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Olfactory Nerve

Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Karen Oprych, Daniel Cotfas, David Choi
The in situ immunocytochemical properties of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been well studied in several small to medium sized animal models including rats, mice, guinea pigs, cats and canines. However, we know very little about the antigenic characteristics of OECs in situ within the adult and developing human olfactory bulb and nerve roots. To address this gap in knowledge we undertook an immunocytochemical analysis of the 11-19 pcw human foetal olfactory system. Human foetal OECs in situ possessed important differences compared to rodents in the expression of key surface markers...
October 7, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Gaurav S Ajmani, Helen H Suh, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Jeff D Yanosky, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The olfactory nerve is anatomically susceptible to injury from pollution in inspired air, but there are no large-scale epidemiologic studies investigating this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling US adults age 57-85 years. Olfactory function was tested using a validated 5-item odor identification test (Sniffin' Sticks). Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Research
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Camila Oliveira Goulart, Daniella de Freitas Pereira Ângelo Durço, Lítia Alves de Carvalho, Júlia Teixeira Oliveira, Lucinéia Alves, Leny A Cavalcante, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
The regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely known, but functional recovery, particularly in humans, is seldom complete. Therefore, it is necessary to resort to strategies that induce or potentiate the PNS regeneration. Our main objective was to test the effectiveness of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OEC) transplantation into a biodegradable conduit as a therapeutic strategy to improve the repair outcome after nerve injury. Sciatic nerve transection was performed in C57BL/6 mice; proximal and distal stumps of the nerve were sutured into the collagen conduit...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Dara R Adams, Gaurav S Ajmani, Vivian C Pun, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Helen H Suh, Jayant M Pinto
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction has profound effects on quality of life, physical and social function, and mortality itself. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) is a pervasive air pollutant that is associated with respiratory diseases. Given the olfactory nerve's anatomic exposure to airborne pollutants, we investigated the relationship between NO2 exposure and olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: The ability to identify odors was evaluated using a validated test in respondents from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a representative probability sample of home-dwelling, older U...
September 13, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Masafumi Kuroiwa, Nanae Fukushima, Kumiko Yokouchi, Kyutaro Kawagishi, Tetsuji Moriizumi
It was revealed that regeneration of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) occurred in developing rats and the regenerated olfactory system was functional 4 weeks after transection. The aim of this study was to determine the earliest onset of functional recovery in LOT-injured rats and to quantify regenerated nerve components with functional correlation. Neonatal rats on postnatal day (P) 2 were subjected to unilateral transection of the left LOT and underwent unilateral removal of the right olfactory bulb on P11...
August 26, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, José Avila-Ramírez, Ana Calderón-Garcidueñas, Tonatiuh González-Heredia, Hilda Acuña-Ayala, Chih-Kai Chao, Charles Thompson, Rubén Ruiz-Ramos, Victor Cortés-González, Luz Martínez-Martínez, Mario Alberto García-Pérez, Jacques Reis, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Ingolf Lachmann
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, while Mn toxicity induces parkinsonism. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children have pre- and postnatal sustained and high exposures to PM2.5, O3, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Young MCMA residents exhibit frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ)1 - 42 diffuse plaques, and aggregated and hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein in olfactory nerves and key brainstem nuclei...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
James E Schwob, Woochan Jang, Eric H Holbrook, Brian Lin, Daniel B Herrick, Jesse N Peterson, Julie Hewitt Coleman
The capacity of the olfactory epithelium (OE) for life-long neurogenesis and regeneration depends on the persistence of neurocompetent stem cells, which self-renew as well as generating all of the cell types found within the nasal epithelium. This review focuses on the types of stem and progenitor cells in the epithelium and their regulation. Both horizontal basal cells (HBCs) and some among the population of globose basal cells (GBCs) are stem cells, but each of the two types plays vastly different roles. The GBC population includes the basal cells that proliferate in the uninjured OE and is heterogeneous with respect to transcription factor expression...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Niyanta N Kumar, Mohan Gautam, Jeffrey J Lochhead, Daniel J Wolak, Vamsi Ithapu, Vikas Singh, Robert G Thorne
Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marcin Fraczek, Maciej Guzinski, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Tomasz Krecicki
The aim of the study was to compare visualisation of the surgically relevant anatomical structures via low- and standard-dose multidetector CT protocol in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and higher risk for perioperative complications (i.e. presence of bronchial asthma, history of sinus surgery and advanced nasal polyposis). 135 adult CRS patients were divided randomly into standard-dose (120 kVp, 100 mAs) or low-dose CT groups (120 kVp, 45 mAs). The detectability of the vital anatomical structures (anterior ethmoid artery, optic nerve, cribriform plate and lamina papyracea) was scored using a five-point scale (from excellent to unacceptable) by a radiologist and sinus surgeon...
August 23, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Isabell Schumann, Lars Hering, Georg Mayer
Opsins are light-sensitive proteins that play a key role in animal vision and are related to the ancient photoreceptive molecule rhodopsin found in unicellular organisms. In general, opsins involved in vision comprise two major groups: the rhabdomeric (r-opsins) and the ciliary opsins (c-opsins). The functionality of opsins, which is dependent on their protein structure, may have changed during evolution. In arthropods, typically r-opsins are responsible for vision, whereas in vertebrates c-opsins are components of visual photoreceptors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
July Silveira Gomes, Henrique Akiba, Álvaro M Dias, Amanda Soares, Ivan Taiar, Ary A Gadelha, Quirino Cordeiro, Pedro Shiozawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Karen P Maruska, Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, Danielle T Porter
Neural communication depends on release and reception of different neurotransmitters within complex circuits that ultimately mediate basic biological functions. We mapped the distribution of glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the brain of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni using in situ hybridization to label vesicular glutamate transporters (vglut1, vglut2.1, vglut3), glutamate decarboxylases (gad1, gad2), and choline acetyltransferase (chat). Cells expressing the glutamatergic markers vgluts 1-3 show primarily non-overlapping distribution patterns, with the most widespread expression observed for vglut2...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: The olfactory nerve (OlfN) is a small neural structure with inconsistent visualization on neuroimages. The aim of this study was to delineate the intracranial course of the OlfN using constructive interference in steady state magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: A total of 168 patients were enrolled in this study. Following initial examinations with conventional MR sequences, constructive interference in steady-state sequence (CISS) was performed in coronal and axial sections...
August 9, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Sherma Tavighi, Zohreh Saadatfar, Bahador Shojaei, Morteza Behnam Rassouli
In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
Dan-Ping Yin, Qing-Ying Chen, Lin Liu
At present, there is no effective treatment for the repair of the optic nerve after injury, or improvement of its microenvironment for regeneration. Intravitreally injected ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) promote the long-distance regrowth of severed optic nerve fibers after intracranial injury. Here, we examined the efficacy of these techniques alone and in combination, in a rat model of optic nerve injury. We injected condensed OEC suspension at the site of injury, or CNTF into the vitreous body, or both simultaneously...
June 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
S Xiong, H Q Jiang
Olfactory dysfunction is one of the common diseases in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Although the olfactory nerve has ability to regenerate in human central nervous system, if the damage involves nerve, only a few patients can restore the olfactory function. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for sensorineural olfactory dysfunction. Therefore, it is urgent to explore new and effective method for treating sensorineural olfactory dysfunction. The progress of stem cells in the treatment of olfactory dysfunction is reviewed in this article...
July 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Gui-Ying Xie, Xin-Cheng Zhao, Bai-Wei Ma, Pei Guo, Guo-Ping Li, Hong-Qiang Feng, Guo-Liang Wu
The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), a polyphagous pest, is dependent on olfactory cues to locate various host plant species and mates. In this study, we traced the projection pathway of the antennal sensory neurons and visualized their projection patterns in the central nervous system of A. lucorum through confocal microscopy and digital reconstructions. We also examined the glomerular organization of the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, and created a three-dimensional model of the glomeruli...
2016: PloS One
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