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Inferior Olive

Gregor Rehse, Fabian Halleck, Dmytro Khadzhynov, Lukas J Lehner, Anna Kleinsteuber, Anja Staeck, Michael Duerr, Klemens Budde, Oliver Staeck
Background: Recently, a risk index for living donor kidney (LDK) transplantation [living kidney donor profile index (LKDPI)] was proposed to compare LDKs with each other and with deceased donor kidneys (DDKs). Until now, the LKDPI has not been validated externally. Methods: This long-term retrospective analysis included 1305 consecutive adult kidney transplant recipients who were transplanted 2000-16 in our centre. The Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) was calculated in 889 DDKs and the LKDPI in 416 LDKs...
May 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Cátia Brito, Lia-Tânia Dinis, Helena Ferreira, José Moutinho-Pereira, Carlos Correia
The climate change scenarios besides foreseeing a severe drought imposition also emphasize the temperature rising in the Mediterranean region, with special prominence at nighttime. Despite the high olive tree tolerance to severe environmental conditions, stomatal nighttime water loss can change plant water relations, and the related consequences and opportunities, especially under water scarcity, must be clarified. A set of 3-year-old potted olive trees were subjected to three cycles of drought, imposed by withholding irrigation, while another group were continuously irrigated...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Rebekka Schäfer, Vratislav Strnad, Csaba Polgár, Wolfgang Uter, Guido Hildebrandt, Oliver J Ott, Daniela Kauer-Dorner, Hellen Knauerhase, Tibor Major, Jaroslaw Lyczek, Jose Luis Guinot, Jürgen Dunst, Cristina Gutierrez Miguelez, Pavel Slampa, Michael Allgäuer, Kristina Lössl, György Kovács, Arnt-René Fischedick, Rainer Fietkau, Alexandra Resch, Anna Kulik, Leo Arribas, Peter Niehoff, Ferran Guedea, Annika Schlamann, Christine Gall, Bülent Polat
BACKGROUND: Previous results from the GEC-ESTRO trial showed that accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multicatheter brachytherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery was non-inferior to whole-breast irradiation in terms of local control and overall survival. Here, we present 5-year results of patient-reported quality of life. METHODS: We did this randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 16 hospitals and medical centres in seven European countries...
April 20, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Michael C Brodsky
Essential infantile esotropia is generated by prenuclear visual pathways that increase esotonus and gradually drive the eyes into a convergent position. Contrary to the prevailing notion that infantile esotropia reflects a primary disturbance within the visual cortex, accumulating evidence suggests that infantile esotropia is generated by lower subcortical centers that subserve nasalward optokinesis. These phylogenetically older visuo-vestibular pathways include the nucleus of the optic tract, accessory optic system, inferior olive, cerebellar flocculus, and vestibular nucleus...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shaozhuan Huang, Lixiang Liu, Yun Zheng, Ye Wang, Dezhi Kong, Yingmeng Zhang, Yumeng Shi, Lin Zhang, Oliver G Schmidt, Hui Ying Yang
Alloying-type materials are promising anodes for high-performance sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high capacities and low Na-ion insertion potentials. However, the typical candidates, such as P, Sn, Sb, and Pb, suffer from severe volume changes (≈293-487%) during the electrochemical reactions, leading to inferior cycling performances. Here, a high-rate and ultrastable alloying-type anode based on the rolled-up amorphous Si nanomembranes is demonstrated. The rolled-up amorphous Si nanomembranes show a very small volume change during the sodiation/desodiation processes and deliver an excellent rate capability and ultralong cycle life up to 2000 cycles with 85% capacity retention...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Pável Olivera, Miren Gabilondo, Mireia Constans, Dolors Tàssies, Esther Plensa, Verónica Pons, Germán Las Heras, Carmen Jiménez, Desirée Campoy, Anna Bustins, Artur Oliver, Cristina Marzo, Tania Canals, Anna Varela, Marc Sorigue, Eva Sánchez, Gabriela Ene, Granada Perea, Laura Vicente, Meritxell López, María Cerdá, Erik Johansson, M Reyes Aguinaco, Nazly Santos, José Mateo, Joan Carles Reverter, Ángel Moya, Amparo Santamaría
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) as well as for prevention and treatment of deep venous thrombosis. Pivotal trials have demonstrated non-inferiority and potential superiority compared to warfarin, which increases the options of anticoagulant treatment. In our setting, the Anticoagulant Treatment Units (ATUs) and Primary Care Centres (PCCs) play an important role in the education, follow-up, adherence control and management in special situations of anticoagulated patients...
March 27, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Iulia Craciun, Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Jeremy R Corfield, Peter L Hurd, Douglas R Wylie
This study was aimed at mapping the organization of the projections from the inferior olive (IO) to the ventral uvula in pigeons. The uvula is part of the vestibulocerebellum (VbC), which is involved in the processing of optic flow resulting from self-motion. As in other areas of the cerebellum, the uvula is organized into sagittal zones, which is apparent with respect to afferent inputs, the projection patterns of Purkinje cell (PC) efferents, the response properties of PCs and the expression of molecular markers such as zebrin II (ZII)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Rebecca M Long, Janelle M P Pakan, David J Graham, Peter L Hurd, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R Wylie
The cerebellum is organized into parasagittal zones defined by its climbing and mossy fibre inputs, efferent projections, and Purkinje cell (PC) response properties. Additionally, parasagittal stripes can be visualized with molecular markers, such as the heterogeneous expression of the isoenzyme zebrin II (ZII), where sagittal stripes of high ZII expression (ZII+) are interdigitated with stripes of low ZII expression (ZII-). In the pigeon vestibulocerebellum, a ZII+/- stripe pair represents a functional unit, insofar as both ZII+ and ZII- PCs within a stripe pair respond best to the same pattern of optic flow...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marietta Garmer, Marc Bonsels, Frauke Metz, Oliver Klein-Wiele, Bodo Brandts, Dietrich Grönemeyer
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the presence of endocardial leads has an impact on image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), when current technique is employed using a 320-row computed tomography and iterative reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCTA was performed in 1641 patients, from these we identified 51 patients (study group) with endocardial leads and 51 matched partners (control group) without endocardial leads. Noise was determined in the ascending aorta and the left ventricle; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were determined in the left and right coronary artery...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Imaging
J Gerry Coghlan, Matthias Wolf, Oliver Distler, Christopher P Denton, Martin Doelberg, Satenik Harutyunova, Alberto M Marra, Nicola Benjamin, Christine Fischer, Ekkehard Grünig
The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and determining factors in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ( D LCO ) <60% predicted.In this bicentric, prospective cohort study, patients with SSc were clinically assessed at baseline and after 3 years, including right heart catheterisation (RHC). Analysis of determining factors for the development of PH was performed using univariate and multivariate analyses...
April 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Fotios Tsopelas, Dimitris Konstantopoulos, Anna Tsantili Kakoulidou
In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0...
July 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Guy Cheron, Javier Márquez-Ruiz, Julian Cheron, Cynthia Prigogine, Claudia Ammann, Robert Lukowski, Peter Ruth, Bernard Dan
Purkinje cells (PC) control deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which in turn inhibit inferior olive nucleus, closing a positive feedback loop via climbing fibers. PC highly express potassium BK channels but their contribution to the olivo-cerebellar loop is not clear. Using multiple-unit recordings in alert mice we found in that selective deletion of BK channels in PC induces a decrease in their simple spike firing with a beta-range bursting pattern and fast intraburst frequency (~200 Hz). To determine the impact of this abnormal rhythm on the olivo-cerebellar loop we analyzed simultaneous rhythmicity in different cerebellar structures...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nitish Kamble, Pramod Kumar Pal
Among the involuntary movement disorders, tremor is a common phenomenology seen in clinical practice. The important factors that need to be determined while assessing a patient with tremor include the phenomenology of tremor, presence or absence of other neurologic signs, and the effect of medications or alcohol. Tremor can broadly be classified based on the circumstances under which it occurs, i.e., rest or action. The basal ganglia-cerebello-thalamic and dentate-olivary circuits are involved in the generation of tremor...
March 2018: Neurology India
Phillip L Pearl, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Chellamani Harini, Richard Goldstein, Richard M Atkinson, Dawna Armstrong, Hannah Kinney
The histopathology, "white matter spongiosis," defined by electron microscopy (EM) as "intramyelinic edema," has been associated with vigabatrin therapy in various animal models, but its role or significance in clinical studies is unknown. We conducted a neuropathological examination on a 27-month-old boy with bilateral polymicrogyria and epilepsy after sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The patient was initiated on vigabatrin at 4 months of age, which controlled infantile spasms, and was continued as maintenance therapy...
April 2018: Epilepsia
Lindsay D Oliver, Joana B Vieira, Richard W J Neufeld, Isabel Dziobek, Derek G V Mitchell
Empathy is crucial for successful interpersonal interactions, and it is impaired in many psychiatric and neurological disorders. Action-perception matching, or action simulation mechanisms, have been suggested to facilitate empathy by supporting the simulation of perceived experience in others. However, this remains unclear, and the involvement of the action simulation circuit in cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt another's perspective) versus emotional empathy (the capacity to share and react affectively to another's emotional experience) has not been quantitatively compared...
February 15, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Julian Cheron, Guy Cheron
The cerebellum displays various sorts of rhythmic activities covering both low- and high-frequency oscillations. These cerebellar high-frequency oscillations were observed in the cerebellar cortex. Here, we hypothesised that not only is the cerebellar cortex a generator of high-frequency oscillations but also that the deep cerebellar nuclei may also play a similar role. Thus, we analysed local field potentials and single-unit activities in the deep cerebellar nuclei before, during and after electric stimulation in the inferior olive of awake mice...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Derek L F Garden, Marlies Oostland, Marta Jelitai, Arianna Rinaldi, Ian Duguid, Matthew F Nolan
Cerebellar climbing-fiber-mediated complex spikes originate from neurons in the inferior olive (IO), are critical for motor coordination, and are central to theories of cerebellar learning. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels expressed by IO neurons have been considered as pacemaker currents important for oscillatory and resonant dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro, network actions of HCN1 channels enable bidirectional glutamatergic synaptic responses, while local actions of HCN1 channels determine the timing and waveform of synaptically driven action potentials...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
D Oliver, M Kotlicka-Antczak, A Minichino, G Spada, P McGuire, P Fusar-Poli
Primary indicated prevention is reliant on accurate tools to predict the onset of psychosis. The gold standard assessment for detecting individuals at clinical high risk (CHR-P) for psychosis in the UK and many other countries is the Comprehensive Assessment for At Risk Mental States (CAARMS). While the prognostic accuracy of CHR-P instruments has been assessed in general, this is the first study to specifically analyse that of the CAARMS. As such, the CAARMS was used as the index test, with the reference index being psychosis onset within 2 years...
March 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Kit Melissa Larsen, Morten Mørup, Michelle Rosgaard Birknow, Elvira Fischer, Oliver Hulme, Anders Vangkilde, Henriette Schmock, William Frans Christiaan Baaré, Michael Didriksen, Line Olsen, Thomas Werge, Hartwig R Siebner, Marta I Garrido
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common copy number variants and confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. As such, 22q11.2DS is a homogeneous genetic liability model which enables studies to delineate functional abnormalities that may precede disease onset. Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia relative to healthy controls in MMN tasks...
January 30, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Oliver Baumann, Joyce M G Vromen, Allen Cheung, Jessica McFadyen, Yudan Ren, Christine C Guo
We often perceive real-life objects as multisensory cues through space and time. A key challenge for audiovisual integration is to match neural signals that not only originate from different sensory modalities but also that typically reach the observer at slightly different times. In humans, complex, unpredictable audiovisual streams lead to higher levels of perceptual coherence than predictable, rhythmic streams. In addition, perceptual coherence for complex signals seems less affected by increased asynchrony between visual and auditory modalities than for simple signals...
January 2018: ENeuro
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