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Olfactory Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815589/tight-temporal-coupling-between-synaptic-rewiring-of-olfactory-glomeruli-and-the-emergence-of-odor-guided-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#1
Beatrice Terni, Paolo Pacciolla, Helena Masanas, Pau Gorostiza, Artur Llobet
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are chemoreceptors that establish excitatory synapses within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. OSNs undergo continuous turnover throughout life, causing the constant replacement of their synaptic contacts. Using Xenopus tadpoles as an experimental system to investigate rewiring of glomerular connectivity, we show that novel OSN synapses can transfer information immediately after formation, mediating an olfactory-guided behavior. Tadpoles recover the ability to detect amino acids four days after bilateral olfactory nerve transection...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#2
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797983/rationalisation-of-the-irrational-neuropathological-basis-of-hypothyroidism-olfaction-disorders-paradox-experimental-study
#3
Nazan Aydin, Leyla Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Resid Onen, Ilhan Yilmaz, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Konca Altinkaynak, Muhammet Calik
OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is defined as an underactive thyroid gland and one of the reasons for inadequate stimulation of thyroid is dysfunction of the hormone regulating brain centers. Olfaction disorders have been considered as a problem in hypothyroidism. It has been hypothesised that olfaction disorders reduce olfactory stimulation and diminished olfactory stimulus may trigger hypothyroidism. In this study an examination was made of the thyroid hormone levels, histological features of thyroid glands and vagal nerve network degradation in an experimental animal model of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791713/distinct-temporal-filters-in-mitral-cells-and-external-tufted-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#4
Christopher E Vaaga, Gary L Westbrook
Short-term synaptic plasticity is a critical regulator of neural circuits, and largely determines how information is temporally processed. In the olfactory bulb, afferent olfactory receptor neurons respond to increasing concentrations of odorants with barrages of action potentials, and their terminals have an extraordinarily high release probability (Sicard, 1986; Murphy et al. 2004). These features suggest that during naturalistic stimuli, afferent input to the olfactory bulb is subject to strong synaptic depression, presumably truncating the postsynaptic response to afferent stimuli...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763226/enhanced-brain-delivery-of-2-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic-acid-following-intranasal-administration-of-its-%C3%AE-substituted-ester-prodrugs
#5
Michael Nedelcovych, Ranjeet P Dash, Lukáš Tenora, Sarah C Zimmermann, Alexandra J Gadiano, Caroline Garrett, Jesse Alt, Kristen R Hollinger, Elie Pommier, Andrej Jančařík, Camilo Rojas, Ajit G Thomas, Ying Wu, Krystyna Wozniak, Pavel Majer, Barbara S Slusher, Rana Rais
2-(Phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase-II (GCPII) with efficacy in multiple neurological and psychiatric disease models, but its clinical utility is hampered by low brain penetration due to the inclusion of multiple acidic functionalities. We recently reported an improvement in the brain-to-plasma ratio of 2-PMPA after intranasal (IN) dosing in both rodents and primates. Herein, we describe the synthesis of several 2-PMPA prodrugs with further improved brain delivery of 2-PMPA after IN administration by masking of the -carboxylate...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761411/the-crossed-phrenic-phenomenon
#6
REVIEW
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the "crossed phrenic phenomenon", wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725383/sexual-selection-impacts-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-toads
#7
Yu Zeng, Shang Ling Lou, Wen Bo Liao, Robert Jehle, Alexander Kotrschal
Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724907/measuring-the-olfactory-bulb-input-output-transformation-reveals-a-contribution-to-the-perception-of-odorant-concentration-invariance
#8
Douglas A Storace, Lawrence B Cohen
Humans and other animals can recognize an odorant as the same over a range of odorant concentrations. It remains unclear whether the olfactory bulb, the brain structure that mediates the first stage of olfactory information processing, participates in generating this perceptual concentration invariance. Olfactory bulb glomeruli are regions of neuropil that contain input and output processes: olfactory receptor neuron nerve terminals (input) and mitral/tufted cell apical dendrites (output). Differences between the input and output of a brain region define the function(s) carried out by that region...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#9
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#10
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713816/effect-of-the-camelid-s-seminal-plasma-ovulation-inducing-factor-%C3%AE-ngf-a-kisspeptin-target-hypothesis
#11
REVIEW
Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703308/odors-generated-from-the-maillard-reaction-affect-autonomic-nervous-activity-and-decrease-blood-pressure-through-the-olfactory-system
#12
Lanxi Zhou, Motoko Ohata, Chisato Owashi, Katsuya Nagai, Issei Yokoyama, Keizo Arihara
BACKGROUND: Systolic blood pressure of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. In the current study, we identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 5-methylpyrazine-2-methanol decreased systolic blood pressure significantly...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685185/regeneration-of-synapses-in-the-olfactory-pathway-of-locusts-after-antennal-deafferentation
#13
Hannah Wasser, Michael Stern
The olfactory pathway of the locust is capable of fast and precise regeneration on an anatomical level. Following deafferentation of the antenna either of young adult locusts, or of fifth instar nymphs, severed olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) reinnervate the antennal lobe (AL) and arborize in AL microglomeruli. In the present study we tested whether these regenerated fibers establish functional synapses again. Intracellular recordings from AL projection neurons revealed that the first few odor stimulus evoked postsynaptic responses from regenerated ORNs from day 4-7 post crush on...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683287/the-sense-of-smell-impacts-metabolic-health-and-obesity
#14
Celine E Riera, Eva Tsaousidou, Jonathan Halloran, Patricia Follett, Oliver Hahn, Mafalda M A Pereira, Linda Engström Ruud, Jens Alber, Kevin Tharp, Courtney M Anderson, Hella Brönneke, Brigitte Hampel, Carlos Daniel de Magalhaes Filho, Andreas Stahl, Jens C Brüning, Andrew Dillin
Olfactory inputs help coordinate food appreciation and selection, but their role in systemic physiology and energy balance is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that mice upon conditional ablation of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are resistant to diet-induced obesity accompanied by increased thermogenesis in brown and inguinal fat depots. Acute loss of smell perception after obesity onset not only abrogated further weight gain but also improved fat mass and insulin resistance. Reduced olfactory input stimulates sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in activation of β-adrenergic receptors on white and brown adipocytes to promote lipolysis...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680155/polarized-distribution-of-active-myosin-ii-regulates-directional-migration-of-cultured-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#15
Cheng-Gen Zheng, Fan Zhang, Xiao-Mei Bao, Shi-Yang Wu, Peng Wang, Jia-Nan Zhou, Yuan Gao, Hong-Lin Teng, Ying Wang, Zhi-Hui Huang
Migration of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is critical for development of olfactory system and essential for neural regeneration after OEC transplantation into nerve injury site. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of directional migration of OECs remain unclear. In this study, we found that in migrating OECs, phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC, active myosin II) displayed a polarized distribution, with the leading front exhibiting higher than soma and trailing process. Over-expression of GFP-MLC significantly reduced OEC migration...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656221/effect-of-transplantation-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cell-conditioned-medium-induced-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-on-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Linjie Feng, Hongquan Gan, Wenguo Zhao, Yingjie Liu
Spinal cord injury is a serious threat to human health and various techniques have been deployed to ameliorate or cure its effects. Stem cells transplantation is one of the promising methods. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) conditioned medium‑induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury. Rat spinal cord compression injury animal models were generated, and the rats divided into the following three groups: Group A, (control) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium‑treated group; group B, normal BMSC‑treated group; group C, OEC conditioned medium‑induced BMSC‑treated group...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655484/-anterior-skull-base-schwannoma
#17
Miguel Esquivel-Miranda, Elier De la O Ríos, Emmanuelle Vargas-Valenciano, Eva Moreno-Medina
Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumours that originate in Schwann cells. They are usually solitary and sporadic and manifest on peripheral, spinal or cranial nerves. Intracranial schwannomas tend to manifest on the eighth cranial nerve, particularly in patients with neurofibromatosis type2. Anterior skull-base schwannomas represent less than 1% of all intracranial schwannomas. They are more frequent in young people and are typically benign. These tumours represent a diagnostic challenge due to their rarity and difficult differential diagnosis, and numerous theories have been postulated concerning their origin and development...
June 24, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#18
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620194/prognostic-value-of-olfactory-nerve-damage-measured-with-thallium-based-olfactory-imaging-in-patients-with-idiopathic-olfactory-dysfunction
#19
Hideaki Shiga, Junichi Taki, Koichi Okuda, Naoto Watanabe, Hisao Tonami, Hideaki Nakagawa, Seigo Kinuya, Takaki Miwa
Idiopathic olfactory disorder is resistant to treatment, and the recovery time is long. This study investigated the prognostic value of the migration of nasally administered thallium-201 to the olfactory bulb (thallium migration to the OB), a measure of olfactory nerve damage, in patients with idiopathic olfactory disorders. Twenty-four patients with idiopathic olfactory disorders were enrolled in the study (7 women and 17 men; aged 23-73 years). We retrospectively analyzed potential prognostic markers in subjects who underwent thallium-based olfactory imaging with the nasal administration of thallium-201 before conventional treatment with the Japanese herbal medicine tokishakuyakusan and compared those data with the prognosis...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606304/presynaptic-lrp4-promotes-synapse-number-and-function-of-excitatory-cns-neurons
#20
Timothy J Mosca, David J Luginbuhl, Irving E Wang, Liqun Luo
Precise coordination of synaptic connections ensures proper information flow within circuits. The activity of presynaptic organizing molecules signaling to downstream pathways is essential for such coordination, though such entities remain incompletely known. We show that LRP4, a conserved transmembrane protein known for its postsynaptic roles, functions presynaptically as an organizing molecule. In the Drosophila brain, LRP4 localizes to the nerve terminals at or near active zones. Loss of presynaptic LRP4 reduces excitatory (not inhibitory) synapse number, impairs active zone architecture, and abolishes olfactory attraction - the latter of which can be suppressed by reducing presynaptic GABAB receptors...
June 13, 2017: ELife
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