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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758288/micrornas-in-brown-and-beige-fat
#1
REVIEW
Deborah Goody, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning", i.e. the appearance of inducible brown adipocytes called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), is of great interest for developing novel therapies to combat obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT...
May 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754327/the-many-faces-of-igg4-related-disease-report-of-a-case-with-inaugural-recurrent-aortic-aneurism-ruptures-and-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Mariana Luís, Luísa Brites, Bruno Fernandes, Diogo Jesus, Tânia Santiago, Sara Serra, João Rovisco, Lina Carvalho, José António P da Silva, Armando Malcata
Vascular involvement in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), is a well-recognized feature and large vessel commitment, especially the aorta, can be the only manifestation of the disease. Being a newly recognized disease, its diagnosis and workup still represents a challenge in clinical practice. A 47-year-old-man with two aortic aneurysms ruptures, one at abdominal and the other at thoracic level, was referred to our rheumatology department. The initial analysis of the surgical specimen obtained 3 years earlier revealed a nonspecific aortitis...
May 12, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727806/neoplasms-associated-deaths-in-hiv-1-infected-and-non-infected-patients-in-bahia-brazil
#3
Marinho Marques, Estela Luz, Mateus Leal, João Vitor Oliveira, Rejane Patrício, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients are at a higher risk to develop malignancies than general population. Although AIDS-related malignancies are a common feature of late-stage disease, patients under successful antiretroviral therapy also have an increased risk for development of non-AIDS malignancies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency and characteristics of adults HIV-infected patients and general population who died of malignancies in Bahia, Brazil from January 2000 to December 2010...
May 1, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716518/treemmer-a-tool-to-reduce-large-phylogenetic-datasets-with-minimal-loss-of-diversity
#4
Fabrizio Menardo, Chloé Loiseau, Daniela Brites, Mireia Coscolla, Sebastian M Gygli, Liliana K Rutaihwa, Andrej Trauner, Christian Beisel, Sonia Borrell, Sebastien Gagneux
BACKGROUND: Large sequence datasets are difficult to visualize and handle. Additionally, they often do not represent a random subset of the natural diversity, but the result of uncoordinated and convenience sampling. Consequently, they can suffer from redundancy and sampling biases. RESULTS: Here we present Treemmer, a simple tool to evaluate the redundancy of phylogenetic trees and reduce their complexity by eliminating leaves that contribute the least to the tree diversity...
May 2, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704660/genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-adipose-development
#5
REVIEW
Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy storage organ and its excess contributes to obesity, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible thermogenic (beige/brite) adipocytes in WAT dissipate energy via Ucp1 to maintain body temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT develop perinatally while visceral WAT forms after birth from precursors expressing distinct markers, such as Myf5, Pref-1, Wt1, and Prx1, depending on the anatomical location. In addition to the embryonic adipose precursors, a pool of endothelial cells or mural cells expressing Pparγ, Pdgfrβ, Sma and Zfp423 may become adipocytes during WAT expansion in adults...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656314/-174-g-c-il-6-polymorphism-and-primary-iron-overload-in-male-patients
#6
Walter F Tetzlaff, Tomás Meroño, Eliana E Botta, Maximiliano E Martín, Patricia B Sorroche, Laura E Boero, Marcelo Castro, Gustavo D Frechtel, Jorge Rey, Jorge Daruich, Gloria E Cerrone, Fernando Brites
Primary iron overload (IO) is commonly associated with mutations in the hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE). Nonetheless, other genetic variants may influence the development of IO beyond HFE mutations. There is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at - 174 G>C of the interleukin (IL)-6 gene which might be associated with primary IO. Our aim was to study the association between the SNP - 174 G>C gene promoter of IL-6 and primary IO in middle-aged male patients. We studied 37 men with primary IO diagnosed by liver histology...
April 14, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629852/raltegravir-versus-lopinavir-ritonavir-for-treatment-of-hiv-infected-late-presenting-pregnant-women
#7
Carlos Brites, Isabella Nóbrega, Estela Luz, Ana Gabriela Travassos, Cynthia Lorenzo, Eduardo M Netto
Background Late-presenting pregnant women pose a challenge in the prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child-transmission. We compared the safety and efficacy of raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for this population. Methods We did a single-center, pilot, open-label, randomized trial in Brazil (N = 44). We randomly allocated late-presenting HIV-infected pregnant women (older than 18 years with a plasma HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) to receive raltegravir 400 mg twice a day or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice a day plus zidovudine and lamivudine (1:1)...
April 9, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578227/upconversion-thermometry-a-new-tool-to-measure-the-thermal-resistance-of-nanoparticles
#8
O A Savchuk, J J Carvajal, C D S Brites, L D Carlos, M Aguilo, F Diaz
The rapid evolution in luminescence thermometry in the last few years gradually shifted the research from the fabrication of more sensitive nanoarchitectures towards the use of the technique as a tool for thermal bioimaging and for the unveiling of properties of the thermometers themselves and of their local surroundings, for example to evaluate heat transport at unprecedented small scales. In this work, we demonstrated that KLu(WO4)2:Ho3+,Tm3+ nanoparticles are able to combine controllable heat release and upconversion thermometry permitting to estimate its thermal resistance (in air), a key parameter to model the heat transfer at the nanoscale...
March 26, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565153/inflammatory-cytokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#9
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527907/transcription-regulators-and-hormones-involved-in-the-development-of-brown-fat-and-white-fat-browning-transcriptional-and-hormonal-control-of-brown-beige-fat-development
#10
Jianmei Zhang, Huixiao Wu, Shizhan Ma, Fei Jing, Chunxiao Yu, Ling Gao, Zhao Jiajun
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic complications has inspired research on adipose tissues. Three kinds of adipose tissues are identified in mammals: brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige or brite adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). Beige adipocytes share some characteristics with brown adipocytes such as the expression of UCP1. Beige adipocytes can be activated by environmental stimuli or pharmacological treatment, and this change is accompanied by an increase in energy consumption...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525607/raspberry-promotes-brown-and-beige-adipocyte-development-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet-through-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-1
#11
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
May 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514884/non-adrenergic-control-of-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-in-adipose-tissues
#12
REVIEW
Katharina Braun, Josef Oeckl, Julia Westermeier, Yongguo Li, Martin Klingenspor
The enormous plasticity of adipose tissues, to rapidly adapt to altered physiological states of energy demand, is under neuronal and endocrine control. In energy balance, lipolysis of triacylglycerols and re-esterification of free fatty acids are opposing processes operating in parallel at identical rates, thus allowing a more dynamic transition from anabolism to catabolism, and vice versa. In response to alterations in the state of energy balance, one of the two processes predominates, enabling the efficient mobilization or storage of energy in a negative or positive energy balance, respectively...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490014/the-circadian-clock-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-mechanistic-endocrine-and-clinical-aspects
#13
Oren Froy, Marta Garaulet
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension and has become a serious public health problem. Mammals have developed a circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Clocks similar to the one located in the SCN are found in peripheral tissues, such as the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The circadian clock regulates metabolism and energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues by mediating activity and/or expression of key metabolic enzymes and transport systems...
February 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487448/elucidating-potential-utilization-of-portuguese-common-bean-varieties-in-rice-based-processed-foods
#14
Bruna Carbas, Shivani Pathania, Ana Castanho, Diana Lourenço, Isabel Mota Veiga, Maria Carlota Vaz Patto, Carla Brites
The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based processed foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470164/external-quality-assessment-for-zika-virus-molecular-diagnostic-testing-brazil
#15
Carlo Fischer, Celia Pedroso, Alfredo Mendrone, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro, Edison Luiz Durigon, Ernesto T A Marques, Gubio S Campos, Isabelle F T Viana, José Eduardo Levi, Luciano Cesar Scarpelli, Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira, Michele de Souza Bastos, Nathalia C Santiago Souza, Ricardo Khouri, Sanny Lira, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis, Cécile Baronti, Rémi N Charrel, Beate M Kümmerer, Christian Drosten, Carlos Brites, Xavier de Lamballerie, Matthias Niedrig, Eduardo Martins Netto, Jan Felix Drexler
We conducted an external quality assessment of Zika virus molecular diagnostic tests in Brazil using a new Zika virus standard. Of 15 laboratories, 73% showed limited sensitivity and specificity. Viral load estimates varied significantly. Continuous quality assurance is needed to adequately estimate risk for Zika virus-associated disease and determine patient care.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467675/pvat-and-its-relation-to-brown-beige-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-development-and-function
#16
REVIEW
Staffan Hildebrand, Jasmin Stümer, Alexander Pfeifer
Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460760/artificial-differences-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-rates-associated-with-disparity-in-testing
#17
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Anoshe Aslam, Jessica Kennington, N Esther Babady, David Calfee, Yoko Furuya, Donald Chen, Michael Augenbraun, Belinda Ostrowsky, Gopi Patel, Monica Mircescu, Vivek Kak, Roman Tuma, Teresa A Karre, Deborah A Fry, Yola P Duhaney, Amber Moyer, Denise Mitchell, Sherry Cantu, Candace Hsieh, Nancy Warren, Stacy Martin, Jill Willson, Jeanne Dickman, Julie Knight, Kim Delahanty, Annemarie Flood, Jennifer Harrington, Deborah Korenstein, Janet Eagan, Kent Sepkowitz
In 2015, Clostridium difficile testing rates among 30 US community, multispecialty, and cancer hospitals were 14.0, 16.3, and 33.9/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Pooled hospital onset rates were 0.56, 0.84, and 1.57/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Higher testing rates may artificially inflate reported rates of C. difficile infection. C. difficile surveillance should consider testing frequency.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443497/prediction-of-drug-induced-nephrotoxicity-with-a-hydroxyl-radical-and-caspase-light-up-dual-signal-nanoprobe
#18
Yuling Tong, Xitong Huang, Mi Lu, Bo-Yang Yu, Jiangwei Tian
The development of well-designed nanoprobes for specific imaging of multiple biomarkers in renal cells will afford beneficial information related to the transmutation process of drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI). However, the most reported nanoprobes for DIKI detection were dependent on single-signal output and lack of kidney targeting. In this work, we reported a renal cell targeting and dual-signal nanoprobe by encapsulating Brite 670 and Dabcyl-KFFFDEVDK-FAM into a low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticle...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415471/analysis-of-dark-current-in-brite-nanostellite-ccd-sensors
#19
Adam Popowicz
The BRightest Target Explorer (BRITE) is the pioneering nanosatellite mission dedicated for photometric observations of the brightest stars in the sky. The BRITE charge coupled device (CCD) sensors are poorly shielded against extensive flux of energetic particles which constantly induce defects in the silicon lattice. In this paper we investigate the temporal evolution of the generation of the dark current in the BRITE CCDs over almost four years after launch. Utilizing several steps of image processing and employing normalization of the results, it was possible to obtain useful information about the progress of thermal activity in the sensors...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409985/transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-biology-in-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Mi-Jeong Lee
Accumulation of dysfunctional white adipose tissues increases risks for cardiometabolic diseases in obesity. In addition to white, brown or brite adipose tissues are also present in adult humans and increasing their amount may be protective. Therefore, understanding factors regulating the amount and function of each adipose depot is crucial for developing therapeutic targets for obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily, which consists of TGFβ, BMPs, GDFs, and activins, controls multiple aspects of adipose biology...
April 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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