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Abducens Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659177/the-anatomical-relationships-of-the-ocular-motor-nerves-with-an-emphasis-on-surgical-anatomy-of-the-orbit
#2
Nihal Apaydin, Simel Kendir, S Tuna Karahan
The surgical procedures directed to the orbit are invariably reported to be one of the most challenging procedures of the neurosurgery and it is very important to take measures to protect the ocular nerves. Many researchers have tried to identify safe approaches or safe regions in the orbit but the suggestions and results vary among published studies. The ocular motor nerves are under risk of injury during various approaches to the orbit. Simple but careful attention to potential variations in the origin and anatomical course of the ocular nerves and their relationships to the orbit may help to define "safe zones" during various approaches, thus help to enhance clinical outcomes...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547084/endoscopic-endonasal-surgery-for-epidermoid-and-dermoid-cysts-a-10-year-experience
#3
Francisco Vaz-Guimaraes, Maria Koutourousiou, John R de Almeida, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W Wang, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
OBJECTIVE Epidermoid and dermoid cysts may be found along the cranial base and are commonly resected via open transcranial approaches. The use of endoscopic endonasal approaches for resection of these tumors has been rarely reported. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for epidermoid and dermoid cyst resection at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2005 and June 2014. Surgical outcomes and variables that might affect the extent of resection and complications were analyzed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541802/unilateral-duplicated-abducens-nerve-coursing-through-both-the-sphenopetroclival-venous-gulf-and-cavernous-sinus-a-case-report
#4
Thomas Coquet, Michel Lefranc, Louis Chenin, Pascal Foulon, Éric Havet, Johann Peltier
In this anatomy report, we describe the first case of abducens nerve duplication limited to the sphenopetroclival venous gulf and the cavernous sinus. The objective point of division of the two duplicated roots was localized at the gulfar face of the dural porus, just distal to the unique cisternal trunk of the abducens nerve, as it pierced the petroclival dural mater. In the gulfar segment, both roots traveled through a variant of Dorello's canal called the "petrosphenoidal canal" and remained separated through the posterior half of the cavernous sinus...
March 15, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538708/endoscopic-endonasal-transclival-approach-for-resection-of-a-pontine-glioma-surgical-planning-surgical-anatomy-and-technique
#5
David T Fernandes Cabral, Georgios A Zenonos, Maximiliano Nuñez, Pinar Celtikci, Carl Snyderman, Eric Wang, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been proposed as a potential alternative for ventral brainstem lesions. The surgical anatomy, feasibility, and limitations of the EEA for intrinsic brainstem lesions are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical planning, anatomy, and technique of an intrinsic pontine glioma operated via EEA. METHODS: Six-human brainstems were prepared for white matter microdissection...
March 12, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527867/orthodontics-and-moebius-syndrome-an-observational-study
#6
Marisabel Magnifico, Diana Cassi, Mauro Gandolfini, Andrea Toffoli, Piero A Zecca, Alberto DI Blasio
BACKGROUND: Moebius syndrome is a rare condition characterized by bilateral facial and abducens nerve paralysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the main orthodontic features and the frequency of associated clinical characteristics in patients with Moebius Syndrome (MS). METHODS: According to Terzis classifications, 58 patients with MS aged 8 months to 46 years old underwent orthodontics and clinical examination. RESULTS: Strabismus, upper and lower limb malformations, lip and palatal cleft were frequently associated with MS...
March 8, 2018: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504967/bilateral-abducens-nerve-palsies-and-urinary-retention-caused-by-the-rupture-of-a-vertebral-artery-aneurysm-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Guoping Peng, Jiajia Zhou
RATIONALE: Bilateral abducens nerve deficits caused by vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm have been reported, but there have been no reports regarding accompanying urinary retention. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe an unusual case with bilateral abducens nerve palsy and urinary retention due to rupture of a vertebral aneurysm. DIAGNOSES: Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of a left VA aneurysm. INTERVENTIONS: The VA aneurysm was successfully controlled by coil embolization...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491335/-cerebrospinal-fluid-leakage-and-abducens-nerve-palsy-caused-by-bowling-activity
#8
Hiroyasu Inoue, Masaya Takemoto, Masahiro Muto, Taro Kitamura, Kentaro Yamada
Cerebrospinal fluid leakage can develop due to traffic trauma or lumbar puncture; however, in many cases, it develops spontaneously without any obvious cause. This report describes a case of cerebrospinal fluid leakage caused by bowling activity. A 57-year-old woman adjusted her bowling form, which led to the development of an orthostatic headache and double vision. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and right abducens nerve palsy was diagnosed, which was resistant to conservative treatment. An epidural blood patch was performed, leading to an improvement in the headache and abducens nerve palsy...
February 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465546/bilateral-abducens-nerve-palsies-and-urinary-retention-caused-by-the-rupture-of-a-vertebral-artery-aneurysm-a-case-report-and-literature-review-erratum
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447480/intramuscular-distribution-of-the-abducens-nerve-in-the-lateral-rectus-muscle-for-the-management-of-strabismus
#10
Hyun Jin Shin, Shin-Hyo Lee, Kang-Jae Shin, Ki-Seok Koh, Wu-Chul Song
AIMS: To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. METHODS: Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated...
February 15, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446798/life-threatening-headaches-in-children-clinical-approach-and-therapeutic-options
#11
Nagma Dalvi, Lalitha Sivaswamy
Life-threatening headaches in children can present in an apoplectic manner that garners immediate medical attention, or in an insidious, more dangerous form that may go unnoticed for a relatively long period of time. The recognition of certain clinical characteristics that accompany the headache should prompt recognition and referral to an institution equipped with neuroimaging facilities, pediatric neurosurgeons, and neurologists. Thunderclap headaches, which reach a peak within a very short period of time, may be the presenting feature of conditions such as arterial dissection, venous sinus thrombosis, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, which can be addressed by specific pharmacological options instituted in an intensive care setting...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424937/pathogenesis-of-cranial-neuropathies-in-moebius-syndrome-electrodiagnostic-orofacial-studies
#12
Francis Renault, Roberto Flores-Guevara, Bernard Sergent, Jean Jacques Baudon, Jessie Aouizerate, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Cyril Gitiaux
INTRODUCTION: We designed a retrospective study of 59 patients with congenital sporadic non-progressive bilateral facial and abducens palsies. METHODS: Examinations included needle EMG of facial and oral muscles, facial nerve motor latency and conduction velocity (FNCV), and blink responses (BRs). RESULTS: Neurogenic EMG changes were found in one or more muscles in 55/59 patients, with no abnormal spontaneous activity. EMG changes were homogeneously neurogenic in 17 patients, homogeneously myopathic in one, and heterogeneous in 41/59 patients...
February 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408345/novel-segmentation-of-placed-coils-in-the-treatment-of-cavernous-sinus-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-provides-a-reliable-predictor-of-the-long-term-outcome-in-abducens-nerve-palsy
#13
Masaaki Kohta, Atsushi Fujita, Jun Tanaka, Takashi Sasayama, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386499/-a-case-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis-without-erythema-migrans
#14
Katsuki Eguchi, Kazuhumi Tsuzaka, Ichiro Yabe, Hidenao Sasaki
A 56-year-old man was sustained ticks at the left axilla and flank. He did not have a rash. About 3 months after the tick bites, he developed back pain, right leg weakness, right abducens nerve palsy, and left facial palsy. Western blot analysis for serum IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia were positive. We diagnosed Lyme borreliosis. The patient was treated with antibiotics and steroids, and the symptoms improved. Our findings demonstrate that, even if erythema migrans is not obvious, neuroborreliosis should be considered when neurological signs, such as multiple cranial nerve palsies, are present...
January 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386492/-a-case-of-neurolymphomatosis-that-was-diagnosed-by-acoustic-nerve-biopsy
#15
Asuka Asanome, Kohei Kano, Kae Takahashi, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Takayuki Katayama
A 58-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of recurrent multiple cranial neuropathy (right facial palsy followed by involvement of the left trigeminal, facial, acoustic, pharyngeal, and vagal nerves and the right abducens nerve). Brain MRI showed gadolinium enhancement of the right abducens, bilateral facial/acoustic, and left pharyngeal/vagal nerves, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography revealed abnormal FDG uptake in the right facial, acoustic, pharyngeal, and vagal nerves and the left cervical lymph nodes...
January 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376441/spontaneous-haemorrhage-into-a-large-abducens-nerve-schwannoma-a-case-report
#16
Daniel Brown, Nicolas McConnell, Richard List, Farouk Olubajo, Robin Highley, Mathew Storey, Gueorgui Kounin
PURPOSE: Abducens schwannomas are rare tumors that are not known to present with acute haemorrhage. We present a case of a 59 year-old female on warfarin who presented acutely with a sudden onset headache, nausea and photophobia. Neuroimaging revealed an acute haemorrhage into a lesion that entered Dorello's canal and was consistent with an abducens nerve schwannoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient's case notes, imaging, histology and operative recording were reviewed retrospectively to compile this case report...
January 29, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344066/diagnostic-challenge-sequential-unilateral-cranial-neuropathies-due-to-perineural-spread-of-carcinoma
#17
Heather E Moss, Peter W MacIntosh, Konstantin V Slavin, John M Collins
An 86-year old man developed sequential dysfunction of trigeminal (V1), facial, abducens, trigeminal (v2), oculomotor, and hypoglossal cranial nerves on the right over 20 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a lesion in the right cavernous sinus. Although there was clinical suspicion that this was related to perineural spread of an extracranial tumour, a primary lesion was not discovered. Stereotactic biopsies of the intracranial lesion were non-diagnostic, and the patient succumbed to his tumour following a period of rapid growth...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341940/mucocele-of-the-sphenoid-sinus
#18
Karen B Djambazov, Borislav D Kitov, Christo B Zhelyazkov, Atanas N Davarski, Alexandrina R Topalova
Mucocele of the paranasal sinuses is a rare disease with slow evolution. It is a benign, encapsulated and destructive formation filled with mucous fluid and tapistrated with respiratory epithelium. Of all the paranasal sinuses, the sphenoid sinus is affected in only 1-7% of the cases. We present two cases of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus involving the posterior ethmoidal cells. We consider here their clinical presentation, use of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, surgical care and postoperative results. Both patients presented with a history of persistent headache and in addition, one of them had a paresis of the right oculomotor and abducens nerves...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298208/electrophysiology-of-extraocular-cranial-nerves-oculomotor-trochlear-and-abducens-nerve
#19
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260052/spasm-of-the-near-reflex-a-case-report
#20
Maedbh Rhatigan, Caroline Byrne, Patricia Logan
Purpose: Spasm of the near reflex (SNR) is a triad of miosis, excess accommodation and excess convergence. Primary SNR is most often functional in origin We aim to highlight the clinical features which distinguish primary convergence from other conditions with a similar presentation but more sinister underlying aetiology, for example bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Observations: There is a paucity of published data on SNR, in particular diagnostic criteria and treatment...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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