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Olfactory Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224626/intranasal-trigeminal-function-in-patients-with-empty-nose-syndrome
#1
Iordanis Konstantinidis, Evangelia Tsakiropoulou, Angelos Chatziavramidis, Christos Ikonomidis, Konstantinos Markou
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Trigeminal nerve mediates the perception of nasal airflow. This study examines whether impaired intranasal trigeminal function is a part of the paradoxical nasal obstruction sensation in patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Three groups were examined: 1) ENS patients with previous bilateral near total inferior turbinectomy, 2) patients who underwent near total inferior turbinate removal (ITR) without ENS symptoms, and 3) control participants...
February 22, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185609/olfactory-ensheathing-cells-inhibit-gliosis-in-retinal-degeneration-by-down-regulation-of-the-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-notch-signaling-pathway
#2
Jing Xie, Shujia Huo, Yijian Li, Jiaman Dai, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
Retinal regeneration and self-repair, whether in response to injury or degenerative disease, are severely impeded by glial scar formation by Müller cells (specialized retinal macroglia). We have previously demonstrated that the activation of Müller cells and gliosis in the degenerative retina are significantly suppressed by the subretinal transplantation of a mixture of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we transplanted purified rat OECs into the subretinal space of pigmented Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a classic rodent model of retinal degeneration...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183698/constitutively-active-notch1-converts-cranial-neural-crest-derived-frontonasal-mesenchyme-to-perivascular-cells-in-vivo
#3
Sophie R Miller, Surangi N Perera, Clare V H Baker
Perivascular/mural cells originate from either the mesoderm or the cranial neural crest. Regardless of their origin, Notch signalling is necessary for their formation. Furthermore, in both chicken and mouse, constitutive Notch1 activation (via expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain) is sufficient in vivo to convert trunk mesoderm-derived somite cells to perivascular cells, at the expense of skeletal muscle. In experiments originally designed to investigate the effect of premature Notch1 activation on the development of neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OECs), we used in ovo electroporation to insert a tetracycline-inducible NotchΔE construct (encoding a constitutively active mutant of mouse Notch1) into the genome of chicken cranial neural crest cell precursors, and activated NotchΔE expression by doxycycline injection at embryonic day 4...
February 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180961/dermal-phospho-alpha-synuclein-deposits-confirm-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-as-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Kathrin Doppler, Hanna-Maria Jentschke, Lena Schulmeyer, David Vadasz, Annette Janzen, Markus Luster, Helmut Höffken, Geert Mayer, Joachim Brumberg, Jan Booij, Thomas Musacchio, Stephan Klebe, Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand, Jens Volkmann, Claudia Sommer, Wolfgang H Oertel
Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in patients with a high risk of developing PD, such as those with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). We compared the presence and distribution of p-alpha-syn deposits in dermal nerve fibres in 18 patients with RBD, 25 patients with early PD and 20 normal controls...
February 8, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178768/distribution-of-endomorphin-like-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-brain-of-the-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus
#5
Vijayalaxmi, C B Ganesh
Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150067/regeneration-of-axotomized-olfactory-neurons-in-young-and-adult-locusts-quantified-by-fasciclin-i-immunofluorescence
#6
Hannah Wasser, Alexandra Biller, Georgios Antonopoulos, Heiko Meyer, Gerd Bicker, Michael Stern
The olfactory pathway of the locust Locusta migratoria is characterized by a multiglomerular innervation of the antennal lobe (AL) by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). After crushing the antenna and thereby severing ORN axons, changes in the AL were monitored. First, volume changes were measured at different times post-crush with scanning laser optical tomography in 5th instar nymphs. AL volume decreased significantly to a minimum volume at 4 days post-crush, followed by an increase. Second, anterograde labeling was used to visualize details in the AL and antennal nerve (AN) during de- and regeneration...
February 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146061/the-glia-response-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-a-comparison-between-schwann-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-their-uses-for-neural-regenerative-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Matthew J Barton, James St John, Mary Clarke, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134639/complications-of-nasal-bone-fractures
#8
Kun Hwang, Seung Han Yeom, Suk Hyun Hwang
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126681/nose-to-brain-delivery-of-bace1-sirna-loaded-in-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-for-alzheimer-s-therapy
#9
Giovanna Rassu, Elena Soddu, Anna Maria Posadino, Gianfranco Pintus, Bruno Sarmento, Paolo Giunchedi, Elisabetta Gavini
We designed a delivery system to obtain an efficient and optimal nose-to-brain transport of BACE1 siRNA, potentially useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We selected a cell-penetrating peptide, the short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein known as RVG-9R, to increase the transcellular pathway in neuronal cells. The optimal molar ratio between RVG-9R and BACE1 siRNA was elucidated. The complex between the two was then encapsulated. We propose chitosan-coated and uncoated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a nasal delivery system capable of exploiting both olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways...
January 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115648/drug-induced-taste-disorders-in-clinical-practice-and-preclinical-safety-evaluation
#10
Tao Wang, John Glendinning, Miriam Grushka, Thomas Hummel, Keith Mansfield
More than 200 medications can induce taste disorders in patients. They not only reduce quality of life for those affected, but can lead to malnutrition, severe dehydration and difficulty in maintaining a therapeutic regimen. Nevertheless, the impact of drug candidates on taste is rarely evaluated in preclinical toxicology studies during the early stage of drug development. Moreover, knowledge about how to investigate these adverse effect is scarce in the toxicology field. Here, we discuss the clinical status of drug-induced taste disorders in patients, with the goal of providing toxicologists with a broad understanding its prevalence, and how stressful and even dangerous it can be to affected patients...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060175/cochlear-nerve-deficiency-and-brain-abnormalities-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Thierry Morlet, Markian Pazuniak, Robert C O'Reilly, Vinay Kandula, Arabinda K Choudhary
HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the intracranial abnormalities present in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND), including abnormalities of other cranial nerves, and to describe their auditory abilities. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of CND has increased with the development of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are varying degrees of CND from true aplasia to hypoplasia. The etiology of CND remains unclear and it may be associated with intracranial abnormalities in some instances...
March 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039411/nasal-trpa1-mediates-irritant-induced-bradypnea-in-mice
#12
Keiichi Inui, ChangPing Chen, Jordan L Pauli, Chiharu Kuroki, Shogo Tashiro, Yuichi Kanmura, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily, exists in sensory neurons such as trigeminal neurons innervating the nasal cavity and vagal neurons innervating the trachea and the lung. Although TRPA1 has been proposed as an irritant receptor that, when stimulated, triggers bradypnea, precise locations of the receptors responsible have not been elucidated. Here, we examined the relative importance of TRPA1 located in the upper airway (nasal) and the lower airway (trachea/lungs) in urethane-anesthetized mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011040/cranial-nerves-in-the-australian-lungfish-neoceratodus-forsteri-and-in-fossil-relatives-osteichthyes-dipnoi
#13
A Kemp
Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen...
December 9, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009915/evidence-of-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-nanoemulsions-cargoes-but-not-vehicles
#14
Ejaj Ahmad, Yunhai Feng, Jianping Qi, Wufa Fan, Yuhua Ma, Haisheng He, Fei Xia, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Yi Lu, Wei Wu
The nose-to-brain pathway has been proven to be a shortcut for direct drug delivery to the brain. However, whether and to what extent nanoparticles can be delivered through this passage is still awaiting validation with evidence. In this study, nose-to-brain transportation of nanoparticles is tracked via fluorescence bioimaging strategies using nanoemulsions (NEs) as model carriers. Identification of NEs in biological tissues is based on the on → off signal switching of a new type of environment-responsive embedded dyes, P2 and P4, and two conventional probes, DiR and coumarin-6 (C6), are embedded to represent the cargoes...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007643/synergistic-effect-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-alpha-crystallin-on-restoration-of-adult-rat-optic-nerve-injury
#15
Yan Hua Wang, Zheng Qin Yin, Yi Wang
Olfactory enshesathing cells (OECs) and α-crystallin all can promote axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury. However, their mechanisms were different. Here, we study the synergistic effect of OECs and α-crystallin on the optic nerve regeneration. α-Crystallin was injected into vitreous cavity, and OECs were transplanted to the optic nerve injury area. The regeneration length of optic nerve were measured by anterograde tracing using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). The survival of RGCs were assessed by counting the numbers of βIII-tubulin-labeled RGCs in a retinal whole mount...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001299/organization-of-the-antennal-lobes-in-the-praying-mantis-tenodera-aridifolia
#16
Thomas Carle, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yoshifumi Yamawaki, Fumio Yokohari
Olfaction in insects plays pivotal roles in searching for food and/or for sexual partners. Although many studies have focused on the olfactory processes of non-predatory insect species, little is known about those in predatory insects. Here, we investigated the anatomical features of the primary olfactory center (antennal lobes) in an insect predator whose visual system is well developed, the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Both sexes of T. aridifolia were found to possess 54 glomeruli, and each glomerulus was identified based on its location and size...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989866/localization-and-expression-of-molt-inhibiting-hormone-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-green-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas-and-the-blackback-land-crab-gecarcinus-lateralis
#17
Natalie L Pitts, Donald L Mykles
In decapod crustaceans, molting is controlled by the pulsatile release of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) from neurosecretory cells in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). A drop in MIH release triggers molting by activating the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Post-transcriptional mechanisms ultimately control MIH levels in the hemolymph. Neurotransmitter-mediated electrical activity controls Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release of MIH from the SG axon terminals, which may be modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943232/distinct-presence-of-the-tight-junction-protein-claudin-3-in-olfactory-bulb-and-fila-olfactoria-of-the-mouse
#18
Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, I Piotr Maly
The tight junction protein claudin-3 is overexpressed in diverse epithelial tumours and is associated with increased survival, progression and motility of tumour cells. Claudin-3 expression profiles are being increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic tumour classification. Claudin-3 has been identified as a receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, which is under consideration for selective lysis of claudin-3-expressing tumours, particularly brain metastases, and other translational medicine uses...
December 12, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864931/spatial-distribution-of-synapses-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing-juxtaglomerular-cells-in-the-mouse-olfactory-glomerulus
#19
Emi Kiyokage, Kazuto Kobayashi, Kazunori Toida
Olfactory sensory axons converge in specific glomeruli where they form excitatory synapses onto dendrites of mitral/tufted (M/T) and juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, including periglomerular (PG), external tufted (ET), and superficial-short axon cells. JG cells consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different neurochemical, physiological, and morphological properties. Among JG cells, previous electron microscopic (EM) studies have shown that the majority of synaptic inputs to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons were asymmetrical synapses from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803687/emerging-putative-associations-between-non-coding-rnas-and-protein-coding-genes-in-neuropathic-pain-added-value-from-reusing-microarray-data
#20
Hemalatha B Raju, Nicholas F Tsinoremas, Enrico Capobianco
Regeneration of injured nerves is likely occurring in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the central nervous system. Although protein-coding gene expression has been assessed during nerve regeneration, little is currently known about the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This leaves open questions about the potential effects of ncRNAs at transcriptome level. Due to the limited availability of human neuropathic pain (NP) data, we have identified the most comprehensive time-course gene expression profile referred to sciatic nerve (SN) injury and studied in a rat model using two neuronal tissues, namely dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and SN...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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