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Olfactory Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060175/cochlear-nerve-deficiency-and-brain-abnormalities-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Thierry Morlet, Markian Pazuniak, Robert C O'Reilly, Vinay Kandula, Arabinda K Choudhary
HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the intracranial abnormalities present in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND), including abnormalities of other cranial nerves, and to describe their auditory abilities. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of CND has increased with the development of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are varying degrees of CND from true aplasia to hypoplasia. The etiology of CND remains unclear and it may be associated with intracranial abnormalities in some instances...
January 4, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039411/nasal-trpa1-mediates-irritant-induced-bradypnea-in-mice
#2
Keiichi Inui, ChangPing Chen, Jordan L Pauli, Chiharu Kuroki, Shogo Tashiro, Yuichi Kanmura, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily, exists in sensory neurons such as trigeminal neurons innervating the nasal cavity and vagal neurons innervating the trachea and the lung. Although TRPA1 has been proposed as an irritant receptor that, when stimulated, triggers bradypnea, precise locations of the receptors responsible have not been elucidated. Here, we examined the relative importance of TRPA1 located in the upper airway (nasal) and the lower airway (trachea/lungs) in urethane-anesthetized mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011040/cranial-nerves-in-the-australian-lungfish-neoceratodus-forsteri-and-in-fossil-relatives-osteichthyes-dipnoi
#3
A Kemp
Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen...
December 9, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009915/evidence-of-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-nanoemulsions-cargoes-but-not-vehicles
#4
Ejaj Ahmad, Yunhai Feng, Jianping Qi, Wufa Fan, Yuhua Ma, Haisheng He, Fei Xia, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Yi Lu, Wei Wu
The nose-to-brain pathway has been proven to be a shortcut for direct drug delivery to the brain. However, whether and to what extent nanoparticles can be delivered through this passage is still awaiting validation with evidence. In this study, nose-to-brain transportation of nanoparticles is tracked via fluorescence bioimaging strategies using nanoemulsions (NEs) as model carriers. Identification of NEs in biological tissues is based on the on → off signal switching of a new type of environment-responsive embedded dyes, P2 and P4, and two conventional probes, DiR and coumarin-6 (C6), are embedded to represent the cargoes...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007643/synergistic-effect-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-alpha-crystallin-on-restoration-of-adult-rat-optic-nerve-injury
#5
Yan Hua Wang, Zheng Qin Yin, Yi Wang
Olfactory enshesathing cells (OECs) and α-crystallin all can promote axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury. However, their mechanisms were different. Here, we study the synergistic effect of OECs and α-crystallin on the optic nerve regeneration. α-Crystallin was injected into vitreous cavity, and OECs were transplanted to the optic nerve injury area. The regeneration length of optic nerve were measured by anterograde tracing using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). The survival of RGCs were assessed by counting the numbers of βIII-tubulin-labeled RGCs in a retinal whole mount...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001299/organization-of-the-antennal-lobes-in-the-praying-mantis-tenodera-aridifolia
#6
Thomas Carle, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yoshifumi Yamawaki, Fumio Yokohari
Olfaction in insects plays pivotal roles in searching for food and/or for sexual partners. Although many studies have focused on the olfactory processes of non-predatory insect species, little is known about those in predatory insects. Here, we investigated the anatomical features of the primary olfactory center (antennal lobes) in an insect predator whose visual system is well developed, the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Both sexes of T. aridifolia were found to possess 54 glomeruli, and each glomerulus was identified based on its location and size...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989866/localization-and-expression-of-molt-inhibiting-hormone-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-green-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas-and-the-blackback-land-crab-gecarcinus-lateralis
#7
Natalie L Pitts, Donald L Mykles
In decapod crustaceans, molting is controlled by the pulsatile release of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) from neurosecretory cells in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). A drop in MIH release triggers molting by activating the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Post-transcriptional mechanisms ultimately control MIH levels in the hemolymph. Neurotransmitter-mediated electrical activity controls Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release of MIH from the SG axon terminals, which may be modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943232/distinct-presence-of-the-tight-junction-protein-claudin-3-in-olfactory-bulb-and-fila-olfactoria-of-the-mouse
#8
Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, I Piotr Maly
The tight junction protein claudin-3 is overexpressed in diverse epithelial tumours and is associated with increased survival, progression and motility of tumour cells. Claudin-3 expression profiles are being increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic tumour classification. Claudin-3 has been identified as a receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, which is under consideration for selective lysis of claudin-3-expressing tumours, particularly brain metastases, and other translational medicine uses...
December 12, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864931/spatial-distribution-of-synapses-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing-juxtaglomerular-cells-in-the-mouse-olfactory-glomerulus
#9
Emi Kiyokage, Kazuto Kobayashi, Kazunori Toida
Olfactory sensory axons converge in specific glomeruli where they form excitatory synapses onto dendrites of mitral/tufted (M/T) and juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, including periglomerular (PG), external tufted (ET), and superficial-short axon cells. JG cells consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different neurochemical, physiological, and morphological properties. Among JG cells, previous electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that the majority of synaptic inputs to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons were asymmetrical synapses from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803687/emerging-putative-associations-between-non-coding-rnas-and-protein-coding-genes-in-neuropathic-pain-added-value-from-reusing-microarray-data
#10
Hemalatha B Raju, Nicholas F Tsinoremas, Enrico Capobianco
Regeneration of injured nerves is likely occurring in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the central nervous system. Although protein-coding gene expression has been assessed during nerve regeneration, little is currently known about the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This leaves open questions about the potential effects of ncRNAs at transcriptome level. Due to the limited availability of human neuropathic pain (NP) data, we have identified the most comprehensive time-course gene expression profile referred to sciatic nerve (SN) injury and studied in a rat model using two neuronal tissues, namely dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and SN...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743319/lipopolysaccharide-and-curcumin-co-stimulation-potentiates-olfactory-ensheathing-cell-phagocytosis-via-enhancing-their-activation
#11
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718014/common-olfactory-ensheathing-glial-markers-in-the-developing-human-olfactory-system
#12
Karen Oprych, Daniel Cotfas, David Choi
The in situ immunocytochemical properties of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been well studied in several small to medium sized animal models including rats, mice, guinea pigs, cats and canines. However, we know very little about the antigenic characteristics of OECs in situ within the adult and developing human olfactory bulb and nerve roots. To address this gap in knowledge we undertook an immunocytochemical analysis of the 11-19 pcw human foetal olfactory system. Human foetal OECs in situ possessed important differences compared to rodents in the expression of key surface markers...
October 7, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692900/fine-particulate-matter-exposure-and-olfactory-dysfunction-among-urban-dwelling-older-us-adults
#13
Gaurav S Ajmani, Helen H Suh, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Jeff D Yanosky, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The olfactory nerve is anatomically susceptible to injury from pollution in inspired air, but there are no large-scale epidemiologic studies investigating this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling US adults age 57-85 years. Olfactory function was tested using a validated 5-item odor identification test (Sniffin' Sticks). Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667971/role-of-rb-during-neurogenesis-and-axonal-guidance-in-the-developing-olfactory-system
#14
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651703/schwannomas-from-olfactory-nerve-a-rare-type
#15
Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641994/olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cell-therapy-and-tubular-conduit-enhance-nerve-regeneration-after-mouse-sciatic-nerve-transection
#16
Camila Oliveira Goulart, Daniella de Freitas Pereira Ângelo Durço, Lítia Alves de Carvalho, Júlia Teixeira Oliveira, Lucinéia Alves, Leny A Cavalcante, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
The regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely known, but functional recovery, particularly in humans, is seldom complete. Therefore, it is necessary to resort to strategies that induce or potentiate the PNS regeneration. Our main objective was to test the effectiveness of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OEC) transplantation into a biodegradable conduit as a therapeutic strategy to improve the repair outcome after nerve injury. Sciatic nerve transection was performed in C57BL/6 mice; proximal and distal stumps of the nerve were sutured into the collagen conduit...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620703/nitrogen-dioxide-pollution-exposure-is-associated-with-olfactory-dysfunction-in-older-u-s-adults
#17
Dara R Adams, Gaurav S Ajmani, Vivian C Pun, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Helen H Suh, Jayant M Pinto
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction has profound effects on quality of life, physical and social function, and mortality itself. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) is a pervasive air pollutant that is associated with respiratory diseases. Given the olfactory nerve's anatomic exposure to airborne pollutants, we investigated the relationship between NO2 exposure and olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: The ability to identify odors was evaluated using a validated test in respondents from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a representative probability sample of home-dwelling, older U...
December 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575005/morphological-analysis-of-regenerated-bulbar-fibers-in-relation-to-neonatal-olfaction
#18
Masafumi Kuroiwa, Nanae Fukushima, Kumiko Yokouchi, Kyutaro Kawagishi, Tetsuji Moriizumi
It was revealed that regeneration of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) occurred in developing rats and the regenerated olfactory system was functional 4 weeks after transection. The aim of this study was to determine the earliest onset of functional recovery in LOT-injured rats and to quantify regenerated nerve components with functional correlation. Neonatal rats on postnatal day (P) 2 were subjected to unilateral transection of the left LOT and underwent unilateral removal of the right olfactory bulb on P11...
August 26, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567860/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-highly-exposed-pm2-5-urbanites-the-risk-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-in%C3%A2-young-mexico-city-residents
#19
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, José Avila-Ramírez, Ana Calderón-Garcidueñas, Tonatiuh González-Heredia, Hilda Acuña-Ayala, Chih-Kai Chao, Charles Thompson, Rubén Ruiz-Ramos, Victor Cortés-González, Luz Martínez-Martínez, Mario Alberto García-Pérez, Jacques Reis, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Ingolf Lachmann
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, while Mn toxicity induces parkinsonism. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children have pre- and postnatal sustained and high exposures to PM2.5, O3, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Young MCMA residents exhibit frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ)1 - 42 diffuse plaques, and aggregated and hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein in olfactory nerves and key brainstem nuclei...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560601/stem-and-progenitor-cells-of-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium-taking-poietic-license
#20
REVIEW
James E Schwob, Woochan Jang, Eric H Holbrook, Brian Lin, Daniel B Herrick, Jesse N Peterson, Julie Hewitt Coleman
The capacity of the olfactory epithelium (OE) for lifelong neurogenesis and regeneration depends on the persistence of neurocompetent stem cells, which self-renew as well as generating all of the cell types found within the nasal epithelium. This Review focuses on the types of stem and progenitor cells in the epithelium and their regulation. Both horizontal basal cells (HBCs) and some among the population of globose basal cells (GBCs) are stem cells, but the two types plays vastly different roles. The GBC population includes the basal cells that proliferate in the uninjured OE and is heterogeneous with respect to transcription factor expression...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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