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Olfactory Nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765954/an-unusual-presentation-of-esthesioneuroblastoma-in-a-young-pregnant-female
#1
Meenakshi Wadhwani, Amar Ranjan, Kulbhushan Gangwani, Prasenjit Das
Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare neuroepithelial tumor arising from the olfactory epithelium in the cribriform plate or nasal cavity. It accounts for 1-5% of cases of malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity. Methods: A 20-year-old pregnant female presented with painful loss of vision in both eyes, on imaging diagnosed as meningioma. There was a progressive increase in pain along with diminution of vision to the extent of complete loss of vision in the right eye...
April 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765819/complications-in-salvage-surgery-for-nasal-and-paranasal-malignant-tumors-involving-the-skull-base
#2
Masanori Teshima, Hirotaka Shinomiya, Naoki Otsuki, Hidehito Kimura, Masaaki Taniguchi, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Eiji Kohmura, Ken-Ichi Nibu
Objective  Nasal and paranasal malignant tumors invading the skull base are rare and poorly studied. We evaluated postoperative complications in patients undergoing salvage surgery for such tumors. Design  Retrospective study. Setting  Kobe University Hospital. Participants  Among 48 patients who underwent surgery for tumors involving the skull base between 1993 and 2015, 21 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 13 had olfactory neuroblastoma, 5 had adenocarcinoma, 2 had sarcoma, 2 had adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each had malignant melanoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
June 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756518/the-route-by-which-intranasally-delivered-stem-cells-enter-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Carlos Galeano, Zhifang Qiu, Anuja Mishra, Steven L Farnsworth, Jacob J Hemmi, Alvaro Moreira, Peter Edenhoffer, Peter J Hornsby
Intranasal administration is a promising route of delivery of stem cells to the central nervous system (CNS). Reports on this mode of stem cell delivery have not yet focused on the route across the cribriform plate by which cells move from the nasal cavity into the CNS. In the current experiments, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords and were labeled with extremely bright quantum dots (QDs) in order to track the cells efficiently. At 2 h after intranasal delivery in immunodeficient mice, the labeled cells were found under the olfactory epithelium, crossing the cribriform plate adjacent to the fila olfactoria, and associated with the meninges of the olfactory bulb...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755824/olfactory-neuroblastoma-a-rare-cause-of-external-ophthalmoplegia-proptosis-and-compressive-optic-neuropathy
#4
Ömer Kartı, Mehmet Özgür Zengin, Ozan Çelik, Taşkın Tokat, Tuncay Küsbeci
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), which is a neuroectodermal tumor of the nasal cavity, is a rare and locally aggressive malignancy that may invade the orbit via local destruction. In this study, we report a patient with proptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, and compressive optic neuropathy caused by ONB. A detailed clinical examination including ocular imaging and histopathological studies were performed. The 62-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with complaints of proptosis and visual deterioration in the left eye...
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746390/electrophysiology-of-olfactory-and-optic-nerve-in-outpatient-and-intraoperative-settings
#5
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740266/improvement-of-olfactory-function-with-high-frequency-non-invasive-auricular-electrostimulation-in-healthy-humans
#6
Ashim Maharjan, Eunice Wang, Mei Peng, Yusuf O Cakmak
In past literature on animal models, invasive vagal nerve stimulation using high frequencies has shown to be effective at modulating the activity of the olfactory bulb (OB). Recent advances in invasive vagal nerve stimulation in humans, despite previous findings in animal models, used low frequency stimulation and found no effect on the olfactory functioning. The present article aimed to test potential effects of non-invasive, high and low frequency vagal nerve stimulation in humans, with supplementary exploration of the orbitofrontal cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726777/surgical-outcomes-after-reoperation-for-recurrent-skull-base-meningiomas
#7
Stephen T Magill, David S Lee, Adam J Yen, Calixto-Hope G Lucas, David R Raleigh, Manish K Aghi, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael W McDermott
OBJECTIVE Skull base meningiomas are surgically challenging tumors due to the intricate skull base anatomy and the proximity of cranial nerves and critical cerebral vasculature. Many studies have reported outcomes after primary resection of skull base meningiomas; however, little is known about outcomes after reoperation for recurrent skull base meningiomas. Since reoperation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent meningioma, the authors sought to define the risk profile for reoperation of skull base meningiomas...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726667/-kallmann-syndrome-with-deafness-caused-by-sox10-mutation-advances-in-research
#8
REVIEW
Xi Zhou, Wei-Wei Li, Qiu-Yue Wu, Mao-Mao Yu, Xin-Yi Xia
The transcription factor SOX10, as a major actor in the development of the neural crest, plays a key role in the maintenance of progenitor cell multipotency, lineage specification, and cell differentiation. Abnormalities of neural crest development in humans lead to a number of genetic diseases known as neurocristopathies or neural crest disorders. The mutation of SOX10 can cause Kallmann syndrome (KS), which is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition and defined by the association between anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to incomplete migration of neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells along the olfactory, vomeronasal, and terminal nerves...
September 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719130/activation-of-the-rat-olfactory-bulb-by-direct-ventral-stimulation-after-nerve-transection
#9
Daniel H Coelho, Leandro D Socolovsky, Richard M Costanzo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate how direct electrical stimulation can activate the olfactory bulb after denervation of the olfactory nerve input. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were anesthetized and olfactory bulbs exposed. Olfactory nerves were transected by passing a Teflon blade between the cribriform plate and ventral surface of the bulb. A cochlear implant electrode array was used to stimulate 6 different positions along the ventral surface of the olfactory bulb...
May 2, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713644/the-therapeutic-effects-after-transplantation-of-whole-layer-olfactory-mucosa-in-rats-with-optic-nerve-injury
#10
Shun Gong, Hai Jin, Danfeng Zhang, Wei Zou, Chunhui Wang, Zhenxing Li, Rongbin Chen, Yan Dong, Lijun Hou
Background: Existing evidence suggests the potential therapy of transplanting olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) either alone or in combination with neurotrophic factors or other cell types in optic nerve injury (ONI). However, clinical use of autologous OEC in the acute stages of ONI is not possible. On the other hand, acute application of heterologous transplantation may bring the issue of immune rejection. The olfactory mucosa (OM) with OEC in the lamina propria layer is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is easy to dissect under nasal endoscopy, which makes it a candidate as autograft material in acute stages of ONI...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710430/the-nasal-cavity-of-the-rat-and-mouse-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#11
Rui Damásio Alvites, Ana Rita Caseiro, Sílvia Santos Pedrosa, Mariana Esteves Vieira, Artur S P Varejão, Ana Colette Maurício
The nasal cavity performs several crucial functions in mammals, including rodents, being involved in respiration, behavior, reproduction and olfaction. Its anatomical structure is complex and divided into several regions, including the olfactory recess where the olfactory mucosa is located and where the capture and interaction with the environmental odorants occurs. Among the cells of this region are the olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells, whose location raises the possibility that these cells could be involved in the peculiar ability of the olfactory nerve to regenerate continuously throughout life, although this relationship has not yet been confirmed...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701117/the-histological-structure-and-histochemistry-of-the-mucosa-of-the-nasal-conchae-in-geese-anser-anser
#12
İ S Harem, M Kocak, E Karadag Sari
We investigated the histological structure and histochemistry of the nasal conchae of geese and compared these structures with those of other avian species. The rostral, middle and caudal conchae were dissected from the nasal cavity of eight geese, fixed in Carnoy's solution and embedded in paraffin. The entrance of the rostral concha was lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which toward the middle concha was replaced by modified keratinized squamous epithelium, the deep layer of which opened into tubular glandular structures containing secretory epithelium on crypt-like invaginations...
April 27, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699567/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-antibody-suppresses-local-inflammatory-reaction-and-facilitates-olfactory-nerve-recovery-following-injury
#13
Masayoshi Kobayashi, Kengo Tamari, Mohammed Omar Al Salihi, Kohei Nishida, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Refractory olfactory dysfunction is a common finding in head trauma due to olfactory nerve injury. Anti-inflammatory treatment using steroids is known to contribute to functional recovery of the central and peripheral nervous systems in injury models, while there is a concern that steroids can induce side effects. The present study examines if the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), can facilitate olfactory functional recovery following injury...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693500/impact-of-intranasal-application-of-nerve-growth-factor-on-the-olfactory-epithelium-in-rats-with-chemically-induced-diabetes
#14
Sidika Yalim, Kenan Dağlıoğlu, Gülfidan Coskun, Sait Polat
Recent studies suggest that nerve growth factor (NGF) protects olfactory cells and axons from injury in vitro. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats randomly divided into three groups: control group, diabetic group without NGF, and diabetic with NGF. Intranasal NGF (6 µg/day) was administered over a 5-day period. At the end of 30 days, the olfactory epithelium (OE) of NGF-applied diabetic rats regenerated, the epithelium thickness was significantly higher, and caspase-3 expression was not significantly different from the control...
April 25, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663690/cranial-pair-0-the-nervus-terminalis
#15
Angel Peña-Melian, Juan Pablo Cabello-de la Rosa, Maria Jose Gallardo-Alcañiz, Julia Vaamonde-Gamo, Fernanda Relea-Calatayud, Lucia Gonzalez-Lopez, Patricia Villanueva-Anguita, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663010/septo-optic-dysplasia-assessment-of-associated-findings-with-special-attention-to-the-olfactory-sulci-and-tracts
#16
John C Benson, David Nascene, Charles Truwit, Alexander M McKinney
PURPOSE: Septo-optic dysplasia is a congenital disorder consisting of optic nerve hypoplasia and absent septum pellucidum. While associated anomalies have been described, olfactory sulcus and bulb-tract hypoplasia have been scantily reported and was the focus of this study. METHODS: The picture archival and communications system and radiology information system (PACS-RIS) was searched over 15 years for patients with suspected septo-optic dysplasia (n = 41) and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659152/cranial-pair-i-the-olfactory-nerve
#17
Carlos Crespo, Teresa Liberia, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
The olfactory nerve constitutes the first cranial pair. Compared with other cranial nerves, it depicts some atypical features. First, the olfactory nerve does not form a unique bundle. The olfactory axons join other axons and form several small bundles or fascicles: the fila olfactoria. These fascicles leave the nasal cavity, pass through the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone and enter the brain. The whole of these fascicles is what is known as the olfactory nerve. Second, the olfactory sensory neurons, whose axons integrate the olfactory nerve, connect the nasal cavity and the brain without any relay...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608947/microencapsulated-schwann-cell-transplantation-inhibits-p2x2-3-receptors-overexpression-in-a-sciatic-nerve-injury-rat-model-with-neuropathic-pain
#18
Ya-Ling Zhang, Yi-Guo Liu, De-Jian Chen, Bao-Lin Yang, Tao-Tao Liu, Jia-Juan Li, Xiu-Qi Wang, Hao-Tian Rose Li, Zeng-Xu Liu
Transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) can promote axonal regeneration and formation of the myelin sheath, reduce inflammation, and promote repair to the damaged nerve. Our previous studies have shown that transplantation of free or micro-encapsulated olfactory ensheathing cells can relieve neuropathic pain. There are no related reports regarding whether the transplantation of micro-encapsulated SCs can alleviate neuropathic pain mediated by P2X2/3 receptors. In the present study, we micro-encapsulated SCs in alginic acid and transplanted them into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in the rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606040/decision-making-algorithm-for-minimally-invasive-approaches-to-anterior-skull-base-meningiomas
#19
Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Andrew F Alalade, Prakash Nair, Emanuele La Corte, Iyan Younus, Jonathan A Forbes, Atef Ben Nsir, Matei A Banu, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Theodore H Schwartz
OBJECTIVE Anterior skull base meningiomas are benign lesions that cause neurological symptoms through mass effect on adjacent neurovascular structures. While traditional transcranial approaches have proven to be effective at removing these tumors, minimally invasive approaches that involve using an endoscope offer the possibility of reducing brain and nerve retraction, minimizing incision size, and speeding patient recovery; however, appropriate case selection and results in large series are lacking. METHODS The authors developed an algorithm for selecting a supraorbital keyhole minicraniotomy (SKM) for olfactory groove meningiomas or an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for tuberculum sella (TS) or planum sphenoidale (PS) meningiomas based on the presence or absence of olfaction and the anatomical extent of the tumor...
April 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605442/intranasal-administration-of-sodium-dimethyldithiocarbamate-induces-motor-deficits-and-dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mice
#20
Josiel M Mack, Tainara M Moura, Débora Lanznaster, Franciane Bobinski, Caio M Massari, Tuane B Sampaio, Ariana E Schmitz, Luiz F Souza, Roger Walz, Carla I Tasca, Anicleto Poli, Richard L Doty, Alcir L Dafre, Rui D Prediger
The primary etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, but likely reflects a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Exposure to some pesticides, including ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), is a relevant risk factor for PD. Like some other environmental neurotoxicants, we hypothesized that ziram can enter the central nervous system from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerves. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of 1, 2 or 4 days of intranasal (i.n., 1 mg/nostril/day) infusions of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDMDC), a dimethyldithiocarbamate more soluble than ziram, on locomotor activity in the open field, neurological severity score and rotarod performance...
March 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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