, dysautonomia, motor signs and abnormal behaviour together with primary atrophy of selected thalamic nuclei and inferior olives, and expansion to other brain regions with disease progression...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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