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Hypoglossal Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913866/communicating-branches-between-lingual-and-hypoglossal-nerve-observation-using-sihler-s-staining-technique
#1
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Yoko Tabira, Moriyoshi Nakamura, Christian Fisahn, R Shane Tubbs, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
PURPOSE: Many dental procedures are at risk of injuring the lingual nerve. We performed this study to better elucidate the microanatomy that exists between the ipsilateral lingual and hypoglossal nerves so that iatrogenic injury can be avoided. METHODS: Adult human cadaveric tongues (ten sides) underwent Sihler's staining to identify the microanatomy between the lingual and hypoglossal nerves. RESULTS: The lingual nerve entered the middle part of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue from its lateral side and divided into two to four thick branches...
December 2, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906850/isolated-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-mimicking-a-base-of-tongue-tumor
#2
Daniela Francesca Nestola, Mariangela Lombardi, Matteo Brucoli, Francesco Pia, Paolo Aluffi
Isolated paralysis of hypoglossal nerve is uncommon, generally being associated with other neuropathies. A careful differential diagnosis is necessary to recognize the underlying diseases, some of which can be life-threatening. The authors report a patient of an 80-year-old woman presenting with an isolated hypoglossal palsy, mimicking a tongue neoplasm. Through a careful clinical workup and thanks to the aid of the imaging, it was possible to identify the presence of signal alterations due to a subacute denervation of the affected hemitongue and to exclude the presence of a tumor...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891029/craniovertebral-junction-360%C3%A2-a-combined-microscopic-and-endoscopic-anatomical-study
#3
Sukhdeep Singh Jhawar, Maximiliano Nunez, Paolo Pacca, Daniel Seclen Voscoboinik, Huy Truong
OBJECTIVES: Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) can be approached from various corridors depending on the location and extent of disease. A three-dimensional understanding of anatomy of CVJ is paramount for safe surgery in this region. Aim of this cadaveric study is to elucidate combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomy of critical neurovascular structures in this area in relation to bony and muscular landmarks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric heads injected with color silicon were used for this study...
October 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858088/specific-branches-of-hypoglossal-nerve-to-genioglossus-muscle-as-a-potential-target-of-selective-neurostimulation-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-anatomical-and-morphometric-study
#4
Philippe Delaey, Jérôme Duisit, Catherine Behets, Thierry Duprez, Pierre Gianello, Benoît Lengelé
PURPOSE: To determine the ideal implantation site for selective tongue neurostimulation in obstructive sleep apnea, anatomy of the distal branching of the hypoglossal nerve (HGN) was revisited. METHODS: The HGN distal course and intramuscular distribution to the tongue muscles were studied in 17 embalmed and 5 fresh heads (age 60-98, BMI 20-35). Medial branches supplying selectively the genioglossus (GG) muscle were identified. Then, the distinct bundles entering the oblique (GGo) and horizontal (GGh) parts of the GG were located...
November 17, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847156/palatal-and-lingual-augmentation-prosthesis-for-patients-with-dysphagia-and-functional-problems-a-clinical-report
#5
Tomohisa Ohno, Ichiro Fujishima
This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient with insufficient tongue movement due to bilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. A palatal augmentation prosthesis and a mandibular intraoral prosthesis (lingual augmentation prosthesis) were provided for this patient to address his functional dysphagia problems. These problems included insufficient oral to pharynx bolus transportation and displacement of the tongue to the right posterior. The 2 prostheses improved these 2 problems and also the head extension posture during swallowing...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832132/coordinated-respiratory-motor-activity-in-nerves-innervating-the-upper-airway-muscles-in-rats
#6
Satoshi Tachikawa, Kiyomi Nakayama, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Takehiko Iijima, Tomio Inoue
Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4) and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2). Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829262/-upper-airway-stimulation-in-osa
#7
B Bender
Anatomical basis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the collapse of the pharynx during sleep. It is considered as a result of complex interactions of structural and neuromuscular factors. Depth of sleep and body position have modulating effects. Although different areas of obstruction were identified, studies show that the sleep-mediated obstruction frequently occurs in the base of tongue area.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) since more than 30 years...
November 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801771/asymmetric-acute-motor-axonal-neuropathy-with-unilateral-tongue-swelling-mimicking-stroke
#8
Man Sum Chi, Shi Hon Ng, Lok Yiu Chan
A 60-year-old man presented with acute onset of left hemiparesis and left hypoglossal nerve palsy with ipsilateral tongue swelling. He then progressed to tetraparesis in a few days. Cerebrospinal fluid showed cell protein dissociation. A nerve conduction study showed motor axonal neuropathy with sensory sparing. A subsequent blood test revealed anti-GD1b IgG antibody positivity. He was diagnosed to have acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and treated with a course of intravenous immunoglobulin with slow improvement...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767903/neurosurgical-sequelae-of-domestic-dog-attacks-in-children
#9
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762236/nerve-cuff-electrode-using-embedded-magnets-and-its-application-to-hypoglossal-nerve-stimulation
#10
Jungmin Seo, Jee Hye Wee, Jeong Hoan Park, Pona Park, Jeong-Whun Kim, Sung June Kim
OBJECTIVE: A novel nerve cuff electrode with embedded magnets was fabricated and developed. In this study, a pair of magnets was fully embedded and encapsulated in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate to utilize magnetic force in order to replace the conventional installing techniques of cuff electrodes. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the magnet-embedded nerve cuff electrode (MENCE). Lastly, several issues pertaining to the MENCE such as the cuff-to-nerve diameter ratio, the force of the magnets, and possible concerns were discussed in the discussion section...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734977/parapharyngeal-space-tumours-video-assisted-minimally-invasive-transcervical-approach
#11
F Pilolli, L Giordano, A Galli, M Bussi
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the advantages of a video-assisted, minimally invasive transcervical approach to benign and malignant parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours. Ten patients affected by benign and malignant PPS neoplasms underwent a combined transcervical and video-assisted minimally invasive approach, using Hopkins telescopes. We describe the operative technique and perform a review of the literature. Definitive histology revealed 3 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 schwannomas, 2 metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas, one carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, one cavernous haemangioma and one basal cell adenoma...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732789/obstructive-sleep-apnea-update-and-future
#12
Diane C Lim, Allan I Pack
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a worldwide disease whose prevalence is increasing as obesity rates increase. The link between obesity and OSA is likely to be the deposition of fat in the tongue, compromising upper airway size. The role of obesity varies in different ethnic groups, with Chinese being particularly sensitive to increases in weight. OSA lends itself to a personalized approach to diagnosis and therapy. For example, different clinical OSA subtypes likely benefit from therapy in different ways. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a useful second-line therapy in patients who cannot tolerate continous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines or intraoral devices...
October 5, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720458/upper-airway-stimulation-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Katherine Koral Green, B Tucker Woodson
Traditional upper airway surgery directly modifies skeletal and soft tissue structures surrounding the airway to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Upper airway stimulation (UAS) attempts to treat upper airway obstruction and OSA by stimulating the hypoglossal nerve. The Inspire II implant has been approved for clinical UAS. Basic science data support that UAS prevents obstruction and improves airflow. Clinical results demonstrate that UAS improves respiratory sleep metrics and improves both objective and subjective self-reported sleep and quality-of-life outcomes...
December 2016: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704653/high-dose-intravenous-steroid-regimen-for-radiation-induced-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy
#14
Lachlan J McDowell, Marlene C Jacobson, Wilfred Levin
BACKGROUND: Hypoglossal nerve palsies are infrequent complications of head and neck radiotherapy. Treatments focus on maintaining function and prevention of abnormal airway-related swallowing events. METHODS: A patient with longstanding cranial neuropathies, including bilateral hypoglossal involvement, secondary to chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, experienced repeated episodes of life-threatening complications. Initially, 2 courses of 2 weekly 24-hour intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) infusions were administered 2 years apart...
October 5, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689226/-hypoglossal-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-cpap-failure-evolution-of-an-alternative-treatment-for-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
C Heiser, B Hofauer
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease in western industrialized countries with increasing prevalence. Gold standard of therapy is nocturnal positive pressure ventilation by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Due to complications and side effects of ventilation, therapy adherence is limited. Recently an alternative surgical treatment has become available for these patients, which uses established techniques to stimulate the hypoglossus nerve to open the upper airway during sleep. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the history and current state of scientific knowledge of this therapy in the treatment of OSA...
September 29, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684271/facial-reanimation-using-hypoglossal-facial-nerve-anastomosis-after-schwannoma-removal
#16
Ji Hyuk Han, Mischelle J Suh, Jin Won Kim, Hyun Sang Cho, In Seok Moon
CONCLUSION: In this series, the split type hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis resulted in more favorable outcomes in terms of both facial function and tongue atrophy. OBJECTIVE: This study compared surgical techniques for hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis after schwannoma removal and evaluated which technique achieves better facial outcomes and less tongue morbidity. METHOD: This study included 14 patients who underwent hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis after schwannoma removal and were followed for more than 1 year...
August 12, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665952/the-myloglossus-in-a-human-cadaver-study-common-or-uncommon-anatomical-structure
#17
Barbara Buffoli, Marco Ferrari, Francesco Belotti, Davide Lancini, Marco Angelo Cocchi, Mauro Labanca, Manfred Tschabitscher, Rita Rezzani, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella
Additional extrinsic muscles of the tongue are reported in literature and one of them is the myloglossus muscle (MGM). Since MGM is nowadays considered as anatomical variant, the aim of this study is to clarify some open questions by evaluating and describing the myloglossal anatomy (including both MGM and its ligamentous counterpart) during human cadaver dissections. Twenty-one regions (including masticator space, sublingual space and adjacent areas) were dissected and the presence and appearance of myloglossus were considered, together with its proximal and distal insertions, vascularisation and innervation...
September 26, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645756/lower-cranial-polyneuropathy-in-zoster-sine-herpete-presenting-with-pain-in-the-ear-and-throat-a-case-report
#18
Takafumi Hosokawa, Hideto Nakajima, Akihiro Tsukahara, Kiich Unoda, Shimon Ishida, Fumiharu Kimura
A 64-year-old woman developed acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves on the left side after pain in the head and the left ear and throat. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA was detected by PCR from cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnosis of lower cranial polyneuropathy due to VZV reactivation was made. After oral administration of an anti-viral agent and steroid, all symptoms and signs dramatically improved...
September 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636022/fast-imaging-employing-steady-state-acquisition-fiesta-mri-to-investigate-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-within-dural-reflections-of-posterior-fossa-cranial-nerves
#19
David J Noble, Daniel Scoffings, Thankamma Ajithkumar, Michael V Williams, Sarah J Jefferies
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. METHODS: 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed...
November 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572120/upper-airway-stimulation-therapy-a-novel-approach-to-managing-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#20
REVIEW
Ryan J Soose, M Boyd Gillespie
OBJECTIVES: Review the role of upper airway stimulation (UAS) therapy in the management of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed of PubMed and Medline using the search terms clinical trial; obstructive sleep apnea; upper airway stimulation; hypoglossal stimulation; hypoglossal nerve; Inspire; and ImThera. REVIEW METHODS: All published clinical trials of currently available devices were reviewed...
September 2016: Laryngoscope
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