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Trochlear Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912183/ocular-kinematics-measured-by-in-vitro-stimulation-of-the-cranial-nerves-in-the-turtle
#1
Maria Cano Garcia, Steven C Nesbit, Chi C Le, James R Dearworth
After animals are euthanized, their tissues begin to die. Turtles offer an advantage because of a longer survival time of their tissues, especially when compared to warm-blooded vertebrates. Because of this, in vitro experiments in turtles can be performed for extended periods of time to investigate the neural signals and control of their target actions. Using an isolated head preparation, we measured the kinematics of eye movements in turtles, and their modulation by electrical signals carried by cranial nerves...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682431/transcavernous-approach-to-the-basilar-apex-a-cadaveric-prosection
#2
Jonathan N Sellin, Visish M Srinivasan, Jovany C Navarro, Hunt H Batjer, Harry Van Loveren, Edward A Duckworth
The transcavernous approach to the basilar artery, as initially described by Dolenc, is one of the most common and elegant approaches to the region. It affords a generous working and viewing angle, but it can be technically challenging and requires attention to detail at each step. We investigate this approach in this report via a cadaveric prosection with a focus on the value of each of the component steps in improving surgical view and exposure. The transcavernous approach steps are divided into extradural stages: orbitozygomatic osteotomy (a modern adjunct to Dolenc's original description), drilling of the lesser sphenoid wing, and anterior clinoidectomy; and intradural stages: wide splitting of the Sylvian fissure, unroofing of the oculomotor and trochlear nerves, and posterior clinoidectomy...
February 14, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669370/inter-rater-reliability-of-cyclotorsion-measurements-using-fundus-photography
#3
Muriel Dysli, Madeleine Kanku, Ghislaine L Traber
BACKGROUND: The foveo-papillary angle (FPA) on fundus photographs is the accepted standard for the measurement of ocular cyclotorsion. We assessed the inter-rater reliability of this method in healthy subjects and in patients with trochlear nerve palsies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this methodological study, fundus photographs of healthy subjects and of patients with trochlear nerve palsies were made with a fundus camera (Zeiss Fundus Camera FF 450 plus, Jena, Germany)...
April 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659177/the-anatomical-relationships-of-the-ocular-motor-nerves-with-an-emphasis-on-surgical-anatomy-of-the-orbit
#4
Nihal Apaydin, Simel Kendir, Suleyman Tuna Karahan
The surgical procedures directed to the orbit are invariably reported to be one of the most challenging procedures of the neurosurgery and it is very important to take measures to protect the ocular nerves. Many researchers have tried to identify safe approaches or safe regions in the orbit but the suggestions and results vary among published studies. The ocular motor nerves are under risk of injury during various approaches to the orbit. Simple but careful attention to potential variations in the origin and anatomical course of the ocular nerves and their relationships to the orbit may help to define "safe zones" during various approaches, thus, help to enhance clinical outcomes...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629542/diagnostic-utility-of-the-three-step-test-according-to-the-presence-of-the-trochlear-nerve-in-superior-oblique-palsy
#5
Ji Eun Lee, Hee Kyung Yang, Jae Hyoung Kim, Jeong Min Hwang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic utility of the three-step test in unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP) according to the presence of the trochlear nerve using high-resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: In total, 166 patients with congenital and acquired unilateral SOP were included, comprising 87 with a normal trochlear nerve (present group) and 79 without a trochlear nerve (absent group). The sensitivity of each component of the three-step test was evaluated as well as factors related to the sensitivity...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602005/transventricular-transvelar-approach-to-trochlear-nerve-schwannoma-novel-technique-to-lesions-of-inferior-pineal-region
#6
Majid Reza Farrokhi, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Mousa Taghipour, Nima Derakhshan
OBJECTIVES: The schwannoma of the trochlear nerve is rare and originates mostly from the distal parts in the interpeduncular cistern. A lesion on the proximal segment in the inferior pineal region is extremely rare. Because of the rarity of the disease, the surgical approach to this region for the resection of trochlear nerve schwannoma has not been well documented in the literature. We herein describe a novel approach to successfully resect the trochlear nerve schwannoma. METHODS: A 12-year-old boy presented with occipital headache, abnormal gait, and disturbed conjoined eye movement...
June 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600170/is-marcus-gunn-jaw-winking-a-primitive-reflex-rat-neuroanatomy
#7
Hou-Cheng Liang, Jing-Dong Zhang, Pi-Fu Luo, Ying Qiao, An-Le Su, Ting Zhang, Hong-Na Zhu
AIM: To investigate a possible trigeminal proprioceptive-oculomotor neural pathway and explore possible synaptic connections between neurons in this pathway. Attempt to bring a new insight to mechanism of Marcus Gunn syndrome (MGS). METHODS: Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing was applied and combined with immunofluorescent stain in rats. After electrophysiological identifying mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vme) neurons, intracellular injection of tracer was performed to trace axon trajectory...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398228/transient-trochlear-nerve-palsy-following-percutaneous-angioplasty
#8
I Roberts Martínez-Aguirre, M E de Las Heras Gómez de Liaño, V Lacosta Asín, M E Zarzosa Martín, J M Alonso Maroto, E Pérez-Salvador García
CASE REPORT: A case is presented of a 63-year-old man who suffered a unilateral isolated trochlear nerve palsy with vertical diplopia following an elective radial coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, which resolved spontaneously within 2 months. DISCUSSION: Ophthalmoplegia following coronary percutaneous angioplasty is rare. Only internuclear ophthalmoplegia, III and VI cranial nerve palsy have been previously reported following percutaneous angioplasty...
February 1, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298208/electrophysiology-of-extraocular-cranial-nerves-oculomotor-trochlear-and-abducens-nerve
#9
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288394/endoscopic-transorbital-route-to-the-petrous-apex-a-feasibility-anatomic-study
#10
Alberto Di Somma, Norberto Andaluz, Luigi Maria Cavallo, Thomaz E Topczewski, Federico Frio, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Jose Pineda, Domenico Solari, Joaquim Enseñat, Alberto Prats-Galino, Paolo Cappabianca
BACKGROUND: While the subtemporal approach represents the surgical module milestone designed to reach the petrous apex, a novel ventral route, which is the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach, has been proposed to access the skull base. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of this route to the petrous apex, providing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of this relatively novel pathway. METHODS: Five human cadaveric heads were dissected at the Laboratory of Surgical NeuroAnatomy of the University of Barcelona...
April 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223524/gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-nonvestibular-cranial-nerve-schwannomas
#11
Anne-Marie Langlois, Christian Iorio-Morin, Laurence Masson-Côté, David Mathieu
BACKGROUND: Nonvestibular cranial schwannomas represent a rare type of benign intracranial tumor. Few studies have evaluated the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a primary management option for these lesions. We performed a retrospective review of our institution's experience focusing on efficacy with regard to tumor control and clinical symptom stabilization as well as treatment safety. METHODS: Patients were included if they underwent at least 1 SRS procedure for a nonvestibular schwannoma and had at least 6 months of available imaging follow-up...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204579/ocular-cranial-nerve-palsies-secondary-to-sphenoid-sinusitis
#12
Aiman El Mograbi, Ethan Soudry
Objective: The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable. Rarely, sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus. Method: A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed. Results: Seventeen patients were identified. The abducent nerve was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%), followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%)...
March 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075763/ocular-torsion-according-to-trochlear-nerve-absence-in-unilateral-superior-oblique-palsy
#13
Ji Eun Lee, Hee Kyung Yang, Jae Hyoung Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between objective ocular torsion and the presence or absence of the trochlear nerve in subjects with unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP). Methods: A total of 159 subjects with congenital and acquired unilateral SOP were reviewed. Eighty-four subjects who had a normal trochlear nerve (present group) and 75 subjects without a trochlear nerve (absent group) were included. Cyclovertical motility parameters and objective ocular torsion were compared between groups, and factors related to ocular torsion were evaluated...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068972/surgical-management-of-migraine-headache
#14
Anson Jose, Shakil Ahmed Nagori, Ajoy Roychoudhury
Migraine surgery has been recently reported as an alternative to medical management to provide long-term relief in migraine sufferers. A prospective study was designed wherein patients diagnosed with migraine were screened for surgery by injecting botulinum toxin type A at the primary trigger site. Surgery consisted of corrugator supercilii muscle resection to decompress supra-trochlear and supra-orbital nerves with avulsion of zygomaticotemporal branch of trigeminal nerve. Using pre and postsurgery questionnaires, information regarding the degree of reduction of migraines with regard to severity and frequency; and surgical site problems was acquired...
March 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022157/radiosurgery-in-trochlear-and-abducens-nerve-schwannomas-case-series-and-systematic-review
#15
Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Constantin Tuleasca, Jean-Nicolas Comps, Luis Schiappacasse, Michele Zeverino, Roy Thomas Daniel, Marc Levivier
INTRODUCTION: Schwannomas involving the occulomotor cranial nerves  (CNs; III, IV and VI), can be disabling, due to the associated diplopia and decreased quality of life and are extremely rare. We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in these cases. METHODS: Five patients with CN IV and VI schwannomas (three and two, respectively) were treated in Lausanne University Hospital between 2010 and 2015. Four benefitted from upfront GKS and one from a combined approach (planned subtotal resection followed by GKS), due to a large preoperative tumour volume (size, 3 × 2 × 2...
October 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961901/parasellar-schwannomas-extradural-vs-extra-intradural-surgical-approach
#16
Giuseppe Mariniello, Oreste de Divitiis, Ferdinando Caranci, Flavia Dones, Francesco Maiuri
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas of the parasellar region may arise from the trigeminal, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. OBJECTIVE: To define the tumor origin, location, and dural relationship (extradural vs extra-intradural vs cisternal) on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in order to plan the best surgical approach (purely extradural vs extra-intradural). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with parasellar schwannomas who underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed...
June 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955030/gradenigo-s-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-petrous-apicitis-and-meningitis
#17
Nicholas Taklalsingh, Franco Falcone, Vinodkumar Velayudhan
BACKGROUND Gradenigo's syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo's syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo's syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). CASE REPORT A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918396/trochlear-nerve-palsy
#18
EDITORIAL
Tarig Mohammed Abkur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841851/combined-brown-syndrome-and-superior-oblique-palsy-without-a-trochlear-nerve-case-report
#19
Hee Kyung Yang, Jae Hyoung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND: Congenital Brown syndrome is characterized by limited elevation particularly during adduction. The pathogenesis of congenital Brown syndrome is still controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old boy had been tilting his head to the left since infancy. He showed right hypertropia (RHT) of 2 prism diopters (Δ) in the primary position. He showed RHT 6Δ in right gaze, RHT 2Δ in left gaze, RHT 12Δ in right head tilt, and orthotropia in left head tilt...
August 25, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759288/neurological-imaging-in-acquired-cranial-nerve-palsy-ophthalmologists-vs-neurologists
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tessa Klein Hesselink, Mari Gutter, Jan Roelof Polling
PURPOSE: Cranial nerve palsies often require neurological imaging by MRI. Guidelines on whether or not to utilize MRI have been absent or lack clarity. In daily practice, both neurologists and ophthalmologists treat patients with cranial nerve palsy and determine whether neuro-imaging is required. There appear to be differences in policy with respect to neuro-imaging. The question, which will be answered in this study, is the following: to what extent do differences in policy exist between ophthalmologists and neurologists regarding imaging by MRI of patients with acquired ocular cranial nerve palsy? METHOD: PubMed database was searched for literature on acquired cranial nerve palsy and MRI scanning performed by ophthalmologists and neurologists...
September 2017: Strabismus
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