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Abducens Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025169/-acute-bilateral-abducens-nerve-palsy-in-a-7-year-old-boy-atypical-miller-fisher-syndrome
#1
Ina Sterker, Ina Sorge, Matthias K Bernhard, Andreas Merkenschlager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022157/radiosurgery-in-trochlear-and-abducens-nerve-schwannomas-case-series-and-systematic-review
#2
Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Constantin Tuleasca, Jean-Nicolas Comps, Luis Schiappacasse, Michele Zeverino, Roy Thomas Daniel, Marc Levivier
INTRODUCTION: Schwannomas involving the occulomotor cranial nerves  (CNs; III, IV and VI), can be disabling, due to the associated diplopia and decreased quality of life and are extremely rare. We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in these cases. METHODS: Five patients with CN IV and VI schwannomas (three and two, respectively) were treated in Lausanne University Hospital between 2010 and 2015. Four benefitted from upfront GKS and one from a combined approach (planned subtotal resection followed by GKS), due to a large preoperative tumour volume (size, 3 × 2 × 2...
October 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967311/transpetrosal-approach-to-petro-clival-meningioma
#3
Turki Elarjani, Rakshith Shetty, Harminder Singh, Harley B da Silva, Laligam N Sekhar
A 38-year-old woman had a 3-week gradual onset of right-sided weakness in the upper and lower extremities. MRI showed a large left petro-clival meningioma encasing the basilar and left superior cerebellar artery and compressing the brainstem. A posterior transpetrosal approach, with a left temporal and retrosigmoid craniotomy and mastoidectomy, was performed. The tumor was removed in a gross-total resection with questionable remnants adherent to the brainstem. Intraoperative partial iatrogenic injury to the left oculomotor nerve was repaired with fibrin glue...
October 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961901/parasellar-schwannomas-extradural-vs-extra-intradural-surgical-approach
#4
Giuseppe Mariniello, Oreste de Divitiis, Ferdinando Caranci, Flavia Dones, Francesco Maiuri
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas of the parasellar region may arise from the trigeminal, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. OBJECTIVE: To define the tumor origin, location, and dural relationship (extradural vs extra-intradural vs cisternal) on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in order to plan the best surgical approach (purely extradural vs extra-intradural). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with parasellar schwannomas who underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed...
August 22, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955030/gradenigo-s-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-petrous-apicitis-and-meningitis
#5
Nicholas Taklalsingh, Franco Falcone, Vinodkumar Velayudhan
BACKGROUND Gradenigo's syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo's syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo's syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). CASE REPORT A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950832/orbital-apex-syndrome-secondary-to-a-fungal-nasal-septal-abscess-caused-by-scedosporium-apiospermum-in-a-patient-with-uncontrolled-diabetes-a-case-report
#6
Ippei Kishimoto, Shogo Shinohara, Tetsuhiro Ueda, Shoichi Tani, Hajime Yoshimura, Yukihiro Imai
BACKGROUND: Orbital apex syndrome is a localized type of orbital cellulitis, where mass lesions occur at the apex of the cranial nerves. Although nasal septal abscess is uncommon, the organism most likely to cause nasal septal abscess is Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal septal abscesses are rare. Here we present an extremely rare and serious case of orbital apex syndrome secondary to fungal nasal septal abscess caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes...
September 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920775/laparoscopic-assisted-insertion-of-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-in-a-rescued-asiatic-black-bear-ursus-thibetanus-in-laos
#7
Romain Pizzi, Jonathan Mark Cracknell, Andrew C Kitchener, Nev Broadis, Denise Laughlin, Kirsty Officer, Yolanda Martinez Pereira, Matt Hunt
A 3-yr-old Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), weighing 68 kg, underwent a laparoscopic-assisted placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Rescued as a young cub with a notably domed head, the bear's condition had deteriorated with age, but euthanasia was not a viable option because of cultural issues. Surgery was attempted as a palliative measure. The bear had ventrally orientated crossed eyes (abducens nerve palsy and dorsal midbrain syndrome), papilledema, severe rhinorrhea, depressed mentation, lethargy, a very poor appetite, and was stunted...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914866/-extended-endoscopic-endonasal-posterior-transclival-approach-to-tumors-of-the-clival-region-and-ventral-posterior-cranial-fossa-part-1-topographic-and-anatomical-features-of-the-clivus-and-adjacent-structures
#8
A N Shkarubo, K V Koval', G F Dobrovol'skiy, M A Shkarubo, V V Karnaukhov, B A Kadashev, D N Andreev, I V Chernov, O A Gadzhieva, O Yu Aleshkina, E A Anisimova, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D B Ismailov, E S Selivanov
OBJECTIVE: to describe the main topographic and anatomical features of the clival region and its adjacent structures for improvement and optimization of the extended endoscopic endonasal posterior (transclival) approach for resection of tumors of the clival region and ventral posterior cranial fossa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a craniometric study of 125 human skulls and a topographic anatomical study of heads of 25 cadavers, the arterial and venous bed of which was stained with colored silicone (the staining technique was developed by the authors) to visualize bed features and individual variability...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882603/gamma-knife-surgery-for-a-hemangioma-of-the-cavernous-sinus-in-an-adult-case-report-and-short-review-of-the-literature
#9
L Schwyzer, C Tuleasca, F-X Borruat, I Radovanovic, M Levivier
Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSH) are rare benign extra-axial vascular lesions. Both radiological and clinical aspects are important, for deciding a therapeutic modality, including medical treatment, radiation therapy or microsurgery. In the particular case of CSH, a radical removal of the tumor often cannot be achieved and is associated with a considerable risk for intraoperative uncontrollable bleeding. An alternative treatment modality is radiosurgery. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old patient, who presented with diplopia due to left abducens nerve palsy...
September 4, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867902/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-presenting-as-abducens-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-cavernous-sinus-lesion
#10
Christopher Donaldson, Bryden Dawes, Vivek Rathi, Kristian Bulluss
BACKGROUND: We report a 61-year-old who presented with a right-sided abducens nerve palsy secondary to a middle cranial fossa adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) extending into the cavernous sinus. PURPOSE: This case represents a unique presentation of intracranial ACC with a large middle cranial fossa mass and only a small extracranial component. METHODS: Review of the literature was undertaken to identify cases of intracranial ACC and their range of presentations...
July 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862552/cavernous-sinus-compartments-from-the-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-anatomical-considerations-and-surgical-relevance-to-adenoma-surgery
#11
Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Nathan T Zwagerman, Kumar Abhinav, Stefan Lieber, Eric W Wang, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
OBJECTIVE Tumors with cavernous sinus (CS) invasion represent a neurosurgical challenge. Increasing application of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) requires a thorough understanding of the CS anatomy from an endonasal perspective. In this study, the authors aimed to develop a surgical anatomy-based classification of the CS and establish its utility for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in adenoma surgery. METHODS Twenty-five colored silicon-injected human head specimens were used for endonasal and transcranial dissections of the CS...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862551/isolated-abducens-nerve-palsy-associated-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-localizing-sign-of-ruptured-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-aneurysms
#12
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Ethan A Winkler, George F Lasker, John K Yue, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Compressive cranial nerve syndromes can be useful bedside clues to the diagnosis of an enlarging intracranial aneurysm and can also guide subsequent evaluation, as with an acute oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve [CN] III) palsy that is presumed to be a posterior communicating artery aneurysm and a surgical emergency until proven otherwise. The CN VI has a short cisternal segment from the pontomedullary sulcus to Dorello's canal, remote from most PICA aneurysms but in the hemodynamic pathway of a rupturing PICA aneurysm that projects toward Dorello's canal...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766024/usefulness-of-intraoperative-electromyographic-monitoring-of-oculomotor-and-abducens-nerves-during-skull-base-surgery
#13
Zi-Yi Li, Ming-Chu Li, Jian-Tao Liang, Yu-Hai Bao, Ge Chen, Hong-Chuan Guo, Feng Ling
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring of the extraocular cranial nerve (EOCN) is not commonly performed because of technical difficulty and risk, reliability of the result and predictability of the postoperative function of the EOCN. METHODS: We performed oculomotor nerve (CN III) and abducens nerve (CN VI) intraoperative monitoring in patients with skull base surgery by recording the spontaneous muscle activity (SMA) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP)...
August 2, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761510/a-systematic-review-about-the-position-related-complications-of-acoustic-neuroma-surgery-via-suboccipital-retrosigmoid-approach-sitting-versus-lateral
#14
REVIEW
Mahdi Safdarian, Manouchehr Safdarian, Roger Chou, Seyed Mahmoud Ramak Hashemi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
This systematic review wasdesigned to compare the complications of acoustic neuroma surgery via the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach in the sitting versus lateral positions. Searches for randomized trials and observational studies about the complications of acoustic neuroma surgery were performed in five medical databases (though October 2015) including PubMed, MEDLINE (In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and PsycINFO. Primary outcomes in this study were venous air emboli, neuropsychological defects, CSF leak, facial and abducens nerves palsy, postoperative deafness, hydrocephalus and mortality...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759288/neurological-imaging-in-acquired-cranial-nerve-palsy-ophthalmologists-vs-neurologists
#15
Tessa Klein Hesselink, Mari Gutter, Jan Roelof Polling
PURPOSE: Cranial nerve palsies often require neurological imaging by MRI. Guidelines on whether or not to utilize MRI have been absent or lack clarity. In daily practice, both neurologists and ophthalmologists treat patients with cranial nerve palsy and determine whether neuro-imaging is required. There appear to be differences in policy with respect to neuro-imaging. The question, which will be answered in this study, is the following: to what extent do differences in policy exist between ophthalmologists and neurologists regarding imaging by MRI of patients with acquired ocular cranial nerve palsy? METHOD: PubMed database was searched for literature on acquired cranial nerve palsy and MRI scanning performed by ophthalmologists and neurologists...
September 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744196/extraocular-motor-system-exhibits-a-higher-expression-of-neurotrophins-when-compared-with-other-brainstem-motor-systems
#16
Rosendo G Hernández, Silvia Silva-Hucha, Sara Morcuende, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor, Beatriz Benítez-Temiño
Extraocular motoneurons resist degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The main objective of the present work was to characterize the presence of neurotrophins in extraocular motoneurons and muscles of the adult rat. We also compared these results with those obtained from other cranial motor systems, such as facial and hypoglossal, which indeed suffer neurodegeneration. Immunocytochemical analysis was used to describe the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 in oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei of adult rats, and Western blots were used to describe the presence of neurotrophins in extraocular, facial (buccinator), and tongue muscles, which are innervated by the above-mentioned motoneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728290/-advances-in-research-of-divergence-insufficiency
#17
Y P Li, W Zhang
Divergence insufficiency is acquired esotropia at distance fixation with symptomatic uncrossed diplopia but fusion at near. It can be divided into two forms: primary isolated form and secondary form associated with neurologic abnormalities, also called divergence palsy. The clinical features of divergence insufficiency include small esotropia only at distance but orthotropia or small esophoria at near, comitant deviation at lateral gaze, reduced divergence fusion, full abduction and normal saccadic velocities in abduction...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724831/no-split-no-tenotomy-transposition-procedure-for-complete-abducens-palsy
#18
Sowmya Raveendra Murthy
Abducens palsy is one of the commonly encountered cranial nerve palsies in strabismus clinic. For large-angle esotropia, due to complete abducens palsies, various vertical recti transposition (VRT) procedures have been described. Hummelsheim and Jensen's procedure are especially popular among them. Risk of anterior segment ischemia and induced vertical deviation postVRT prompt to search for better procedures to correct the esotropia and also improve the abduction. Modified Nishida's procedure (no split, no tenotomy transposition) is one of the newly described procedure in this direction...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720403/gradenigo-s-syndrome-a-common-infection-with-uncommon-consequences
#19
Matthew Vitale, Misra Amrit, Rajan Arora, Julie Lata
Acute otitis media is a common diagnosis encountered by emergency medicine providers. With appropriate antibiotic treatment, patients with otitis media, in general, have minimal long-term sequela from their underlying infection (Limb et al., 2017 [1]). However, untreated cases can develop life-threatening complications that require prompt intervention. We report a case of an 8-year-old that developed Gradenigo's syndrome, a condition characterized by the triad of otitis media, facial pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy (Yeung and Lustig, 2016; Janjua et al...
September 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698730/neurobrucellosis-presenting-with-unilateral-abducens-nerve-palsy
#20
Mohsen Andisheh, Susan Amirsalari, Mohammad Torkaman, Marzieh Sabzechian, Shahla Afsharpaiman
One of the rare complications of brucellosis is neurobrucellosis. There have been numerous reports showing clinical forms of brucellosis affecting CNS, such as cranial nerve involvement, myelitis, vascular disease, radiculoneuritis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and demyelinating disease. In this case report, we introduce a 2.5 yr old girl with unilateral abducens nerve palsy referred to Baghiyatallah Hospital Outpatient Clinic, Tehran, Iran in June 2015.
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
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