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Olfactory Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126198/thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-knockout-xenopus-tropicalis-tadpoles-reveal-subtype-specific-roles-during-development
#1
Keisuke Nakajima, Ichiro Tazawa, Yoshio Yaoita
Thyroid hormone (TH) binds TH receptor alpha (TRα) and beta (TRβ) receptors to induce amphibian metamorphosis. Whereas TH signalling has been well studied, functional differences between TRα and TRβ during this process have not been characterized. To understand how each TR contributes to metamorphosis, we generated TRα- and TRβ-knockout tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis and examined developmental abnormalities, histology of the tail and intestine, and mRNA expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes...
November 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117762/a-time-limit-for-starting-anti-inflammatory-treatment-for-better-improvement-of-olfactory-dysfunction-after-head-injury
#2
Masayoshi Kobayashi, Kengo Tamari, Masako Kitano, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
We previously reported that treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug, specifically a steroid, is effective in improving recovery outcome during acute phase of head injury. Clinically, however, patients with head injury usually become aware of their olfactory loss several weeks or months after the injury, which may be a critical factor in poor recovery from olfactory dysfunction. This raises an important question; when should steroid administration begin in order to achieve optimum improvement of olfactory dysfunction? The present study was designed to reveal the time limit for starting anti-inflammatory treatment for better improvement of post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090565/-fast-onset-antidepressant-potentials-of-essential-oil-of-herbs
#3
Jin-Ping Du, Yan-Ting Liu, Yi-Jing Wu, Hong-Hua Wu, Yan-Tong Xu
The existing antidepressants demonstrated delayed onset of clinical effects, so fast-onset antidepressants are required. Essential oil of herbs showed potentials fast-onset antidepressant potential. First, its aromatic odor can directly activate olfactory nerves; its high lipophilicity causes a high blood-brain barrier penetration rate; and its high volatility is suitable for nasal-brain targeting and inhalation delivery. Therefore, essential oils can rapidly regulate brain functions by multiple ways, suggesting a fast-onset antidepressant potential...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077773/open-housing-drives-the-expression-of-immune-response-genes-in-the-nasal-mucosa-but-not-the-olfactory-bulb
#4
Carolin Piotrowski, Vera Lede, Anne Butthof, Nicole Kaiser, Petra G Hirrlinger, Matthias H Tschöp, Torsten Schöneberg, Ingo Bechmann
Nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb are separated by the cribriform plate which is perforated by olfactory nerves. We have previously demonstrated that the cribriform plate is permissive for T cells and monocytes and that viruses can enter the bulb upon intranasal injection by axonal transportation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb are equipped to deal with constant infectious threats. To detect genes involved in this process, we compared gene expression in nasal mucosa and bulb of mice kept under specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions to gene expression of mice kept on non-SPF conditions using RNA deep sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066644/olfactory-nerve-hypertrophy-a-clue-to-the-presence-of-ipsilateral-megalencephaly
#5
Rajesh Shankar Iyer, Bejoy Thomas, Saleem Akhtar, Praveen Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061448/scorpions-pectines-idiosyncratic-chemo-and-mechanosensory-organs
#6
REVIEW
Harald Wolf
Scorpions possess specialised chemosensory appendages, the pectines. These comb-shaped limbs are located ventrally behind the walking legs. Like the antennae of mandibulate arthropods, they also serve mechanosensory function. However, more than 90% of the sometimes well above 100,000 sensory neurons projecting from a pectine to the central nervous system are chemosensory. There are two primary projection neuropils. The posterior one, immediately adjacent to the pectine nerve entrance, has an intriguing substructure reminiscent of the olfactory glomeruli observed in the primary chemosensory neuropils of many arthropods and indeed of most bilaterian animals...
October 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056451/the-lamprey-pallium-provides-a-blueprint-of-the-mammalian-layered-cortex
#7
Shreyas M Suryanarayana, Brita Robertson, Peter Wallén, Sten Grillner
The basic architecture of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across species. Pallial structures in the reptilian brain are considered amniote precursors of mammalian neocortex, whereas pallia of anamniotes ("lower" vertebrates) have been deemed largely insignificant with respect to homology. Here, we examine the cytoarchitecture of the lateral pallium in the lamprey, the phylogenetically oldest group of extant vertebrates. We reveal a three-layered structure with similar excitatory cell types as in the mammalian cortex and GABAergic interneurons...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054783/subfrontal-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Vladimir Figueroa-Ángel, Carlos Alberto Rodríguez-Aceves, Willem G Calderon-Miranda, Nidia Escobar-Hernandez, Andrei F Joaquim, Neurosurgeon Luis R Moscote
We present the case of a 46 year old female that presented with right tinnitus, dizziness and bifrontal headache, progressive, starting two years before. Imaging studies reveals an incidentally neoplastic extraaxial homogeneous appearance tumor on the right anterior skull base. She undewernt surgical treatment with total resection of the tumor by a bicoronal approach. The histopathological study reported schwannoma. Although attributte the origin of schwannomas from the the olfactory nerve is near impossible, once they do not have Schwann cells, intracranial supratentorial schwannomas are mainly located in the anterior skull base...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052233/heterogeneous-expression-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-primary-olfactory-centre-of-the-japanese-sword-tailed-newt-cynops-ensicauda
#9
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046472/-surgical-treatment-of-a-giant-olfactory-groove-schwannoma-a-case-report
#10
Takashi Fujii, Naoki Otani, Kazuma Doi, Masataka Miyama, Yohei Otsuka, Takashi Matsumoto, Toru Yoshiura, Satoru Takeuchi, Satoshi Tomura, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Kojiro Wada, Kentaro Mori
Schwannomas originating from the olfactory nerve are extremely rare because the olfactory nerve does not normally contain Schwann cells. We describe a case of a giant schwannoma of the olfactory groove. A 73-year-old woman presented with anosmia persisting for 10 months. Head computed tomography(CT)for head trauma at another hospital demonstrated a tumor lesion located in the left frontal lobe and paranasal sinus. She had never suffered epilepsy, and past medical history and family history identified no indicators...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024431/the-cytoarchitecture-of-the-telencephalon-of-betta-splendens-regan-1910-perciformes-anabantoidei-with-a-stereological-approach-to-the-supracommissural-and-postcommissural-nuclei
#11
Ângelo Cássio Magalhães Horn, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
Teleostean fish brains are useful models to study cellular and functional specializations along the phylogenesis. The Betta splendens Regan 1910 (Siamese fighting fish; Perciformes:Anabantoidei) is known for its aggressive display, courtship behavior, nest building, and offspring care. Here, we present novel and detailed data about the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb and the telencephalic hemispheres of this fish. The hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl techniques served to identify brain nuclei (n = 19 males and n = 21 females) and for the stereological evaluation of the numerical density of cells and the proportion of neurons and glial cells in the ventral telencephalon supracommissural (Vs) and postcommissural (Vp) nuclei of adult males and females...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979204/hyposmia-is-associated-with-rbd-for-pd-patients-with-variants-of-snca
#12
Yuanyuan Li, Wenyan Kang, Linyuan Zhang, Liche Zhou, Mengyue Niu, Jun Liu
Objective: Hyposmia may occur simultaneously with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as a specific phenotype in Parkinson's Diseases (PD), of which the disease progression is fast. In the study, we tried to identify whether the genotypic characteristics could participate in the co-occurrence of hyposmia and RBD in PD patients. Methods: 152 PD patients were recruited from the Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine from 2011 to 2016, with comprehensive clinical assessment performing...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970231/the-terminal-nerve-plays-a-prominent-role-in-gnrh-1-neuronal-migration-independent-from-proper-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-connections-to-the-olfactory-bulbs
#13
Ed Zandro M Taroc, Aparna Prasad, Jennifer M Lin, Paolo E Forni
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) neurons (GnRH-1 ns) migrate from the developing olfactory pit into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. Migration of the GnRH-1 neurons is required for mammalian reproduction as these cells control release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary gland. Disturbances in GnRH-1 ns migration, GnRH-1 synthesis, secretion or signaling lead to varying degrees of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), which impairs pubertal onset and fertility. HH associated with congenital olfactory defects is clinically defined as Kallmann Syndrome (KS)...
October 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960910/olfactory-derived-stem-cells-delivered-in-a-biphasic-conduit-promote-peripheral-nerve-repair-in-vivo
#14
Phoebe Roche, Tijna Alekseeva, Amro Widaa, Alan Ryan, Amos Matsiko, Michael Walsh, Garry P Duffy, Fergal J O'Brien
Peripheral nerve injury presents significant therapeutic challenges for recovery of motor and sensory function in patients. Different clinical approaches exist but to date there has been no consensus on the most effective method of treatment. Here, we investigate a novel approach to peripheral nerve repair using olfactory derived stem (ONS) cells delivered in a biphasic collagen and laminin functionalized hyaluronic acid based nerve guidance conduit (NGC). Nerve regeneration was studied across a 10-mm sciatic nerve gap in Sprague Dawley rats...
October 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920894/electro-thermal-equivalent-3d-finite-element-model-of-a-single-neuron
#15
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: We propose a novel approach for modelling the inter-dependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electro-thermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermo-mechanical tools can be applied. METHODS: First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917718/olfactory-toxicity-in-rats-following-manganese-chloride-nasal-instillation-a-pilot-study
#16
Melanie L Foster, Deepa B Rao, Taylor Francher, Samantha Traver, David C Dorman
Following inhalation, manganese travels along the olfactory nerve from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). Occupational exposure to inhaled manganese is associated with changes in olfactory function. This pilot study evaluated two related hypotheses: (a) intranasal manganese administration increases OE and OB manganese concentrations; and (b) intranasal manganese exposure impairs performance of previously trained rats on a go-no-go olfactory discrimination (OD) task. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained to either lever press ("go") in response to a positive conditioned stimulus (CS+: vanillin) or to do nothing ("no go") when a negative conditioned stimulus (CS-: amyl acetate) was present...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917708/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-balb-c-mice-are-more-susceptible-to-granulomatous-amoebic-encephalitis-immunohistochemical-study
#17
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Miriam Romero Grijalva, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Imelda Juarez-Avelar, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Arturo Gonzalez-Robles, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Ismael Castelan-Ramirez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a chronic, difficult to resolve infection caused by amphizoic amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba, which in most cases occurs in immunosuppressed persons or with chronic diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we describe the early events of A. culbertsoni infection of GAE in diabetic mice model. Diabetes was induced in male BALB/c mice, with a dose of streptozotocin (130 mg/kg). Healthy and diabetic mice were inoculated via intranasal with 1 × 10(6) trophozoites of A...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914166/repeated-iron-soot-exposure-and-nose-to-brain-transport-of-inhaled-ultrafine-particles
#18
Laurie E Hopkins, Emilia A Laing, Janice L Peake, Dale Uyeminami, Savannah M Mack, Xueting Li, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Kent E Pinkerton
Particulate exposure has been implicated in the development of a number of neurological maladies such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Only a few studies have focused on the olfactory pathway as a portal through which combustion-generated particles may enter the brain. The primary objective of this study was to define the deposition, uptake, and transport of inhaled ultrafine iron-soot particles in the nasal cavities of mice to determine whether combustion-generated nanoparticles reach the olfactory bulb via the olfactory epithelium and nerve fascicles...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886869/immunohistochemical-study-of-arginases-1-and-2-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-the-korean-roe-deer-capreolus-pygargus
#19
Jeongtae Kim, Meejung Ahn, Yuna Choi, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Taekyun Shin
Arginases are enzymes of the urea cycle that catalyze the hydrolysis of l-arginine to ornithine and urea. The enzymes are core components of the arginine-ornithine-glutamate-γ-amino butyric acid pathway of the central nervous system. In the present study, we immunohistochemically determined the localization of arginase 1 and 2 in the olfactory bulb (OB) of the roe dear (Capreolus pygargus). Reverse transcription PCR revealed that the mRNAs encoding both arginase 1 and 2 were expressed in the OB. Arginase 1 was localized to olfactory nerve axons, calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive mitral/tufted cells (excitatory neurons), and glutamate acid decarboxylase 65/67-immunopositive periglomerular cells of the main olfactory bulb...
September 5, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843014/how-does-parkinson-s-disease-begin-perspectives-on-neuroanatomical-pathways-prions-and-histology
#20
REVIEW
Per Borghammer
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder with involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein is central to the pathogenesis of PD, and it has been postulated that the disease may originate in olfactory and gastrointestinal nerve terminals. The prion-like behavior of α-synuclein has been convincingly demonstrated in vitro and in animal models of PD. Lewy-type pathology have been detected in peripheral organs many years prior to PD diagnosis, and 2 independent studies have now suggested that truncal vagotomy may be protective against the disorder...
August 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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