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Postpartum health surveillance

Kristina Edvardsson, Ann Lalos, Annika Åhman, Rhonda Small, Sophie Graner Md PhD, Ingrid Mogren
OBJECTIVE: to explore Swedish midwives' experiences and views of the use of obstetric ultrasound in clinical management of pregnancy, and in situations where maternal and fetal health interests conflict. DESIGN: an exploratory qualitative study based on focus group discussions (FGDs) was undertaken in 2013 as part of the CROss Country Ultrasound Study (CROCUS). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: midwives (N=25) were recruited from four public hospitals located in the northern and central parts of Sweden...
September 22, 2016: Midwifery
Sophia S Yu, Lindsay A Bischoff
Owing to the young median age of diagnosis, thyroid cancer in women can coincide with pregnancy and affect its management. The evaluation of a thyroid nodule in pregnant women is similar to that in nonpregnant women, but special consideration must be taken for the impact of a cancer diagnosis and its sequelae in pregnancy. The initial comprehensive exam for pregnant and nonpregnant women includes evaluation of the biochemical function and structure of the thyroid gland, and then fine-needle aspiration biopsy of any suspicious nodule...
November 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Shaun K Morris, Lisa G Pell, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Michelle C Dimitris, Abdullah Mahmud, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Tahmid Kashem, Shaila S Shanta, Jonathan Gubbay, Eszter Papp, Michelle Science, Stanley Zlotkin, Daniel E Roth
BACKGROUND: Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: AMANHI takes advantage of on-going population-based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1- to 3-monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
Ana Luiza Vilela Borges, Geraldine Barrett, Osmara Alves Dos Santos, Natalia de Castro Nascimento, Fernanda Bigio Cavalhieri, Elizabeth Fujimori
BACKGROUND: Estimates of unplanned pregnancy worldwide are of concern, especially in low and middle-income countries, including Brazil. Although the contraceptive prevalence rate is high in Brazil, almost half of all pregnancies are reported as unintended. The only source of nationally representative data about pregnancy intention is the Demographic and Health Survey, as with many other countries. In more recent years, however, it has been realized that concept of unintended pregnancy is potentially more complex and requires more sophisticated measurement strategies, such as the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP)...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sheree L Boulet, Denise V D'Angelo, Brian Morrow, Lauren Zapata, Erin Berry-Bibee, Maria Rivera, Sascha Ellington, Lisa Romero, Eva Lathrop, Meghan Frey, Tanya Williams, Howard Goldberg, Lee Warner, Leslie Harrison, Shanna Cox, Karen Pazol, Wanda Barfield, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Charlan D Kroelinger
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Helen Y Chu, Joanne Katz, James Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Amalia Magaret, Jane Kuypers, Mark Steinhoff, Janet A Englund
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. The risk of RSV infection associated with preterm birth is not well-characterized in resource-limited settings. We aimed to obtain precise estimates of risk factors and disease burden of RSV in infants in rural southern Nepal. METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled, and along with their infants, followed to six months after birth with active weekly home-based surveillance for acute respiratory illness (ARI)...
August 2016: Journal of Infection
Matthew S Chang, Kerri Barton, Molly Crockett, Ruth E Tuomala, Anna E Rutherford, Muthoka L Mutinga, Karin L Andersson, Robert S Brown, Emily Oken, Chinweike Ukomadu
GOALS: To determine postpartum hepatitis B virus (HBV) laboratory testing rates and identify factors associated with a lack of follow-up testing in Massachusetts. BACKGROUND: Screening for HBV infection in pregnant women is standard of care. Guidelines recommend that patients with chronic HBV have ongoing care and laboratory testing, but little is known about postpartum maternal HBV care outcomes. STUDY: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network, an electronic public health surveillance system maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
L A Bartlett, A E LeFevre, F Mir, S Soofi, S Arif, D K Mitra, M A Quaiyum, S Shakoor, M S Islam, N E Connor, P J Winch, M E Reller, R Shah, S El Arifeen, A H Baqui, Z A Bhutta, A Zaidi, S Saha, S A Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Postpartum sepsis accounts for most maternal deaths between three and seven days postpartum, when most mothers, even those who deliver in facilities, are at home. Case fatality rates for untreated women are very high. Newborns of ill women have substantially higher infection risk. METHODS/DESIGN: The objectives of this study are to: (1) create, field-test and validate a tool for community health workers to improve diagnostic accuracy of suspected puerperal sepsis; (2) measure incidence and identify associated risk factors and; (3) describe etiologic agents responsible and antibacterial susceptibility patterns...
2016: Reproductive Health
Sally K Abell, Alison Nankervis, Khalid S Khan, Helena J Teede
Preexisting diabetes in pregnancy results in increased risks to the mother, fetus, and neonate. Preconception care is vital to reduce risk of miscarriage, congenital malformations, and perinatal mortality. Preconception care should empower women with realistic goal setting, healthy lifestyle, and diabetes self-management skills, to ensure a positive experience of the pregnancy and to reduce diabetes-related distress. In high-risk women without known diabetes, preconception and early antenatal screening is crucial to enable prompt treatment of hyperglycemia and any complications...
March 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Caroline Smartt, Girmay Medhin, Atalay Alem, Vikram Patel, Michael Dewey, Martin Prince, Charlotte Hanlon
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a common complaint worldwide and associated with disability and high health service use costs. We tested the hypothesis that maternal fatigue would be associated independently with maternal common mental disorder ('maternal CMD') in a rural, low-income country setting. METHODS: The analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cohort located in the Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia. A total of 1065 women were recruited in pregnancy and followed up to 2...
March 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Joyce N Mumah, Kazuyo Machiyama, Michael Mutua, Caroline W Kabiru, John Cleland
Unmet need for contraception is highest within 12 months post-delivery, according to research. Using longitudinal data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we assess the dynamics of contraceptive use during the postpartum period among women in Nairobi's slums. Results show that by 6 months postpartum, 83 percent of women had resumed sexual activity and 51 percent had resumed menses, yet only 49 percent had adopted a modern contraceptive method. Furthermore, almost half of women discontinued a modern method within 12 months of initiating use, with many likely to switch to another short-term method with high method-related dissatisfaction...
December 2015: Studies in Family Planning
Angela Kaida, Allison Carter, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Sophie Patterson, Karène Proulx-Boucher, Adriana Nohpal, Paul Sereda, Guillaume Colley, Nadia O'Brien, Jamie Thomas-Pavanel, Kerrigan Beaver, Valerie J Nicholson, Wangari Tharao, Mylène Fernet, Joanne Otis, Robert S Hogg, Mona Loutfy
INTRODUCTION: Women represent nearly one-quarter of the 71,300 people living with HIV in Canada. Within a context of widespread HIV-related stigma and discrimination and on-going risks to HIV disclosure, little is known about the influence of growing social, legal and public health surveillance of HIV on sexual activity and satisfaction of women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS: We analyzed baseline cross-sectional survey data for WLWH (≥16 years, self-identifying as women) enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), a multisite, longitudinal, community-based research study in British Columbia (BC), Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC)...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Nargisse Sabiri, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Razine, Amina Barkat
INTRODUCTION: Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. METHODS: This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
Jonathan M Morris, Christine L Roberts, Jennifer R Bowen, Jillian A Patterson, Diana M Bond, Charles S Algert, Jim G Thornton, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Preterm pre-labour ruptured membranes close to term is associated with increased risk of neonatal infection, but immediate delivery is associated with risks of prematurity. The balance of risks is unclear. We aimed to establish whether immediate birth in singleton pregnancies with ruptured membranes close to term reduces neonatal infection without increasing other morbidity. METHODS: The PPROMT trial was a multicentre randomised controlled trial done at 65 centres across 11 countries...
January 30, 2016: Lancet
Adriane Burgess, Sandra Founds
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death of women in the United States. Many healthcare providers are unaware of sex-specific factors that affect the development of CVD. Nursing care for women with a history of preeclampsia and their children is presented. Preeclampsia affects 4% to 8% of all pregnancies. Rates have increased by 25% over the past 2 decades. Research supports the link between preeclampsia and risk of future CVD in women and the children of affected pregnancies. Appropriate preconception, prenatal and postpartum education, and surveillance are necessary to improve the long-term health of both mother and infant...
January 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Ann Kinga Malinowski, Jonathan Sen, Mathew Sermer
Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare condition in which there is massive cystic enlargement of the ovaries, mimicking malignancy, during pregnancy. When confronted with this condition, the fear of missing a cancer diagnosis often leads the physician to react with unnecessary surgical intervention, potentially resulting in impaired future fertility. The literature on the subject contains mainly case reports and one small case series. A recent review attempted to summarize what is currently known, but there has not yet been a pervasive change in the approach to the management of this condition...
August 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Erna Snelgrove-Clarke, Barbara Davies, Gordon Flowerdew, David Young
AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an Action Learning intervention on nurses' use of a fetal health surveillance (FHS) guideline during labor of women who were low risk on admission for delivery. METHODS: Using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, nurses were randomized to Action Learning (n = 44) or Usual Care (n = 45). Low-risk women were assigned to either an Action Learning nurse (n = 122) or a Usual Care nurse (n = 148). Data on practices during an episode of care (nurses' FHS practices from admission through to delivery in low-risk women) were collected at three trial time points: 1 month prior, during 6 months, and 1 month following...
October 2015: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Charlan D Kroelinger, Lisa F Waddell, David A Goodman, Ellen Pliska, Claire Rudolph, Einas Ahmed, Donna Addison
BACKGROUND: Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are highly effective in preventing unintended pregnancy. State health departments are in the process of implementing a systems change approach to better apply policies supporting the use of immediate postpartum LARC. METHODS: Beginning in 2014, a group of national organizations, federal agencies, and six states have convened a LARC Learning Community to share strategies and best practices in immediate postpartum LARC policy development and implementation...
September 2015: Journal of Women's Health
Zhen Jiang, Su Fang Guo, Robert W Scherpbier, Chun Mei Wen, Xiao Chao Xu, Yan Guo
China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China...
August 2015: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
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