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Olfactory Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#1
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300714/electrophysiology-of-olfactory-and-optic-nerve-in-outpatient-and-intraoperative-settings
#2
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
Evoked potentials are time-locked electrophysiologic potentials recorded in response to standardized stimuli using scalp electrodes. These responses provide good temporal resolution and have been used in various clinical and intraoperative settings. Olfactory evoked potentials (OEPs) may be used as an adjunct tool in identifying patients of Parkinson disease and Alzheimer dementia. In clinical practice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are particularly useful in identifying subclinical cases of optic neuritis and in treatment surveillance...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288465/numerical-comparison-of-nasal-aerosol-administration-systems-for-efficient-nose-to-brain-drug-delivery
#3
Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Kiao Inthavong, Hak-Kim Chan, Jiyuan Tu
PURPOSE: Nose-to-brain drug administration along the olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways offers an alternative route for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The characterization of particle deposition remains difficult to achieve in experiments. Alternative numerical approach is applied to identify suitable aerosol particle size with maximized inhaled doses. METHODS: This study numerically compared the drug delivery efficiency in a realistic human nasal cavity between two aerosol drug administration systems targeting the olfactory region: the aerosol mask system and the breath-powered bi-directional system...
December 29, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282995/nose-to-brain-transport-pathways-an-overview-potential-of-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-in-nose-to-brain-targeting
#4
Kousalya Selvaraj, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Many of the therapeutics used for the treatment of brain disorders are not effective and not delivered to the brain due to the complex structure and its barriers. In recent years, many advanced approaches have emerged for the brain drug delivery. Intranasal drug delivery is one of non-invasive approach has gained interest because of direct transport of drugs circumventing the brain barriers through olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways. Eventhough through these pathways the therapeutics have direct access to the brain, the main limitations of this approach are only limited drug absorption, and nasal permeability...
December 28, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277310/mechanism-of-intranasal-drug-delivery-directly-to-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
Tyler P Crowe, M Heather West Greenlee, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Walter H Hsu
Neurological diseases are becoming increasingly prominent worldwide due to rapidly aging populations, which greatly contributes to increasing healthcare costs. The development of neuroprotective drugs has so far proven exceptionally difficult due to the blood-brain barrier. One novel approach to address this challenge is to administer drugs intranasally to noninvasively bypass the blood-brain barrier. The intranasal route can thus transport drugs directly to the brain from the nasal cavity along the olfactory and trigeminal nerves...
December 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#6
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#7
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209768/spread-of-aggregates-after-olfactory-bulb-injection-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-is-associated-with-early-neuronal-loss-and-is-reduced-long-term
#8
Nolwen L Rey, Sonia George, Jennifer A Steiner, Zachary Madaj, Kelvin C Luk, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Patrik Brundin
Parkinson's disease is characterized by degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine neurons and by intraneuronal aggregates, primarily composed of misfolded α-synuclein. The α-synuclein aggregates in Parkinson's patients are suggested to first appear in the olfactory bulb and enteric nerves and then propagate, following a stereotypic pattern, via neural pathways to numerous regions across the brain. We recently demonstrated that after injection of either mouse or human α-synuclein fibrils into the olfactory bulb of wild-type mice, α-synuclein fibrils recruited endogenous α-synuclein into pathological aggregates that spread transneuronally to over 40 other brain regions and subregions, over 12 months...
December 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209176/central-projections-of-antennal-and-labial-palp-sensory-neurons-in-the-migratory-armyworm-mythimna-separata
#9
Bai-Wei Ma, Xin-Cheng Zhao, Bente G Berg, Gui-Ying Xie, Qing-Bo Tang, Gui-Rong Wang
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), is a polyphagous, migratory pest relying on olfactory cues to find mates, locate nectar, and guide long-distance flight behavior. In the present study, a combination of neuroanatomical techniques were utilized on this species, including backfills, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions, to trace the central projections of sensory neurons from the antenna and the labial pit organ, respectively. As previously shown, the axons of the labial sensory neurons project via the ipsilateral labial nerve and terminate in three main areas of the central nervous system: (1) the labial-palp pit organ glomerulus of each antennal lobe, (2) the gnathal ganglion, and (3) the prothoracic ganglion of the ventral nerve cord...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#10
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203228/mild-fluid-percussion-injury-induces-diffuse-axonal-damage-and-reactive-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#11
Melissa A Powell, Raiford T Black, Terry L Smith, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips
Despite the regenerative capacity of the olfactory bulb (OB), head trauma causes olfactory disturbances in up to 30% of patients. While models of olfactory nerve transection, olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) ablation, or direct OB impact have been used to examine OB recovery, these models are severe and not ideal for study of OB synaptic repair. We posited that a mild fluid percussion brain injury (mFPI), delivered over mid-dorsal cortex, would produce diffuse OB deafferentation without confounding pathology...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190980/transplanted-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-restore-retinal-function-in-a-rat-model-of-light-induced-retinal-damage-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress
#12
Langyue Xue, Yuxiao Zeng, Qiyou Li, Yijian Li, Zhengya Li, Haiwei Xu, Zhengqin Yin
There is still not an effective treatment for continuous retinal light exposure and subsequent photoreceptor degeneration. Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation has been shown to be neuroprotective in spinal cord, and optic nerve injury and retinitis pigmentosa. However, whether OECs protect rat photoreceptors against light-induced damage and how this may work is unclear. Thus, to elucidate this mechanism, purified rat OECs were grafted into the subretinal space of a Long-Evans rat model with light-induced photoreceptor damage...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126198/thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-knockout-xenopus-tropicalis-tadpoles-reveal-subtype-specific-roles-during-development
#13
Keisuke Nakajima, Ichiro Tazawa, Yoshio Yaoita
Thyroid hormone (TH) binds TH receptor alpha (TRα) and beta (TRβ) receptors to induce amphibian metamorphosis. Whereas TH signalling has been well studied, functional differences between TRα and TRβ during this process have not been characterized. To understand how each TR contributes to metamorphosis, we generated TRα- and TRβ-knockout tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis and examined developmental abnormalities, histology of the tail and intestine, and mRNA expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes...
November 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117762/a-time-limit-for-starting-anti-inflammatory-treatment-for-better-improvement-of-olfactory-dysfunction-after-head-injury
#14
Masayoshi Kobayashi, Kengo Tamari, Masako Kitano, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
We previously reported that treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug, specifically a steroid, is effective in improving recovery outcome during acute phase of head injury. Clinically, however, patients with head injury usually become aware of their olfactory loss several weeks or months after the injury, which may be a critical factor in poor recovery from olfactory dysfunction. This raises an important question; when should steroid administration begin in order to achieve optimum improvement of olfactory dysfunction? The present study was designed to reveal the time limit for starting anti-inflammatory treatment for better improvement of post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090565/-fast-onset-antidepressant-potentials-of-essential-oil-of-herbs
#15
Jin-Ping Du, Yan-Ting Liu, Yi-Jing Wu, Hong-Hua Wu, Yan-Tong Xu
The existing antidepressants demonstrated delayed onset of clinical effects, so fast-onset antidepressants are required. Essential oil of herbs showed potentials fast-onset antidepressant potential. First, its aromatic odor can directly activate olfactory nerves; its high lipophilicity causes a high blood-brain barrier penetration rate; and its high volatility is suitable for nasal-brain targeting and inhalation delivery. Therefore, essential oils can rapidly regulate brain functions by multiple ways, suggesting a fast-onset antidepressant potential...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077773/open-housing-drives-the-expression-of-immune-response-genes-in-the-nasal-mucosa-but-not-the-olfactory-bulb
#16
Carolin Piotrowski, Vera Lede, Anne Butthof, Nicole Kaiser, Petra G Hirrlinger, Matthias H Tschöp, Torsten Schöneberg, Ingo Bechmann
Nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb are separated by the cribriform plate which is perforated by olfactory nerves. We have previously demonstrated that the cribriform plate is permissive for T cells and monocytes and that viruses can enter the bulb upon intranasal injection by axonal transportation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb are equipped to deal with constant infectious threats. To detect genes involved in this process, we compared gene expression in nasal mucosa and bulb of mice kept under specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions to gene expression of mice kept on non-SPF conditions using RNA deep sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066644/olfactory-nerve-hypertrophy-a-clue-to-the-presence-of-ipsilateral-megalencephaly
#17
Rajesh Shankar Iyer, Bejoy Thomas, Saleem Akhtar, Praveen Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061448/scorpions-pectines-idiosyncratic-chemo-and-mechanosensory-organs
#18
REVIEW
Harald Wolf
Scorpions possess specialised chemosensory appendages, the pectines. These comb-shaped limbs are located ventrally behind the walking legs. Like the antennae of mandibulate arthropods, they also serve mechanosensory function. However, more than 90% of the sometimes well above 100,000 sensory neurons projecting from a pectine to the central nervous system are chemosensory. There are two primary projection neuropils. The posterior one, immediately adjacent to the pectine nerve entrance, has an intriguing substructure reminiscent of the olfactory glomeruli observed in the primary chemosensory neuropils of many arthropods and indeed of most bilaterian animals...
October 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056451/the-lamprey-pallium-provides-a-blueprint-of-the-mammalian-layered-cortex
#19
Shreyas M Suryanarayana, Brita Robertson, Peter Wallén, Sten Grillner
The basic architecture of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across species. Pallial structures in the reptilian brain are considered amniote precursors of mammalian neocortex, whereas pallia of anamniotes ("lower" vertebrates) have been deemed largely insignificant with respect to homology. Here, we examine the cytoarchitecture of the lateral pallium in the lamprey, the phylogenetically oldest group of extant vertebrates. We reveal a three-layered structure with similar excitatory cell types as in the mammalian cortex and GABAergic interneurons...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054783/subfrontal-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Vladimir Figueroa-Ángel, Carlos Alberto Rodríguez-Aceves, Willem G Calderon-Miranda, Nidia Escobar-Hernandez, Andrei F Joaquim, Neurosurgeon Luis R Moscote
We present the case of a 46 year old female that presented with right tinnitus, dizziness and bifrontal headache, progressive, starting two years before. Imaging studies reveals an incidentally neoplastic extraaxial homogeneous appearance tumor on the right anterior skull base. She undewernt surgical treatment with total resection of the tumor by a bicoronal approach. The histopathological study reported schwannoma. Although attributte the origin of schwannomas from the the olfactory nerve is near impossible, once they do not have Schwann cells, intracranial supratentorial schwannomas are mainly located in the anterior skull base...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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