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Abducens Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526001/postoperative-full-abduction-in-a-patient-of-duane-retraction-syndrome-without-an-abducens-nerve-a-case-report
#1
Jae Hyoung Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND: Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) consists of abduction deficit, globe retraction and upshoots or downshoots with adduction. The abducens nerve on the affected side is absent in type 1 DRS. After bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral type 1 DRS may improve the abduction limitation, but still more than -3 limitation remains. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old boy presented with esotropia which had been noticed in early infancy. He showed limited abduction, fissure narrowing on attempted adduction and a small upshoot OS...
May 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521059/pediatric-clival-chordoma-a-curable-disease-that-conforms-to-collins-law
#2
Marcio S Rassi, M Maher Hulou, Kaith Almefty, Wenya Linda Bi, Svetlana Pravdenkova, Ian F Dunn, Timothy R Smith, Ossama Al-Mefty
BACKGROUND: Skull base chordomas in children are extremely rare. Their course, management, and outcome have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: To describe the preeminent clinical and radiological features in a series of pediatric patients with skull base chordomas and analyze the outcome of a cohort who underwent uniform treatment. We emphasize predictors of overall survival and progression-free survival, which aligns with Collins' law for embryonal tumors. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 10...
May 17, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516081/a-case-of-coincidental-intrasellar-chordoma-and-pituitary-adenoma
#3
Sehoon Park, Hee Sung Kim, Ki-Su Park, Taek-Kyun Nam, Yong-Sook Park, Jeong-Taik Kwon, Kyung-Tae Kim
Although chordomas are midline tumors, primarily intrasellar chordomas are extremely rare. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 68-year-old female with partial abducens nerve palsy in the right eye due to the intrasellar cystic tumor. After endonasal trans-sphenoidal surgery, intraoperative and histopathological findings confirmed the co-occurrence of an entirely intrasellar chordoma and pituitary adenoma. To our knowledge, the present case is the third reported case of an intrasellar chordoma with a pituitary adenoma...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514515/detailed-anatomy-of-the-abducens-nerve-in-the-lateral-rectus-muscle
#4
Yong Seok Nam, In-Beom Kim, Sun Young Shin
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474189/transsphenoidal-and-infralabyrinthine-approach-of-the-petrous-apex-cholesterol-granuloma
#5
Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage, Barbara Wollenberg, Anke Leichtle
Space-demanding or destructive changes in the petrous bone are often challenging differential diagnosis. Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex can clinically present in a combination of hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus, chronic cephalgia, impairment of facial nerve function, neuralgic pain of the nervus trigeminus, or manifest diplopia by the nerve palsy of the nervus abducens. CT-morphologically cholesterol granulomas appear as soft-tissue density masses, which may display a discrete rim after intravenous administration of a contrast agent...
May 4, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465275/factors-associated-with-abducens-nerve-recovery-in-patients-undergoing-surgical-resection-of-sixth-nerve-schwannoma-a-systematic-review-and-case-illustration
#6
REVIEW
Hai Sun, Kanika Sharma, Piyush Kalakoti, Jai Deep Thakur, Devi Prasad Patra, Subhas Konar, Tanmoy Maiti, Hesam Akbarian-Tefaghi, Papireddy Bollam, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
BACKGROUND: Limited or no literature exists identifying factors associated with functional nerve recovery in patients undergoing resection of sixth nerve (CN VI) schwannomas. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was performed on CN VI schwannomas that were treated surgically. Synthesizing the findings pooled from the literature, we investigated associations of patient demographics and clinical characteristics with post-surgical CN VI functional recovery in multivariable regression models...
April 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461814/isolated-abducens-palsy-as-the-first-presenting-sign-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Sargon Bet-Shlimon, Mill Etienne
While brain stem involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is relatively common, isolated cranial nerve palsies are rare, especially when they represent the initial presenting sign of a new diagnosis of MS. This report describes a patient with no prior history of MS whose sole presenting sign was an isolated abducens palsy. An enhancing pontine lesion was found on MRI which correlated with his abducens palsy, and additional nonactive lesions on MRI led to a diagnosis of MS. This case demonstrates the importance of considering MS as part of the differential diagnosis of patients with isolated cranial nerve palsies...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461619/case-6-isolated-bilateral-abducens-nerve-palsy-after-closed-head-trauma-in-an-11-year-old-boy
#8
Nkeiruka Orajiaka, Prasanna Kapavarapu, Gulafsha Chaudhary, Leonid Topper, Logeswary Rajagopalan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459979/ocular-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders-ccdds-insights-into-axon-growth-and-guidance
#9
Mary C Whitman, Elizabeth C Engle
Unraveling the genetics of the paralytic strabismus syndromes known as congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) is both informing physicians and their patients and broadening our understanding of development of the ocular motor system. Genetic mutations underlying ocular CCDDs alter either motor neuron specification or motor nerve development, and highlight the importance of modulations of cell signaling, cytoskeletal transport, and microtubule dynamics for axon growth and guidance. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of two CCDDs, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), and discuss what they have taught us about mechanisms of axon guidance and selective vulnerability...
April 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454254/oculomotor-nerve-palsy-as-a-preceding-symptom-of-adult-sporadic-burkitt-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Yun Liang, Luyin Ding, Xian Li, Weiqin Wang, Xiaohong Zhang
Adult sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare aggressive neoplasm and represents ~1-5% of all lymphomas diagnosed in adults. The disease exhibits an aggressive clinical manifestation, which frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS) in the early stages, and is usually accompanied by abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations and/or neuroradiography. The current study describes the rare case of a 29-year-old man who presented with oculomotor nerve palsy without palpated masses, B symptoms, peripheral blood anomaly and abnormalities of the nervous system...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437527/ocular-motor-nerve-development-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-extraocular-muscle
#11
Suzanne M Michalak, Mary C Whitman, Jong G Park, Max A Tischfield, Elaine H Nguyen, Elizabeth C Engle
Purpose: To spatially and temporally define ocular motor nerve development in the presence and absence of extraocular muscles (EOMs). Methods: Myf5cre mice, which in the homozygous state lack EOMs, were crossed to an IslMN:GFP reporter line to fluorescently label motor neuron cell bodies and axons. Embryonic day (E) 11.5 to E15.5 wild-type and Myf5cre/cre:IslMN:GFP whole mount embryos and dissected orbits were imaged by confocal microscopy to visualize the developing oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves in the presence and absence of EOMs...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406779/classic-raymond-syndrome
#12
Majid Khan, Sadaf Naveed, Iqbal Haider, Mohammad Humayun, Abidullah Khan
Classic Raymond syndrome presents with abducens nerve palsy on the ipsilateral side with contralateral hemiparesis and facial nerve paralysis. A 60-year gentleman presented with deviation of left angle of mouth and right sided weakness. Examination showed that he had left sided abducens nerve palsy, with contralateral central facial paralysis and paresis. MRI of brain confirmed left pontine infarct. These findings were consistent with classic Raymond syndrome. Till now, only a few cases have been reported worldwide, this being the first case reported in South Asia...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364580/end-organ-radiographic-manifestations-of-cranial-neuropathies-a-concise-review
#13
Vijay A Patel, Thomas T Zacharia, David Goldenberg, Johnathan D McGinn
BACKGROUND: Cranial neuropathies are a spectrum of disorders associated with dysfunction of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves and the subsequent anatomic structures they innervate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review radiographic imaging findings of end-organ aberrations secondary to cranial neuropathies. METHOD: All articles related to cranial neuropathies were retrieved through the PubMed MEDLINE NCBI database from January 1, 1991 to August 31, 2014...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346224/mutant-%C3%AE-2-chimaerin-signals-via-bidirectional-ephrin-pathways-in-duane-retraction-syndrome
#14
Alicia A Nugent, Jong G Park, Yan Wei, Alan P Tenney, Nicole M Gilette, Michelle M DeLisle, Wai-Man Chan, Long Cheng, Elizabeth C Engle
Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is the most common form of congenital paralytic strabismus in humans and can result from α2-chimaerin (CHN1) missense mutations. We report a knockin α2-chimaerin mouse (Chn1KI/KI) that models DRS. Whole embryo imaging of Chn1KI/KI mice revealed stalled abducens nerve growth and selective trochlear and first cervical spinal nerve guidance abnormalities. Stalled abducens nerve bundles did not reach the orbit, resulting in secondary aberrant misinnervation of the lateral rectus muscle by the oculomotor nerve...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345573/clinical-correlation-of-imaging-findings-in-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders-involving-abducens-nerve
#15
Chanchal Gupta, Pradeep Sharma, Rohit Saxena, Ajay Garg, Sanjay Sharma
PURPOSE: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracranial parts of sixth nerve and seventh nerve and the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in orbit to correlate the clinical characteristics in patients with two special forms of strabismus in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders which are Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) and Mobius syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphological analysis by 3T MRI of orbit (using surface coils) and brain (using 32 channel head coil) was performed on 6 patients with clinical DRS (1 bilateral), 2 cases with Mobius syndrome, and 1 case with congenital sixth nerve palsy...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343842/cranial-nerve-palsy-following-central-neuraxial-block-in-obstetrics-a-review-of-the-literature-and-analysis-of-43-case-reports
#16
D J Chambers, K Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsy is a rarely reported complication of central neuraxial block in obstetrics. The aetiology is diverse and includes both decreased and increased intracranial pressure. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify cases of cranial nerve palsy following obstetric central neuraxial block. Possible aetiology, clinical symptoms and signs, treatment, and time to resolution were assessed. RESULTS: Forty-one articles containing 43 case reports of cranial nerve palsy following obstetric central neuraxial block were identified...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299356/an-exome-sequencing-study-of-moebius-syndrome-including-atypical-cases-reveals-an-individual-with-cfeom3a-and-a-tubb3-mutation
#17
Ronak M Patel, David Liu, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Shalini Jhangiani, James T Lu, V Reid Sutton, Susan D Fernbach, Mahshid Azamian, Lisa White, Jane C Edmond, Evelyn A Paysse, John W Belmont, Donna Muzny, James R Lupski, Richard A Gibbs, Richard Alan Lewis, Brendan H Lee, Seema R Lalani, Philippe M Campeau
Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital unilateral or bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsies (sixth and seventh cranial nerves) causing facial weakness, feeding difficulties, and restricted ocular movements. Abnormalities of the chest wall such as Poland anomaly and variable limb defects are frequently associated with this syndrome. Most cases are isolated; however, rare families with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity have been described. The genetic basis of this condition remains unknown...
March 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296553/a-comparative-study-of-oculomotor-trochlear-and-abducens-nerves-in-arabian-foals
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
D Bolat, D Yıldız, S Bahar, S Yürüker, F Kaymaz, C Ilgın, E Ü Bozkurt, S Karahan, S S Sabancı
We investigated the microscopic structure of transverse sections of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves of Arabian foals using stereological methods. Bilateral nerve pairs from 2-month-old female Arabian foals were analyzed. The tissues were embedded in plastic blocks, then 1 µm thick sections were cut and stained with osmium tetroxide and methylene blue-azure II. Stereology was performed using light microscopy. Morphometry showed that the right and left pairs of nerves were similar. The transverse sectional areas of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves were 1...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292832/functional-organization-of-vestibulo-ocular-responses-in-abducens-motoneurons
#19
Haike Dietrich, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) are the dominating contributors to gaze stabilization in all vertebrates. During horizontal head movements, abducens motoneurons form the final element of the reflex arc that integrates visuovestibular inputs into temporally precise motor commands for the lateral rectus eye muscle. Here, we studied a possible differentiation of abducens motoneurons into subtypes by evaluating their morphology, discharge properties, and synaptic pharmacology in semi-intact in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus laevis Extracellular nerve recordings during sinusoidal head motion revealed a continuum of resting rates and activation thresholds during vestibular stimulation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274277/the-efficacy-of-resection-of-an-intradural-extramedullary-foramen-magnum-cavernous-malformation-presenting-with-repeated-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#20
Tomoya Oishi, Naoto Sakai, Tetsuro Sameshima, Hiroshi Kawaji, Hiroki Namba
BACKGROUND: Intradural extramedullary cavernous angiomas of the central nervous system are a rare type of cavernous angioma, but they can cause fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The efficacy of resection for this type of cavernous malformations remains uncertain. This is the first report to recommend surgical resection of these types of lesions regardless of the fatal condition. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 70-year-old Japanese man who experienced a sudden onset of an occipital headache, followed by bilateral abducens nerve palsy...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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