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Abducens Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912183/ocular-kinematics-measured-by-in-vitro-stimulation-of-the-cranial-nerves-in-the-turtle
#1
Maria Cano Garcia, Steven C Nesbit, Chi C Le, James R Dearworth
After animals are euthanized, their tissues begin to die. Turtles offer an advantage because of a longer survival time of their tissues, especially when compared to warm-blooded vertebrates. Because of this, in vitro experiments in turtles can be performed for extended periods of time to investigate the neural signals and control of their target actions. Using an isolated head preparation, we measured the kinematics of eye movements in turtles, and their modulation by electrical signals carried by cranial nerves...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877290/combined-abducens-and-peripheral-facial-nerve-palsy
#2
Kazuto Tsukita, Haruhi Sakamaki-Tsukita, Toshihiko Suenaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780954/severe-unilateral-abducens-nerve-palsy-from-cavernous-sinus-carotid-vascular-ectasia
#3
Sumeet Gupta, Brian Ellis, Alison Hixenbaugh, Dean Bonsall
Purpose: Carotid cavernous sinus ectasia is a rare cause of abducens nerve palsy. Observation: We present a case of severe unilateral progressive esotropia resulting from cavernous sinus carotid vascular ectasia in a 67 y/o female. She had progressive esotropia over the years with no neuroimaging despite having regular ophthalmic care. Magnetic resonance imaging determined the etiology of her chronic severe esotropia. Conclusion and importance: Carotid cavernous sinus ectasia should be considered in the differential of severe progressive unilateral abducens nerve palsy...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779709/a-mutation-in-transcription-factor-mafb-causes-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-with-duane-retraction-syndrome
#4
Yoshinori Sato, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Hiroyuki Morita, Koichiro Higasa, Mai Thi Nhu Tran, Michito Hamada, Toshiaki Usui, Naoki Morito, Shoichiro Horita, Takao Hayashi, Junko Takagi, Izumi Yamaguchi, Huan Thanh Nguyen, Masayo Harada, Kiyoko Inui, Yuichi Maruta, Yoshihiko Inoue, Fumihiko Koiwa, Hiroshi Sato, Fumihiko Matsuda, Shinya Ayabe, Seiya Mizuno, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Ashio Yoshimura
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in children and adults. Genetic factors significantly contribute to early-onset FSGS, but the etiologies of most adult cases remain unknown. Genetic studies of monogenic syndromic FSGS exhibiting extra-renal manifestations have uncovered an unexpected biological role for genes in the development of both podocytes and other cellular lineages. To help define these roles, we studied two unrelated families with FSGS associated with Duane Retraction Syndrome, characterized by impaired horizontal eye movement due to cranial nerve malformation...
May 17, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774172/moebius-syndrome-with-hypoglossal-palsy-syndactyly-brachydactyly-and-anisometropic-amblyopia
#5
Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Samreen Jamal, Muhammad Ather Rashid, Usman Javaid, Nadeem Hafeez Butt
Moebius syndrome is a rare cause of congenital facial and abducens palsy.  It is sometimes associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities and other cranial nerve palsies. Genetics and ischemic insults to the fetus are considered to be the cause of this syndrome. We report here a 12-year-old female patient who was presented to us with poor cosmesis of her face, with associated decreased vision and lagophthalmos in her left eye. She didn't have any signs of exposure keratopathy in the affected eye. Her best-corrected vision was 20/20 and 20/60 in right and left eyes respectively...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752994/modified-nishida-s-procedure-for-monocular-elevation-deficiency
#6
Sowmya Raveendra Murthy, Mithuna Pappuru
Monocular elevation deficiency (MED) is a frequent cause of hypotropia. Knapp's procedure is a well-documented and established procedure for treating MED. Modified Nishida's procedure (no split-no tenotomy transposition) has been described as equivalent to vertical rectus transposition in abducens nerve palsy. We report our results using the latter procedure in 3 cases of MED.
May 9, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701558/syringobulbia-in-pediatric-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#7
Arnold H Menezes, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Brian J Dlouhy
OBJECTIVE Syringobulbia (SB) is a rare entity, with few cases associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population. The authors reviewed all pediatric cases of CM-I-associated SB managed at their institution in order to better understand the presentation, treatment, and surgical outcomes of this condition. METHODS A prospectively maintained institutional database of craniovertebral junction abnormalities was analyzed to identify all cases of CM-I and SB from the MRI era (i.e., after 1984)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659177/the-anatomical-relationships-of-the-ocular-motor-nerves-with-an-emphasis-on-surgical-anatomy-of-the-orbit
#9
Nihal Apaydin, Simel Kendir, Suleyman Tuna Karahan
The surgical procedures directed to the orbit are invariably reported to be one of the most challenging procedures of the neurosurgery and it is very important to take measures to protect the ocular nerves. Many researchers have tried to identify safe approaches or safe regions in the orbit but the suggestions and results vary among published studies. The ocular motor nerves are under risk of injury during various approaches to the orbit. Simple but careful attention to potential variations in the origin and anatomical course of the ocular nerves and their relationships to the orbit may help to define "safe zones" during various approaches, thus, help to enhance clinical outcomes...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547084/endoscopic-endonasal-surgery-for-epidermoid-and-dermoid-cysts-a-10-year-experience
#10
Francisco Vaz-Guimaraes, Maria Koutourousiou, John R de Almeida, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W Wang, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
OBJECTIVE Epidermoid and dermoid cysts may be found along the cranial base and are commonly resected via open transcranial approaches. The use of endoscopic endonasal approaches for resection of these tumors has been rarely reported. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for epidermoid and dermoid cyst resection at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2005 and June 2014. Surgical outcomes and variables that might affect the extent of resection and complications were analyzed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541802/unilateral-duplicated-abducens-nerve-coursing-through-both-the-sphenopetroclival-venous-gulf-and-cavernous-sinus-a-case-report
#11
Thomas Coquet, Michel Lefranc, Louis Chenin, Pascal Foulon, Éric Havet, Johann Peltier
In this anatomy report, we describe the first case of abducens nerve duplication limited to the sphenopetroclival venous gulf and the cavernous sinus. The objective point of division of the two duplicated roots was localized at the gulfar face of the dural porus, just distal to the unique cisternal trunk of the abducens nerve, as it pierced the petroclival dural mater. In the gulfar segment, both roots traveled through a variant of Dorello's canal called the "petrosphenoidal canal" and remained separated through the posterior half of the cavernous sinus...
March 15, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538708/endoscopic-endonasal-transclival-approach-for-resection-of-a-pontine-glioma-surgical-planning-surgical-anatomy-and-technique
#12
David T Fernandes Cabral, Georgios A Zenonos, Maximiliano Nuñez, Pinar Celtikci, Carl Snyderman, Eric Wang, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been proposed as a potential alternative for ventral brainstem lesions. The surgical anatomy, feasibility, and limitations of the EEA for intrinsic brainstem lesions are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical planning, anatomy, and technique of an intrinsic pontine glioma operated via EEA. METHODS: Six-human brainstems were prepared for white matter microdissection...
March 12, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527867/orthodontics-and-moebius-syndrome-an-observational-study
#13
Marisabel Magnifico, Diana Cassi, Mauro Gandolfini, Andrea Toffoli, Piero A Zecca, Alberto DI Blasio
BACKGROUND: Moebius syndrome is a rare condition characterized by bilateral facial and abducens nerve paralysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the main orthodontic features and the frequency of associated clinical characteristics in patients with Moebius Syndrome (MS). METHODS: According to Terzis classifications, 58 patients with MS aged 8 months to 46 years old underwent orthodontics and clinical examination. RESULTS: Strabismus, upper and lower limb malformations, lip and palatal cleft were frequently associated with MS...
March 8, 2018: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504967/bilateral-abducens-nerve-palsies-and-urinary-retention-caused-by-the-rupture-of-a-vertebral-artery-aneurysm-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Guoping Peng, Jiajia Zhou
RATIONALE: Bilateral abducens nerve deficits caused by vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm have been reported, but there have been no reports regarding accompanying urinary retention. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe an unusual case with bilateral abducens nerve palsy and urinary retention due to rupture of a vertebral aneurysm. DIAGNOSES: Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of a left VA aneurysm. INTERVENTIONS: The VA aneurysm was successfully controlled by coil embolization...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491335/-cerebrospinal-fluid-leakage-and-abducens-nerve-palsy-caused-by-bowling-activity
#15
Hiroyasu Inoue, Masaya Takemoto, Masahiro Muto, Taro Kitamura, Kentaro Yamada
Cerebrospinal fluid leakage can develop due to traffic trauma or lumbar puncture; however, in many cases, it develops spontaneously without any obvious cause. This report describes a case of cerebrospinal fluid leakage caused by bowling activity. A 57-year-old woman adjusted her bowling form, which led to the development of an orthostatic headache and double vision. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and right abducens nerve palsy was diagnosed, which was resistant to conservative treatment. An epidural blood patch was performed, leading to an improvement in the headache and abducens nerve palsy...
March 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465546/bilateral-abducens-nerve-palsies-and-urinary-retention-caused-by-the-rupture-of-a-vertebral-artery-aneurysm-a-case-report-and-literature-review-erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447480/intramuscular-distribution-of-the-abducens-nerve-in-the-lateral-rectus-muscle-for-the-management-of-strabismus
#17
Hyun Jin Shin, Shin-Hyo Lee, Kang-Jae Shin, Ki-Seok Koh, Wu-Chul Song
AIMS: To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. METHODS: Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated...
February 15, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446798/life-threatening-headaches-in-children-clinical-approach-and-therapeutic-options
#18
Nagma Dalvi, Lalitha Sivaswamy
Life-threatening headaches in children can present in an apoplectic manner that garners immediate medical attention, or in an insidious, more dangerous form that may go unnoticed for a relatively long period of time. The recognition of certain clinical characteristics that accompany the headache should prompt recognition and referral to an institution equipped with neuroimaging facilities, pediatric neurosurgeons, and neurologists. Thunderclap headaches, which reach a peak within a very short period of time, may be the presenting feature of conditions such as arterial dissection, venous sinus thrombosis, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, which can be addressed by specific pharmacological options instituted in an intensive care setting...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424937/pathogenesis-of-cranial-neuropathies-in-moebius-syndrome-electrodiagnostic-orofacial-studies
#19
Francis Renault, Roberto Flores-Guevara, Bernard Sergent, Jean Jacques Baudon, Jessie Aouizerate, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Cyril Gitiaux
INTRODUCTION: We designed a retrospective study of 59 patients with congenital sporadic nonprogressive bilateral facial and abducens palsies. METHODS: Examinations included needle electromyography (EMG) of facial and oral muscles, facial nerve motor latency and conduction velocity (FNCV), and blink responses (BR). RESULTS: Neurogenic EMG changes were found in 1 or more muscles in 55 of 59 patients, with no abnormal spontaneous activity. EMG changes were homogeneously neurogenic in 17 patients, homogeneously myopathic in 1 patient, and heterogeneous in 41 of 59 patients...
February 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408345/novel-segmentation-of-placed-coils-in-the-treatment-of-cavernous-sinus-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-provides-a-reliable-predictor-of-the-long-term-outcome-in-abducens-nerve-palsy
#20
Masaaki Kohta, Atsushi Fujita, Jun Tanaka, Takashi Sasayama, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
OBJECTIVE: Abducens nerve palsy (ANP) after transvenous embolization (TVE) for cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) sometimes persists. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the coil mass and the long-term outcome of ANP after TVE. METHODS: Between January 2008 and July 2016, 33 patients with a CS DAVF underwent TVE at our institute. On the basis of the relationship to the internal carotid artery (ICA), we divided the lateral part of the CS into the following 3 portions: anterolateral, anterolateral to the anterior bend of the ICA; middle-lateral (ML), lateral to the horizontal segment of the ICA; and posterolateral, posterolateral to the posterior bend of the ICA...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
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