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Glossopharyngeal Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716529/severe-localised-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-wegener-s-granulomatosis-manifesting-with-extensive-cranial-nerve-palsies-and-cranial-diabetes-insipidus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
James E Peters, Vivek Gupta, Ibtisam T Saeed, Curtis Offiah, Ali S M Jawad
BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) is a multisystem vasculitis of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Cranial involvement can result in cranial nerve palsies and, rarely, pituitary infiltration. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 32 year-old woman with limited but severe GPA manifesting as progressive cranial nerve palsies and pituitary dysfunction. Our patient initially presented with localised ENT involvement, but despite treatment with methotrexate, she deteriorated...
May 1, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703055/treatment-of-ramsay-hunt-s-syndrome-with-multiple-cranial-nerve-involvement-and-severe-dysphagia-a-case-report
#2
Jong Min Kim, Zeeihn Lee, Seungwoo Han, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by facial paralysis, herpetic eruptions on the auricle, and otic pain due to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. A few cases of multiple cranial nerve invasion including the vestibulocochlear nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve have been reported. However, there has been no report about RHS with delayed onset multiple cranial nerve involvement causing severe aspiration, and a clinical course that improved after more than one year of dysphagia rehabilitation and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701558/syringobulbia-in-pediatric-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#3
Arnold H Menezes, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Brian J Dlouhy
OBJECTIVE Syringobulbia (SB) is a rare entity, with few cases associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population. The authors reviewed all pediatric cases of CM-I-associated SB managed at their institution in order to better understand the presentation, treatment, and surgical outcomes of this condition. METHODS A prospectively maintained institutional database of craniovertebral junction abnormalities was analyzed to identify all cases of CM-I and SB from the MRI era (i.e., after 1984)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680282/hemifacial-spasm-associated-with-other-cranial-nerve-syndromes-literature-review
#4
M Sindou, P Mercier
Hyperactive dysfunction may affect all cranial nerves in the posterior fossa. According to literature review and personal experience, hemifacial spasm was found to be associated not only with the most frequent cranial nerve syndromes, namely: trigeminal neuralgia, vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia or VIIIth nerve disturbances manifested by vertigo, tinnitus, hearing decrease, but also with rarer syndromes like geniculate neuralgia, masticatory spasm etc. Also, a number of publications have pointed out the relatively high incidence of the coexistence of hemifacial spasm and systemic blood hypertension; both can be cured by vascular decompression of the ventrolateral aspect of the medulla and IX-Xth route entry zone (REZ) together with the facial REZ...
April 18, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663677/the-carotid-sinus-nerve-structure-function-and-clinical-implications
#5
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Raffaele De Caro
Interest has been renewed in the anatomy and physiology of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and its targets (carotid sinus and carotid body, CB), due to recent proposals of surgical procedures for a series of common pathologies, such as carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, heart failure, and insulin resistance. The CSN originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve soon after its appearance from the jugular foramen. It shows frequent communications with the sympathetic trunk (usually at the level of the superior cervical ganglion) and the vagal nerve (main trunk, pharyngeal branches, or superior laryngeal nerve)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659159/spinal-accessory-motor-neurons-in-the-mouse-a-special-type-of-branchial-motor-neuron
#6
Charles Watson, Petr Tvrdik
The spinal accessory nerve arises from motor neurons in the upper cervical spinal cord. The axons of these motor neurons exit dorsal to the ligamentum denticulatum and form the spinal accessory nerve. The nerve ascends in the spinal subarachnoid space to enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum. The spinal accessory nerve then turns caudally to exit through the jugular foramen alongside the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and then travels to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537615/bilateral-taste-disorders-in-patients-with-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-and-bell-palsy
#7
Pavlos Pavlidis, Rafael J A Cámara, Georgios Kekes, Haralampos Gouveris
OBJECTIVE: Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and Bell palsy (BP) are typically known as facial nerve motor syndromes and are primarily unilateral. The aim of this study was to challenge this assertion, because both conditions are also known to be associated with viruses that typically affect several nerves. METHODS: Ten participants with RHS, 12 with BP, all clinically unilateral, and 12 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Electrogustometric thresholds were measured bilaterally in the areas of the chorda tympani, the glossopharyngeal, and the major petrosal nerve...
April 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532442/vernet-syndrome-resulting-from-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-a-very-rare-clinical-presentation-of-a-common-viral-infection
#8
João Ferreira, Ana Franco, Tiago Teodoro, Miguel Coelho, Luísa Albuquerque
Vernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Physical examination showed signs compatible with a right XI, X, and XI cranial nerves involvement and also several vesicular lesions in the right ear's concha...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515426/a-rare-case-of-glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-due-to-neurovascular-conflict
#9
Marc Vecchi, Ricardo Pereira Mestre, S Luciamma Thiekalamuriyil, Roberto Cartolari
In the context of painful cranial neuropathies, a very rare cause is represented by the irritation of the glossopharyngeal nerve due to various aetiologic factors. Here, we present a case of neuralgia of the ninth right cranial nerve due to a compression of its nerve root upon the kinking of the homolateral vertebral artery, resulting in a disabling clinical overview for the patient. Our objective was to focus the reader's attention on the clinical manifestation, which alone could lead to an immediate diagnosis...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500569/a-pathological-study-of-the-tongues-of-rabid-dogs-in-the-philippines
#10
Nozomi Shiwa, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Daria Llenaresas Manalo, Satoshi Inoue, Chun-Ho Park
During rabies virus infections, the minor salivary glands are one of the important organs for virus replication and excretion into the oral cavity. However, details of pathological findings and viral antigen distribution in the minor salivary glands remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted pathological tests on the tongues of 71 rabid dogs in the Philippines; the minor salivary glands (von Ebner's glands, lingual glands), circumvallate papilla, autonomic ganglia, and skeletal muscles were evaluated...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415007/gli3-is-a-negative-regulator-of-tas1r3-expressing-taste-cells
#11
Yumei Qin, Sunil K Sukumaran, Masafumi Jyotaki, Kevin Redding, Peihua Jiang, Robert F Margolskee
Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3-24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404375/use-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-and-midodrine-in-a-patient-with-autonomic-instability-2-2-compressive-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-pain
#12
Kyle Ball, Thomas P Vacek
A rare cause of reflex syncope is metastatic cancers involving the head and neck. These can irritate the glossopharyngeal nerve and lead to glossopharyngeal neuralgia with associated syncope. This type of syncope is difficult to treat since it commonly involves both a vasodepressor and cardioinhibitory response, and typically requires removal of the irritative focus. We report a case of a 52-year-old male who presented from home with syncope. He endorsed a 5-week history of progressively worsened positional headaches and dramatic 40-pound weight loss with night sweats over 6 months...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258935/low-retrosigmoid-infratonsillar-approach-to-lateral-medullary-lesions
#13
Baran Bozkurt, M Yashar S Kalani, Kaan Yağmurlu, Evgenii Belykh, Mark C Preul, Peter Nakaji, Robert F Spetzler
OBJECTIVE: In our study, we comprehensively detail the technique of the low retrosigmoid approach to the lateral medullary area, including the inferior cerebellar peduncle, postolivary sulcus, pontomedullary sulcus, and inferior olivary nucleus, as well as the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle. METHODS: Four formalin-fixed, silicone-injected, cadaveric human heads were examined under the operating microscope to demonstrate pertinent descriptive anatomy using the low retrosigmoid approach in a stepwise manner...
March 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#14
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142635/microvascular-decompression-for-glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-clinical-analyses-of-30-cases
#15
Mi Kyung Kim, Jae Sung Park, Young Hwan Ahn
Objective: We present our experience of microvascular decompression (MVD) for glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) and evaluate the postoperative outcomes in accordance with four different operative techniques during MVD. Methods: In total, 30 patients with intractable primary typical GPN who underwent MVD without rhizotomy and were followed for more than 2 years were included in the analysis. Each MVD was performed using one of four different surgical techniques: interposition of Teflon pieces, transposition of offending vessels using Teflon pieces, transposition of offending vessels using a fibrin-glue-coated Teflon sling, and removal of offending veins...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103093/enhancement-of-gustatory-neural-responses-by-parasympathetic-nerve-in-the-frog
#16
Toshihide Sato, Yukio Okada
The autonomic nervous system affects the gustatory responses in animals. Frog glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) contains the parasympathetic nerve. We checked the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the parasympathetic nerves on the gustatory neural responses. The gustatory neural impulses of the GPNs were recorded using bipolar AgCl wires under normal blood circulation and integrated with a time constant of 1 s. Electrical stimuli were applied to the proximal side of the GPN with a pair of AgCl wires. The parasympathetic nerves of the GPN were strongly stimulated for 10 s with 6 V at 30 Hz before taste stimulation...
November 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098745/prosthodontic-management-of-a-patient-with-moebius-syndrome-a-clinical-report
#17
Ahmed Mahrous, Ghadeer Thalji
Moebius/Mӧbius Syndrome (MS) is an extremely rare congenital disorder characterized by uni- or bilateral palsy of the abducens (VI) and the facial (VII) nerves, causing facial paralysis. Dysfunction of cranial nerves III through XII is common, most often the glossopharyngeal (IX) and hypoglossus (XII). Afflicted individuals seeking prosthodontic care, particularly removable prosthetics, present multiple challenges related to inherent facial and tongue muscle weakness and microstomia. Other extraoral anomalies may include congenital multiple arthrogryposis and malformations of the upper and lower limbs...
March 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075903/the-tethered-effect-of-the-arachnoid-in-vago-glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-a-real-associated-alternative-mechanism
#18
Florian Bernard, Philippe Mercier, Marc Sindou
Vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia (VGPN) is a rarely seen disease when compared to trigeminal neuralgia. When the pain is resistant to medical therapy, microvascular decompression can be performed if a vascular conflict is suspected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, arachnoid pathology may play a role in VGPN. We report two cases of VGPN caused by tethered arachnoid, associated with a vascular contact in which pain was reduced by freeing rootlets from arachnoid compression. We report two cases relating to 50-year-old and 30-year-old men with a history of electric shooting pain triggered by swallowing in the right pharyngeal and auricular regions...
January 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044022/-villaret-syndrome-and-lung-adenocarcinoma-an-unusual-association
#19
Juan José Canciani, Juliana A Ospina, Paula Acosta, Javier López, Agustín Dal Verme, Christian Peralta
Villaret syndrome is defined by the affection of the glossopharyngeal (IX), vagal (X), accessory (XI) and hypoglossal (XII) cranial nerves associated with ipsilateral Horner syndrome. It is caused by the compression of these nerves and the neighboring sympathetic plexus fibers at the base of the skull, particularly in the retroparotid space. Even though the invasion of the central nervous system in patients with advanced lung cancer is a frequent and well known occurrence, this particular symptomatic association is extremely rare...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952337/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-a-study-of-21-patients-with-long-term-follow-up
#20
Pierre-Yves Borius, Constantin Tuleasca, Xavier Muraciole, Laura Negretti, Luis Schiappacasse, Antoine Dorenlot, Maud Marguet, Michele Zeverino, Anne Donnet, Marc Levivier, Jean Regis
Objective Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a very rare condition, affecting the patient's quality of life. We report our experience in drug-resistant, idiopathic GPN, treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), in terms of safety and efficiency, on a very long-term basis. Methods The study was opened, self-controlled, non-comparative and bicentric (Marseille and Lausanne University Hospitals). Patients treated with GKRS between 2003 and 2015 (models C, 4C and Perfexion) were included. A single 4-mm isocentre was positioned in the cisternal portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve, with a targeting based both on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)...
March 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
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