keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Olfactory Nerve

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725383/sexual-selection-impacts-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-toads
#1
Yu Zeng, Shang Ling Lou, Wen Bo Liao, Robert Jehle, Alexander Kotrschal
Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724907/measuring-the-olfactory-bulb-input-output-transformation-reveals-a-contribution-to-the-perception-of-odorant-concentration-invariance
#2
Douglas A Storace, Lawrence B Cohen
Humans and other animals can recognize an odorant as the same over a range of odorant concentrations. It remains unclear whether the olfactory bulb, the brain structure that mediates the first stage of olfactory information processing, participates in generating this perceptual concentration invariance. Olfactory bulb glomeruli are regions of neuropil that contain input and output processes: olfactory receptor neuron nerve terminals (input) and mitral/tufted cell apical dendrites (output). Differences between the input and output of a brain region define the function(s) carried out by that region...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#3
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#4
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713816/effect-of-the-camelid-s-seminal-plasma-ovulation-inducing-factor-%C3%AE-ngf-a-kisspeptin-target-hypothesis
#5
REVIEW
Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703308/odors-generated-from-the-maillard-reaction-affect-autonomic-nervous-activity-and-decrease-blood-pressure-through-the-olfactory-system
#6
Lanxi Zhou, Motoko Ohata, Chisato Owashi, Katsuya Nagai, Issei Yokoyama, Keizo Arihara
BACKGROUND: Systolic blood pressure of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. In the current study, we identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 5-methylpyrazine-2-methanol decreased systolic blood pressure significantly...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685185/regeneration-of-synapses-in-the-olfactory-pathway-of-locusts-after-antennal-deafferentation
#7
Hannah Wasser, Michael Stern
The olfactory pathway of the locust is capable of fast and precise regeneration on an anatomical level. Following deafferentation of the antenna either of young adult locusts, or of fifth instar nymphs, severed olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) reinnervate the antennal lobe (AL) and arborize in AL microglomeruli. In the present study we tested whether these regenerated fibers establish functional synapses again. Intracellular recordings from AL projection neurons revealed that the first few odor stimulus evoked postsynaptic responses from regenerated ORNs from day 4-7 post crush on...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683287/the-sense-of-smell-impacts-metabolic-health-and-obesity
#8
Celine E Riera, Eva Tsaousidou, Jonathan Halloran, Patricia Follett, Oliver Hahn, Mafalda M A Pereira, Linda Engström Ruud, Jens Alber, Kevin Tharp, Courtney M Anderson, Hella Brönneke, Brigitte Hampel, Carlos Daniel de Magalhaes Filho, Andreas Stahl, Jens C Brüning, Andrew Dillin
Olfactory inputs help coordinate food appreciation and selection, but their role in systemic physiology and energy balance is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that mice upon conditional ablation of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are resistant to diet-induced obesity accompanied by increased thermogenesis in brown and inguinal fat depots. Acute loss of smell perception after obesity onset not only abrogated further weight gain but also improved fat mass and insulin resistance. Reduced olfactory input stimulates sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in activation of β-adrenergic receptors on white and brown adipocytes to promote lipolysis...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680155/polarized-distribution-of-active-myosin-ii-regulates-directional-migration-of-cultured-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#9
Cheng-Gen Zheng, Fan Zhang, Xiao-Mei Bao, Shi-Yang Wu, Peng Wang, Jia-Nan Zhou, Yuan Gao, Hong-Lin Teng, Ying Wang, Zhi-Hui Huang
Migration of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is critical for development of olfactory system and essential for neural regeneration after OEC transplantation into nerve injury site. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of directional migration of OECs remain unclear. In this study, we found that in migrating OECs, phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC, active myosin II) displayed a polarized distribution, with the leading front exhibiting higher than soma and trailing process. Over-expression of GFP-MLC significantly reduced OEC migration...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656221/effect-of-transplantation-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cell-conditioned-medium-induced-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-on-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Linjie Feng, Hongquan Gan, Wenguo Zhao, Yingjie Liu
Spinal cord injury is a serious threat to human health and various techniques have been deployed to ameliorate or cure its effects. Stem cells transplantation is one of the promising methods. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) conditioned medium‑induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury. Rat spinal cord compression injury animal models were generated, and the rats divided into the following three groups: Group A, (control) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium‑treated group; group B, normal BMSC‑treated group; group C, OEC conditioned medium‑induced BMSC‑treated group...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655484/-anterior-skull-base-schwannoma
#11
Miguel Esquivel-Miranda, Elier De la O Ríos, Emmanuelle Vargas-Valenciano, Eva Moreno-Medina
Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumours that originate in Schwann cells. They are usually solitary and sporadic and manifest on peripheral, spinal or cranial nerves. Intracranial schwannomas tend to manifest on the eighth cranial nerve, particularly in patients with neurofibromatosis type2. Anterior skull-base schwannomas represent less than 1% of all intracranial schwannomas. They are more frequent in young people and are typically benign. These tumours represent a diagnostic challenge due to their rarity and difficult differential diagnosis, and numerous theories have been postulated concerning their origin and development...
June 24, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#12
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620194/prognostic-value-of-olfactory-nerve-damage-measured-with-thallium-based-olfactory-imaging-in-patients-with-idiopathic-olfactory-dysfunction
#13
Hideaki Shiga, Junichi Taki, Koichi Okuda, Naoto Watanabe, Hisao Tonami, Hideaki Nakagawa, Seigo Kinuya, Takaki Miwa
Idiopathic olfactory disorder is resistant to treatment, and the recovery time is long. This study investigated the prognostic value of the migration of nasally administered thallium-201 to the olfactory bulb (thallium migration to the OB), a measure of olfactory nerve damage, in patients with idiopathic olfactory disorders. Twenty-four patients with idiopathic olfactory disorders were enrolled in the study (7 women and 17 men; aged 23-73 years). We retrospectively analyzed potential prognostic markers in subjects who underwent thallium-based olfactory imaging with the nasal administration of thallium-201 before conventional treatment with the Japanese herbal medicine tokishakuyakusan and compared those data with the prognosis...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606304/presynaptic-lrp4-promotes-synapse-number-and-function-of-excitatory-cns-neurons
#14
Timothy J Mosca, David J Luginbuhl, Irving E Wang, Liqun Luo
Precise coordination of synaptic connections ensures proper information flow within circuits. The activity of presynaptic organizing molecules signaling to downstream pathways is essential for such coordination, though such entities remain incompletely known. We show that LRP4, a conserved transmembrane protein known for its postsynaptic roles, functions presynaptically as an organizing molecule. In the Drosophila brain, LRP4 localizes to the nerve terminals at or near active zones. Loss of presynaptic LRP4 reduces excitatory (not inhibitory) synapse number, impairs active zone architecture, and abolishes olfactory attraction - the latter of which can be suppressed by reducing presynaptic GABAB receptors...
June 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594302/ectopic-orbital-meningioma-fact-or-fiction
#15
Lee Teak Tan, Christopher M Stewart, Fintan Sheerin, Brendan MacDonald, Priy Silva, Jonathan H Norris
Primary intraorbital ectopic meningiomas are rare and their existence remains controversial. We present a 30-year-old female with painless, non-axial proptosis and a palpable superomedial mass. The MRI demonstrated that the mass had no optic nerve sheath or sphenoid wing involvement and was initially reported to have no intracranial extension. The patient was initially thought to have an ectopic orbital meningioma. Subsequent multidisciplinary team (MDT) consultation and further specialist review of the MRI revealed a subtle dural tail connecting to an enhancing mass in the olfactory groove...
June 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592157/correlation-between-nasal-epithelial-injury-and-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-using-a-series-of-small-molecule-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitors-investigated-for-reversal-of-leptin-resistance-in-obesity
#16
Alan P Brown, Chandrassegar Saravanan, Patrick Devine, Maria Magnifico, Jiaping Gao, Valerie Beaulieu, Fupeng Ma, Kayo Yasoshima, David Barnes-Seeman, Ken Yamada
This research provides a cautionary example when evaluating changes in behavioral end points with respect to postulated pharmacologic activity. Various small molecule substrate mimetic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors were investigated as pharmacologic agents for decreasing food consumption using intranasal (IN) dosing as a means for direct nose-to-brain delivery along the olfactory/trigeminal nerve pathways. Although food consumption was decreased in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, nasal discharge was observed...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583580/acetyl-l-carnitine-enhances-myelination-of-regenerated-fibers-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract
#17
Nanae Fukushima, Kumiko Yokouchi, Masafumi Kuroiwa, Kyutaro Kawagishi, Tetsuji Moriizumi
It is well known that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) has various neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, it has been reported that ALC facilitates myelination of regenerated axons after peripheral nerve injuries. We previously reported that spontaneous regeneration of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT), the main fiber tract of the central olfactory system, consistently occurred in newborn rats and a majority of these regenerated fibers were unmyelinated in neonatally LOT-transected young adult rats...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579944/impaired-spinal-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-contributes-to-the-attenuating-effect-of-depression-on-mechanical-allodynia-and-thermal-hyperalgesia-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#18
Xiao Wei, Yuqi Sun, Fei Luo
Although depression-induced altered pain perception has been described in several laboratory and clinical studies, its neurobiological mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the spinal dorsal horn, remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify whether nociceptive sensitivity of neuropathic pain is altered in the olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model of depression and whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is involved in the etio-pathologic mechanisms of both major depression and neuropathic pain, contributes to these processes in the spinal dorsal horn of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575969/li-activated-nanohydroxyapatite-doped-with-eu-3-ions-enhances-proliferative-activity-and-viability-of-human-stem-progenitor-cells-of-adipose-tissue-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-further-perspective-of-nhap-li-eu-3-application-in-theranostics
#19
Krzysztof Marycz, Paulina Sobierajska, Agnieszka Smieszek, Monika Maredziak, Katarzyna Wiglusz, Rafal J Wiglusz
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) often require simultaneous regeneration of nerve tissue and bone. Hydroxyapatites are described as bioresorbable materials with proper biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, therefore its application for spinal surgery is considered. In this paper, we present repeatable method for developing nanocrystalline calcium hydroxyapatites structurally modified with Li(+) ions (nHAP:Li(+)). Obtained biomaterials were profoundly characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. Moreover, we have shown that nHAP:Li(+) doped with europium (Eu(3+)) may serve as a theranostic agent, what additionally extend its potential usage for SCI treatment...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545516/improving-the-regenerative-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-by-overexpressing-prostacyclin-synthetase-and-its-application-in-spinal-cord-repair
#20
May-Jywan Tsai, Chi-Ting Huang, Yong-San Huang, Ching-Feng Weng, Song-Kun Shyue, Ming-Chao Huang, Dann-Ying Liou, Yan-Ru Lin, Chu-Hsun Cheng, Huai-Sheng Kuo, Yilo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee, Wen-Hung Huang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng
BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), specialized glia that ensheathe bundles of olfactory nerves, have been reported as a favorable substrate for axonal regeneration. Grafting OEC to injured spinal cord appears to facilitate axonal regeneration although the functional recovery is limited. In an attempt to improve the growth-promoting properties of OEC, we transduced prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) to OEC via adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer and examined the effect of OEC with enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in co-culture and in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
keyword
keyword
113246
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"