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Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Takafumi Hosokawa, Hideto Nakajima, Akihiro Tsukahara, Kiich Unoda, Shimon Ishida, Fumiharu Kimura
A 64-year-old woman developed acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves on the left side after pain in the head and the left ear and throat. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA was detected by PCR from cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnosis of lower cranial polyneuropathy due to VZV reactivation was made. After oral administration of an anti-viral agent and steroid, all symptoms and signs dramatically improved...
September 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Kentaro Watanabe, R Shane Tubbs, Shunsuke Satoh, Ali R Zomorodi, Wolfgang Liedtke, Moujahed Labidi, Allan H Friedman, Takanori Fukushima
: Glossopharyngeal, nervus intermedius and vagus neuralgias can all present with ear pain. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of otalgia as the only symptom of vagus neuralgia. The seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves have many interneural connections and the exact anatomy and pathophysiology of these neuralgias is often not clear. Moreover, symptoms due to involvement of any of these nerves can be difficult to attribute solely to one of them. The overlapping sensory innervation of the external auditory canal can lead to misdiagnosis in patients suffering from otalgia...
September 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Marcel Kullmann, Marcos Tatagiba, Marina Liebsch, Guenther C Feigl
OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the predictive value of changes in intraoperatively acquired motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the lower cranial nerves CN.IX-X (glossopharyngeal-vagus nerve) and CN.XII (hypoglossal nerve) for the operative outcome. METHODS: MEPs of CN.IX-X and CN.XII were recorded intraoperatively in 63 patients undergoing surgery of the posterior cranial fossa. We correlated the changes of the MEPs with postoperative nerve function. RESULTS: For CN...
July 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
J B Morvan, A Bizeau, L Vatin, O Cathelinaud, C L Curto, P Verdalle, B Guelfucci
INTRODUCTION: The schwannoma of the glossopharyngeal nerve is a rare etiology among the tumor masses developed in the parapharyngeal space. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 33 years old woman in whom a large schwannoma of the left glossopharyngeal nerve was discovered incidentally on a brain MRI. Respiratory evolutionary prognosis imposed trans-oral surgical treatment. DISCUSSION: We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the benign tumors of the parapharyngeal space...
2015: Revue de Laryngologie—Otologie—Rhinologie
Mythili Kalladka, Cibele Nasri-Heir, Eli Eliav, Sowmya Ananthan, Archana Viswanath, Gary Heir
Neuropathic pain encompasses a spectrum of conditions that can arise from a lesion or dysfunction of the central or the peripheral nervous system, and it may develop at variable intervals after nerve injury or inflammation. Nerve injuries arising from surgical procedures commonly occur secondary to the surgical trauma, and in rare instances they are a complication of intubation during general anesthesia or endoscopic procedures. A series of 2 cases of bilateral glossopharyngeal neuropathic pain subsequent to endoscopic procedures is presented with a review of the literature concerning the mechanisms of development of neuropathic pain after these procedures...
August 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Terrence L Trentman, Christopher Thunberg, Andrew Gorlin, Antoun Koht, Richard S Zimmerman, Bernard Bendok
Acoustic neuroma resection is an example of a neurosurgical procedure where the brainstem and multiple cranial nerves are at risk for injury. Electrode placement for monitoring of the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves during acoustic neuroma resection can be challenging. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the use of a device for intra-oral electrode placement for intraoperative monitoring of the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves. A 60-year-old male presented for acoustic neuroma resection...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Akcan Akkaya, İsa Yıldız, Abdullah Demirhan, Ümit Yaşar Tekelioğlu, Hasan Koçoğlu
A 23-year-old male patient with occipitocervical fixator was scheduled for surgery due to injury to the right forearm. The patient's thyromental distance was 5 cm, mouth opening grade II, sternomental distance 10 cm and Mallampati score 4. Loss of extension and rotation movements of the head was assessed as difficult intubation criteria. Anaesthetic procedures are almost always difficult in patients with occipitocervical fixation; the limited cervical extension complicated both intubation and ventilation. In this report, application of general anaesthesia using awake fibreoptic bronchoscopic intubation (FOB) is described...
October 2013: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Chengyuan Wang, Summit Kundaria, Juan Fernandez-Miranda, Umamaheswar Duvvuri
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To illustrate detailed anatomy of the extracranial portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the parapharyngeal space as encountered during transoral surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cadaveric dissection. All dissections were performed transorally and confirmed with transcervical dissection. METHODS: Eight color-injected cadaveric heads (16 sides) were dissected to demonstrate the course and anatomy of the glossopharyngeal nerve...
September 2016: Laryngoscope
Jennifer M Stratford, John A Thompson, Thomas E Finger
Sensory inputs from the oropharynx terminate in both the trigeminal brainstem complex and the rostral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). Taste information is conveyed via the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves while general mucosal innervation is carried by the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves. In contrast, the caudal nTS receives general visceral information largely from the vagus nerve. Although the caudal nTS shows clear morphological and molecularly delimited subdivisions, the rostral part does not...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tatjana Stopar Pintaric
Airway anesthesia is pivotal for successful awake intubation provided either topically or by blocks. Airway blocks are considered technically more difficult to perform and carry a higher risk of complications. However, in experienced hands, they can be useful as they provide excellent intubating conditions. For complete upper airway anesthesia, bilateral glossopharyngeal and superior laryngeal nerve blocks with translaryngeal injection are required. Superior laryngeal nerve block and translaryngeal injection can be performed easily, safely and with a high success rate in patients with normal anatomy...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Jiri Bartek, Sasha Gulati, Geirmund Unsgård, Clemens Weber, Petter Förander, Ole Solheim, Asgeir S Jakola
OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies of adverse events occurring within 30 days after microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery using a standardized report form of adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 98 adult patients (≥16 years) treated with MVD between 1 January 1994 and 1 June 2013. Adverse events occurring within 30 days were classified according to the Landriel Ibanez classification for neurosurgical complications: grade I represents any non-life threatening complication treated without invasive procedures; grade II is complications requiring invasive management; grade III is life-threatening adverse events requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU); grade IV is death as a result of complications...
September 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Rogelio Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Andres Humberto Morales-Martínez, Carolina Mejías-Soto, Jaime Jesús Martínez-Anda, Luis Alberto Ortega-Porcayo
BACKGROUND: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is an uncommon craniofacial pain syndrome. It is characterized by a sudden onset lancinating pain usually localized in the sensory distribution of the IX cranial nerve associated with excessive vagal outflow, which leads to bradycardia, hypotension, syncope, or cardiac arrest. This study aims to review our surgical experience performing microvascular decompression (MVD) in patients with GPN. METHODS: Over the last 20 years, 14 consecutive cases were diagnosed with GPN...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Veena Chatrath, Radhe Sharan, Payal Jain, Anju Bala, Ranjana, Sudha
AIMS OF STUDY: To evaluate the efficacy, hemodynamic changes, and patient comfort during awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional blocks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present observational study, 50 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists ( ASA) Grade I-II, Mallampati Grade I-IV were given nerve blocks - bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block, bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block, and recurrent laryngeal nerve block before awake fiberoptic intubation using 2% lidocaine...
May 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Kiyoshi Makiyama, Ryoji Hirai, Fusako Iikuni, Atsuo Ikeda, Hirotaka Tomomatsu
OK-432 is an immunomodulator that has been reported to be efficacious as an injection therapy for cervical lymphomas and ranulas. We performed OK-432 injection therapy to treat a cystadenocarcinoma of the parotid gland in a 72-year-old man. The 50 × 46-mm tumor was located in the deep lobe of the gland. The tumor had compressed the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves, causing neurally mediated syncope, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dysarthria. A concentration of 5 KE/2 ml of OK-432 was injected. Within 2 months, the cyst had disappeared; no recurrence was apparent during 59 months of follow-up...
April 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Laura Burfield, Faheem Ahmad, Jacqueline Adams
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare pain syndrome presenting with paroxysms of pain in the region of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Even more uncommon is the association between glossopharyngeal neuralgia and cardiac syncope. In these patients, the cardiovascular consequences may include bradycardia, hypotension and cardiac arrest. We describe the case of a 40-year-old patient who presented with this rare association of glossopharyngeal neuralgia and syncope. Multiple pauses including one lasting 14 s were noted on ambulatory ECG monitoring...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Hediye Pinar Gunbey, Gokhan Kutlar, Kerim Aslan, Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Lutfi Incesu
The involvement of lower cranial nerve palsies is less frequent in Ramsay Hunt syndrome caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). The authors report 1 of extremely rare patients of radiologically proven polyneuropathy of VZV infection with magnetic resonance imaging findings of VII, IX, and X cranial nerve involvement is a 62-year-old female patient, who initially presented with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Varicella zoster virus infection should be considered even in patients who show unilateral palsy of the lower cranial nerves associated with laryngeal paralysis...
May 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Robrecht J H Logjes, Ronald L A W Bleys, Corstiaan C Breugem
OBJECTIVE: Surgical techniques to obtain adequate soft palate repair in cleft palate patients elaborate on the muscle repair; however, there is little available information regarding the innervation of muscles. Improved insights into the innervation of the musculature will likely allow improvements in the repair of the cleft palate and subsequently decrease the incidence of velopharyngeal insufficiency. We performed a literature review focusing on recent advances in the understanding of soft palate muscle innervation...
June 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Osamu Tadokoro, Hiroshi Ando, Ichiro Kawahara, Naokazu Asanuma, Masayo Okumura, Junichi Kitagawa, Eiji Kondo, Hiroshi Yagasaki
Previous studies have found a few intralingual ganglionic cells that were immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the frog. A recent study reported a large number of such cells, and the possibility of the release of substance P (SP) from these. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, origin, and colocalization of VIP- and SP- immunoreactive nerves in the tongue of the bullfrog, R. catesbeiana. In addition, the study also examined the colocalization of SP and phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2 ) in the tongue and jugular ganglion...
July 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
S Haller, L Etienne, E Kövari, A D Varoquaux, H Urbach, M Becker
Neurovascular compression syndromes are usually caused by arteries that directly contact the cisternal portion of a cranial nerve. Not all cases of neurovascular contact are clinically symptomatic. The transition zone between the central and peripheral myelin is the most vulnerable region for symptomatic neurovascular compression syndromes. Trigeminal neuralgia (cranial nerve V) has an incidence of 4-20/100,000, a transition zone of 4 mm, with symptomatic neurovascular compression typically proximal. Hemifacial spasm (cranial nerve VII) has an incidence of 1/100,000, a transition zone of 2...
August 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Yasushi Motoyama, Ichiro Nakagawa, Tsunenori Takatani, Hun-Soo Park, Yukiko Kotani, Yoshitaka Tanaka, Pritam Gurung, Young-Soo Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) is a rare functional disorder representing around 1% of cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancinating throat and ear pain while swallowing are the typical manifestations, and are initially treated using anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine. Medically refractory GN is treated surgically. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is reportedly effective against GN, superseding rhizotomy and tractotomy. METHODS: We encountered three patients with medically refractory GN who underwent MVD using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM)...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
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