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Trochlear Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223524/gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-non-vestibular-cranial-nerve-schwannomas
#1
Anne-Marie Langlois, Christian Iorio-Morin, Laurence Masson-Côté, David Mathieu
BACKGROUND: Non-vestibular cranial schwannomas represent a rare type of benign intracranial tumor. Few studies have evaluated the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a primary management option for these lesions. We therefore performed a retrospective review of our institution's experience focussing on efficacy with regards to tumor control and clinical symptom stabilization, as well as treatment safety. METHODS: Patients were included if they underwent at least one SRS procedure for a non-vestibular schwannoma and had at least 6 months of available imaging follow-up...
December 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204579/ocular-cranial-nerve-palsies-secondary-to-sphenoid-sinusitis
#2
Aiman El Mograbi, Ethan Soudry
Objective: The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable. Rarely, sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus. Method: A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed. Results: Seventeen patients were identified. The abducent nerve was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%), followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%)...
March 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075763/ocular-torsion-according-to-trochlear-nerve-absence-in-unilateral-superior-oblique-palsy
#3
Ji Eun Lee, Hee Kyung Yang, Jae Hyoung Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between objective ocular torsion and the presence or absence of the trochlear nerve in subjects with unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP). Methods: A total of 159 subjects with congenital and acquired unilateral SOP were reviewed. Eighty-four subjects who had a normal trochlear nerve (present group) and 75 subjects without a trochlear nerve (absent group) were included. Cyclovertical motility parameters and objective ocular torsion were compared between groups, and factors related to ocular torsion were evaluated...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068972/surgical-management-of-migraine-headache
#4
Anson Jose, Shakil Ahmed Nagori, Ajoy Roychoudhury
Migraine surgery has been recently reported as an alternative to medical management to provide long-term relief in migraine sufferers. A prospective study was designed wherein patients diagnosed with migraine were screened for surgery by injecting botulinum toxin type A at the primary trigger site. Surgery consisted of corrugator supercilii muscle resection to decompress supra-trochlear and supra-orbital nerves with avulsion of zygomaticotemporal branch of trigeminal nerve. Using pre and postsurgery questionnaires, information regarding the degree of reduction of migraines with regard to severity and frequency; and surgical site problems was acquired...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022157/radiosurgery-in-trochlear-and-abducens-nerve-schwannomas-case-series-and-systematic-review
#5
Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Constantin Tuleasca, Jean-Nicolas Comps, Luis Schiappacasse, Michele Zeverino, Roy Thomas Daniel, Marc Levivier
INTRODUCTION: Schwannomas involving the occulomotor cranial nerves  (CNs; III, IV and VI), can be disabling, due to the associated diplopia and decreased quality of life and are extremely rare. We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in these cases. METHODS: Five patients with CN IV and VI schwannomas (three and two, respectively) were treated in Lausanne University Hospital between 2010 and 2015. Four benefitted from upfront GKS and one from a combined approach (planned subtotal resection followed by GKS), due to a large preoperative tumour volume (size, 3 × 2 × 2...
October 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961901/parasellar-schwannomas-extradural-vs-extra-intradural-surgical-approach
#6
Giuseppe Mariniello, Oreste de Divitiis, Ferdinando Caranci, Flavia Dones, Francesco Maiuri
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas of the parasellar region may arise from the trigeminal, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. OBJECTIVE: To define the tumor origin, location, and dural relationship (extradural vs extra-intradural vs cisternal) on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in order to plan the best surgical approach (purely extradural vs extra-intradural). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with parasellar schwannomas who underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed...
August 22, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955030/gradenigo-s-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-petrous-apicitis-and-meningitis
#7
Nicholas Taklalsingh, Franco Falcone, Vinodkumar Velayudhan
BACKGROUND Gradenigo's syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo's syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo's syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). CASE REPORT A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918396/trochlear-nerve-palsy
#8
EDITORIAL
Tarig Mohammed Abkur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841851/combined-brown-syndrome-and-superior-oblique-palsy-without-a-trochlear-nerve-case-report
#9
Hee Kyung Yang, Jae Hyoung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND: Congenital Brown syndrome is characterized by limited elevation particularly during adduction. The pathogenesis of congenital Brown syndrome is still controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old boy had been tilting his head to the left since infancy. He showed right hypertropia (RHT) of 2 prism diopters (Δ) in the primary position. He showed RHT 6Δ in right gaze, RHT 2Δ in left gaze, RHT 12Δ in right head tilt, and orthotropia in left head tilt...
August 25, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759288/neurological-imaging-in-acquired-cranial-nerve-palsy-ophthalmologists-vs-neurologists
#10
Tessa Klein Hesselink, Mari Gutter, Jan Roelof Polling
PURPOSE: Cranial nerve palsies often require neurological imaging by MRI. Guidelines on whether or not to utilize MRI have been absent or lack clarity. In daily practice, both neurologists and ophthalmologists treat patients with cranial nerve palsy and determine whether neuro-imaging is required. There appear to be differences in policy with respect to neuro-imaging. The question, which will be answered in this study, is the following: to what extent do differences in policy exist between ophthalmologists and neurologists regarding imaging by MRI of patients with acquired ocular cranial nerve palsy? METHOD: PubMed database was searched for literature on acquired cranial nerve palsy and MRI scanning performed by ophthalmologists and neurologists...
September 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744196/extraocular-motor-system-exhibits-a-higher-expression-of-neurotrophins-when-compared-with-other-brainstem-motor-systems
#11
Rosendo G Hernández, Silvia Silva-Hucha, Sara Morcuende, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor, Beatriz Benítez-Temiño
Extraocular motoneurons resist degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The main objective of the present work was to characterize the presence of neurotrophins in extraocular motoneurons and muscles of the adult rat. We also compared these results with those obtained from other cranial motor systems, such as facial and hypoglossal, which indeed suffer neurodegeneration. Immunocytochemical analysis was used to describe the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 in oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei of adult rats, and Western blots were used to describe the presence of neurotrophins in extraocular, facial (buccinator), and tongue muscles, which are innervated by the above-mentioned motoneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555488/the-unusual-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-presentation-by-a-sentinel-isolated-trochlear-nerve-palsy-of-a-posterior-communicating-artery-aneurysm
#12
Oriela Rustemi, Renato Scienza, Alessandro Della Puppa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553221/tumors-presenting-as-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies
#13
Kishore Kumar, Rafeeq Ahmed, Bharat Bajantri, Amandeep Singh, Hafsa Abbas, Eddy Dejesus, Rana Raheel Khan, Masooma Niazi, Sridhar Chilimuri
Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549557/aberrant-distribution-of-the-trochlear-nerve-a-cadaveric-study-supported-by-immunohistochemistry
#14
Kojiro Takezawa, Grant Townsend, Jim Manavis, Mounir Ghabriel
The trochlear nerve is generally considered to be a purely motor nerve supplying one extraocular muscle, the superior oblique. In the current study, 28 orbits were dissected and in one orbit (3.6%), the trochlear nerve divided into two main branches. The medial branch followed the classical course, entered the superior oblique muscle and was presumed to be motor in function. However, before entering the muscle, it partially fused with the frontal nerve, and gave a bundle of nerve fibres to the frontal nerve...
September 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534340/imaging-of-cranial-nerves-iii-iv-vi-in-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Jae Hyoung Kim, Jeong Min Hwang
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494780/metastatic-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-with-meningeal-carcinomatosis-case-report-of-an-unexpected-response
#16
Diego Teyssonneau, Amaury Daste, Vincent Dousset, Jean-Luc Hoepffner, Alain Ravaud, Marine Gross-Goupil
BACKGROUND: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is usually treated with local therapy including transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and intravesical therapy depending on the stage of the tumor. NMIBC is a rarely a metastatic diseases with lymph node invasion in less of 10%. In the other hand meningeal carcinomatosis is a rare location for metastases with extremely poor outcomes. We described a case report of a patient presenting a metastatic disease to bones and meninges, several years after the treatment of NMIBC, which had been in complete response (CR) for 4 years after chemotherapy treatment...
May 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437527/ocular-motor-nerve-development-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-extraocular-muscle
#17
Suzanne M Michalak, Mary C Whitman, Jong G Park, Max A Tischfield, Elaine H Nguyen, Elizabeth C Engle
Purpose: To spatially and temporally define ocular motor nerve development in the presence and absence of extraocular muscles (EOMs). Methods: Myf5cre mice, which in the homozygous state lack EOMs, were crossed to an IslMN:GFP reporter line to fluorescently label motor neuron cell bodies and axons. Embryonic day (E) 11.5 to E15.5 wild-type and Myf5cre/cre:IslMN:GFP whole mount embryos and dissected orbits were imaged by confocal microscopy to visualize the developing oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves in the presence and absence of EOMs...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434965/trochlear-schwannoma-presenting-with-isolated-trigeminal-neuralgia
#18
Cody L Nesvick, Avital Perry, Christopher S Graffeo, Aditya Raghunathan, Julie E Hammack, Jamie J Van Gompel
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas arising from the cranial nerves controlling extraocular eye movements are very rare and usually present with some degree of diplopia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 50-year-old woman who presented with isolated left-sided trigeminal neuralgia of 6 months' duration. Imaging demonstrated a homogeneously enhancing mass in the left ambient cistern, and the patient was brought to the operating room for resection. A retrosigmoid approach was used, and the mass was directly visualized arising from the trochlear nerve and compressing the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve...
July 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364580/end-organ-radiographic-manifestations-of-cranial-neuropathies-a-concise-review
#19
Vijay A Patel, Thomas T Zacharia, David Goldenberg, Johnathan D McGinn
BACKGROUND: Cranial neuropathies are a spectrum of disorders associated with dysfunction of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves and the subsequent anatomic structures they innervate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review radiographic imaging findings of end-organ aberrations secondary to cranial neuropathies. METHOD: All articles related to cranial neuropathies were retrieved through the PubMed MEDLINE NCBI database from January 1, 1991 to August 31, 2014...
July 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346224/mutant-%C3%AE-2-chimaerin-signals-via-bidirectional-ephrin-pathways-in-duane-retraction-syndrome
#20
Alicia A Nugent, Jong G Park, Yan Wei, Alan P Tenney, Nicole M Gilette, Michelle M DeLisle, Wai-Man Chan, Long Cheng, Elizabeth C Engle
Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is the most common form of congenital paralytic strabismus in humans and can result from α2-chimaerin (CHN1) missense mutations. We report a knockin α2-chimaerin mouse (Chn1KI/KI) that models DRS. Whole embryo imaging of Chn1KI/KI mice revealed stalled abducens nerve growth and selective trochlear and first cervical spinal nerve guidance abnormalities. Stalled abducens nerve bundles did not reach the orbit, resulting in secondary aberrant misinnervation of the lateral rectus muscle by the oculomotor nerve...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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