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Olfactory Nerve

Toshiyasu Matsui, Yasushi Kobayashi
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
I Mori
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) shields peripheral nerves from the blood in order to maintain the homeostasis of the nervous system. In the field of infectious diseases, little information is currently available concerning the BNB. Recently documented evidence in virology suggests that elevated permeability of the BNB by immune cells and the natural absence of the BNB in the olfactory mucosa play significant roles in neuroprotection as well as neuropathogenesis. Importantly, the BNB can behave more flexibly than previously thought...
2018: Acta Virologica
Hongyi Liu, Yu Pu, Yaping Xu, He Xu, Huanhai Liu, Yin Cheng, Weihua Xu, Xiaoping Chen, Jingping Fan
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the transplantation of olfactory-ensheathing cells (OECs) could physiologically repair severely injured recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in dogs. Adult Beagle dogs were surgically introduced with a 10-mm defect in the left RLN and transplanted with a nerve guide (NEUROLAC) containing dog olfactory mucosa-olfactory-ensheathing cells (OM-OECs) in matrigel. The effects of OM-OECs on the morphology, histology, and electrophysiology of the injured RLNs, glottis movement, and voice acoustics were comparatively studied...
February 28, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Hiroaki Suefuji, Masashi Koto, Yusuke Demizu, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Hiroshi Tsuji, Tomoaki Okimoto, Tatsuya Ohno, Kenji Nemoto, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada
The purpose was to evaluate efficacy and safety of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) in patients with locally advanced olfactory neuroblastomas (ONBs). This study was a sub-analysis of the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group Study (1402 HN, UMIN000024473). Clinical data of T4 ONBs treated with C-ion RT at four Institutions between November 2003 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-one patients underwent C-ion RT. Seven patients had T4a and 14 had T4b tumours without cervical node metastases...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Tadataka Tsuji, Susumu Tanaka, Sanam Bakhshishayan, Mikihiko Kogo, Takashi Yamamoto
In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Phillip L Pearl, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Chellamani Harini, Richard Goldstein, Richard M Atkinson, Dawna Armstrong, Hannah Kinney
The histopathology, "white matter spongiosis," defined by electron microscopy (EM) as "intramyelinic edema," has been associated with vigabatrin therapy in various animal models, but its role or significance in clinical studies is unknown. We conducted a neuropathological examination on a 27-month-old boy with bilateral polymicrogyria and epilepsy after sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The patient was initiated on vigabatrin at 4 months of age, which controlled infantile spasms, and was continued as maintenance therapy...
February 23, 2018: Epilepsia
Tetsuya Koide, Yoichi Yabuki, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Escape responses to threatening stimuli are vital for survival in all animal species. Larval zebrafish display fast escape responses when exposed to tactile, acoustic, and visual stimuli. However, their behavioral responses to chemosensory stimuli remain unknown. In this study, we found that carbon dioxide (CO2) induced a slow avoidance response, which was distinct from the touch-evoked fast escape response. We identified the gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3-expressing terminal nerve as the CO2 sensor in the nose...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
C Fantacci, G C Fabrizio, P Ferrara, F Franceschi, A Chiaretti
OBJECTIVE: Pain relief is a very important aspect in Pediatrician's clinical practice. It is often thought that young children, particularly infants, do not perceive as much pain as adults because of their immature nervous system and that untreated pain would not have adverse long-term consequences. Instead, it has been demonstrated that infants and children experience pain in a similar manner to adults. Many factors, particularly emotional factors, can increase the child's pain perception...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jean-Claude Stamegna, Kevin Sadelli, Guy Escoffier, Stéphane D Girard, Antoine D Veron, Amandine Bonnet, Michel Khrestchatisky, Patrick Gauthier, Francois Roman
The transplantation of Olfactory Ecto-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (OEMSCs) could be a helpful therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repair. Using an acute rat model of high cervical contusion that provokes a persistent hemi-diaphragmatic and foreleg paralysis, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a delayed syngeneic transplantation (two days post-contusion) of OEMSCs within the injured spinal cord. Respiratory function was assessed using diaphragmatic electromyography and neuro-electrophysiological recordings of phrenic nerves (innervating the diaphragm)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
Evoked potentials are time-locked electrophysiologic potentials recorded in response to standardized stimuli using scalp electrodes. These responses provide good temporal resolution and have been used in various clinical and intraoperative settings. Olfactory evoked potentials (OEPs) may be used as an adjunct tool in identifying patients of Parkinson disease and Alzheimer dementia. In clinical practice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are particularly useful in identifying subclinical cases of optic neuritis and in treatment surveillance...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Kiao Inthavong, Hak-Kim Chan, Jiyuan Tu
PURPOSE: Nose-to-brain drug administration along the olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways offers an alternative route for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The characterization of particle deposition remains difficult to achieve in experiments. Alternative numerical approach is applied to identify suitable aerosol particle size with maximized inhaled doses. METHODS: This study numerically compared the drug delivery efficiency in a realistic human nasal cavity between two aerosol drug administration systems targeting the olfactory region: the aerosol mask system and the breath-powered bi-directional system...
December 29, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Kousalya Selvaraj, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Many of the therapeutics used for the treatment of brain disorders are not effective and not delivered to the brain due to the complex structure and its barriers. In recent years, many advanced approaches have emerged for the brain drug delivery. Intranasal drug delivery is one of non-invasive approach has gained interest because of direct transport of drugs circumventing the brain barriers through olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways. Eventhough through these pathways the therapeutics have direct access to the brain, the main limitations of this approach are only limited drug absorption, and nasal permeability...
December 28, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Tyler P Crowe, M Heather West Greenlee, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Walter H Hsu
Neurological diseases are becoming increasingly prominent worldwide due to rapidly aging populations, which greatly contributes to increasing healthcare costs. The development of neuroprotective drugs has so far proven exceptionally difficult due to the blood-brain barrier. One novel approach to address this challenge is to administer drugs intranasally to noninvasively bypass the blood-brain barrier. The intranasal route can thus transport drugs directly to the brain from the nasal cavity along the olfactory and trigeminal nerves...
December 22, 2017: Life Sciences
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Nolwen L Rey, Sonia George, Jennifer A Steiner, Zachary Madaj, Kelvin C Luk, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Patrik Brundin
Parkinson's disease is characterized by degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine neurons and by intraneuronal aggregates, primarily composed of misfolded α-synuclein. The α-synuclein aggregates in Parkinson's patients are suggested to first appear in the olfactory bulb and enteric nerves and then propagate, following a stereotypic pattern, via neural pathways to numerous regions across the brain. We recently demonstrated that after injection of either mouse or human α-synuclein fibrils into the olfactory bulb of wild-type mice, α-synuclein fibrils recruited endogenous α-synuclein into pathological aggregates that spread transneuronally to over 40 other brain regions and subregions, over 12 months...
January 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Bai-Wei Ma, Xin-Cheng Zhao, Bente G Berg, Gui-Ying Xie, Qing-Bo Tang, Gui-Rong Wang
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), is a polyphagous, migratory pest relying on olfactory cues to find mates, locate nectar, and guide long-distance flight behavior. In the present study, a combination of neuroanatomical techniques were utilized on this species, including backfills, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions, to trace the central projections of sensory neurons from the antenna and the labial pit organ, respectively. As previously shown, the axons of the labial sensory neurons project via the ipsilateral labial nerve and terminate in three main areas of the central nervous system: (1) the labial-palp pit organ glomerulus of each antennal lobe, (2) the gnathal ganglion, and (3) the prothoracic ganglion of the ventral nerve cord...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Melissa A Powell, Raiford T Black, Terry L Smith, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips
Despite the regenerative capacity of the olfactory bulb (OB), head trauma causes olfactory disturbances in up to 30% of patients. While models of olfactory nerve transection, olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) ablation, or direct OB impact have been used to examine OB recovery, these models are severe and not ideal for study of OB synaptic repair. We posited that a mild fluid percussion brain injury (mFPI), delivered over mid-dorsal cortex, would produce diffuse OB deafferentation without confounding pathology...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
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