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Inferior Olive

Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Andrew A Udy, Chelsey Vladic, Edward Robert Saxby, Jeremy Cohen, Anthony Delaney, Oliver Flower, Matthew Anstey, Rinaldo Bellomo, David James Cooper, David V Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to describe in-hospital mortality in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients requiring ICU admission. Secondary aims were to identify clinical characteristics associated with inferior outcomes, to compare subarachnoid hemorrhage mortality with other neurological diagnoses, and to explore the variability in subarachnoid hemorrhage standardized mortality ratios. DESIGN: Multicenter, binational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation Adult Patient Database...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Sung-Hee Kim, David S Zee, Sascha du Lac, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. METHODS: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. RESULTS: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Oliver Schnell, Lars Rydén, Eberhard Standl, Antonio Ceriello
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common diabetes-associated complications, as well as a leading cause for death in type 2 diabetes patients (T2D). Despite the well-known correlation between the two, up until the 2008 FDA industry guidance for licensing of new anti-hyperglycemic drugs, which required an investigation of cardiovascular outcomes (CVO) of glucose-lowering agents, only a few studies had looked into the relationship between glucose lowering drugs and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Thereafter, CVOT design has focused on non-inferiority short-term studies on high-risk patient populations aiming at capturing CV safety issues...
October 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Sou Nobukawa, Haruhiko Nishimura
It is well known that cerebellar motor control is fine-tuned by the learning process adjusted according to rich error signals from inferior olive (IO) neurons. Schweighofer and colleagues proposed that these signals can be produced by chaotic irregular firing in the IO neuron assembly; such chaotic resonance (CR) was replicated in their computer demonstration of a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type compartment model. In this study, we examined the response of CR to a periodic signal in the IO neuron assembly comprising the Llinás approach IO neuron model...
September 14, 2016: Neural Computation
Alexander A Nevue, Richard A Felix, Christine V Portfors
Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis...
September 10, 2016: Hearing Research
B Dustin Pooler, Meghan G Lubner, David H Kim, Oliver T Chen, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of reduced-dose (RD) contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) with standard-dose (SD) CECT for detection of low-contrast liver lesions. METHODS: Seventy adults with non-liver primary malignancies underwent abdominal SD-CECT immediately followed by RD-CECT, aggressively targeted at 60-70 % dose reduction. SD series were reconstructed using FBP. RD series were reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR (Veo). Three readers-blinded to clinical history and comparison studies-reviewed all series, identifying liver lesions ≥4 mm...
September 5, 2016: European Radiology
Fabienne A Gerber, Philipp Sahrmann, Oliver A Schmidlin, Christian Heumann, Jürg Hans Beer, Patrick R Schmidlin
BACKGROUND: Obesity and periodontitis are important chronic health problems. Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of periodontitis. Whether obesity also affects the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy is to date still unclear. METHODS: A systematic review of studies referenced in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Biosis and Web of Science was performed. Titles, abstracts and finally full texts were scrutinized for possible inclusion by two independent investigators...
2016: BMC Oral Health
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, B Luster, S Mahaffey, F J Urbano, C Phillips
A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition...
2016: Transl Brain Rhythm
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Marcel T G de Jeu
The neurons in the inferior olive express subthreshold oscillations in their membrane potential. This oscillatory activity is known to drive synchronous activity in the cerebellar cortex and plays a role in motor learning and motor timing. In the past years, it was commonly thought that olivary neurons belonged to a unique population of oscillating units and that oscillation properties were exclusively dependent on network settings and/or synaptic inputs. The origin of olivary oscillations is now known to be a local phenomenon and is generated by a combination of conductances...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xiang Yang Chen, Yu Wang, Yi Chen, Lu Chen, Jonathan R Wolpaw
The inferior olive (IO) is essential for operant down-conditioning of the rat soleus H-reflex, a simple motor skill. To evaluate the role of the IO in long-term maintenance of this skill, the H-reflex was down-conditioned over 50 days, the IO was chemically ablated, and down-conditioning continued for up to 102 more days. H-reflex size just before IO ablation averaged 62(±2SE)% of its initial value (p<0.001 vs. initial). After IO ablation, H-reflex size rose to 75-80% over ~10 days, remained there for ~30 days, rose over 10 days to above its initial value, and averaged 140(±14)% for the final 10 days of study (p<0...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Helmut Witzigmann, Markus K Diener, Stefan Kienkötter, Inga Rossion, Thomas Bruckner, Bärbel Werner, Olaf Pridöhl, Olga Radulova-Mauersberger, Heike Lauer, Phillip Knebel, Alexis Ulrich, Oliver Strobel, Thilo Hackert, Markus W Büchler
OBJECTIVE: This dual-center, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial aimed to prove that omission of drains does not increase reintervention rates after pancreatic surgery. BACKGROUND: There is considerable uncertainty regarding intra-abdominal drainage after pancreatoduodenectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing pancreatic head resection with pancreaticojejunal anastomosis were randomized to intra-abdominal drainage versus no drainage. Primary endpoint was overall reintervention rate (relaparotomy or radiologic intervention)...
September 2016: Annals of Surgery
Naofumi Kunisawa, Higor A Iha, Saki Shimizu, Kentaro Tokudome, Takahiro Mukai, Masato Kinboshi, Tadao Serikawa, Yukihiro Ohno
Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Nishant P Visavadiya, Joe E Springer
Cerebellar function is critical for coordinating movement and motor learning. However, events occurring in the cerebellum following spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been investigated in detail. We provide evidence of SCI-induced cerebellar synaptic changes involving a loss of granule cell parallel fiber input to distal regions of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. This is accompanied by an apparent increase in synaptic contacts to Purkinje cell proximal dendrites, presumably from climbing fibers originating in the inferior olive...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Charlotte L Lawrenson, Thomas C Watson, Richard Apps
UNLABELLED: Pathways arising from the periphery that target the inferior olive [spino-olivocerebellar pathways (SOCPs)] are a vital source of information to the cerebellum and are modulated (gated) during active movements. This limits their ability to forward signals to climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. We tested the hypothesis that the temporal pattern of gating is related to the predictability of a sensory signal. Low-intensity electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral hindlimb in awake rats evoked field potentials in the C1 zone in the copula pyramidis of the cerebellar cortex...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yoshiko Matsumoto-Makidono, Hisako Nakayama, Miwako Yamasaki, Taisuke Miyazaki, Kazuto Kobayashi, Masahiko Watanabe, Masanobu Kano, Kenji Sakimura, Kouichi Hashimoto
Some neurons have the ability to enhance output voltage to input current with a preferred frequency, which is called resonance. Resonance is thought to be a basis for membrane potential oscillation. Although ion channels responsible for resonance have been reported, the precise mechanisms by which these channels work remain poorly understood. We have found that resonance is reduced but clearly present in the inferior olivary neurons of Cav3.1 T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel knockout (KO) mice. The activation of Cav3...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Thomas Hassa, Esther de Jel, Oliver Tuescher, Roger Schmidt, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Josef Turecek, Victor Z Han, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, John P Welsh
UNLABELLED: Inferior olive (IO) neurons are critical for motor coordination and exhibit oscillations in membrane potential that are subthreshold for spiking. The prevalence, coherence, and continuity of those subthreshold oscillations (STOs) depend upon resonant interactions between neighboring neurons supported by electrical coupling. Many studies of the olivocerebellar system in rodents, in which STOs were related to tremor, whisking, and licking, fueled a debate over whether IO STOs were relevant for primates whose repertoire of movement is generally less periodic...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anja Gallinat, Sabine Leerhoff, Andreas Paul, Ernesto P Molmenti, Maren Schulze, Oliver Witzke, Georgios C Sotiropoulos
BACKGROUND: Elevated donor serum creatinine has been associated with inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation (KT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of elevated donor serum creatinine on short and long-term outcomes and to determine possible ways to optimize the use of these organs. METHODS: All kidney transplants from 01-2000 to 12-2012 with donor creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dl were considered. Risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF) were explored with uni- and multivariate regression analyses...
June 8, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Eric D Larson, Won-Mean Lee, Marilyn A Roubidoux, Mitchel M Goodsitt, Chris Lashbrook, Fouzaan Zafar, Oliver D Kripfgans, Kai Thomenius, Paul L Carson
The design and performance of a mammographically configured, dual-sided, automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) 3-D imaging system are described. Dual-sided imaging (superior and inferior) is compared with single-sided imaging to aid decisions on clinical implementation of the more complex, but potentially higher-quality dual-sided imaging. Marked improvement in image quality and coverage of the breast is obtained in dual-sided ultrasound over single-sided ultrasound. Among hypo-echoic masses imaged, there are increases in the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of 57% and 79%, respectively, for spliced dual-sided versus superior or inferior single-sided imaging...
September 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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