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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223294/the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-dispensable-for-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#1
Jasper M A de Jong, René T F Wouters, Nathalie Boulet, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard, Natasa Petrovic
Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220393/common-and-distinct-regulation-of-human-and-mouse-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Christopher Cervantes, Feng Liu
Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation...
February 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175413/the-barrow-randomized-operating-room-traffic-brite-trial-an-observational-study-on-the-effect-of-operating-room-traffic-on-infection-rates
#3
Michael A Bohl, Justin C Clark, Mark E Oppenlander, Kristina Chapple, Alex Budde, Ting Lei, Andrew J Meeusen, Randall W Porter, Robert F Spetzler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125644/srf-and-mkl1-independently-inhibit-brown-adipogenesis
#4
Matthias Rosenwald, Vissarion Efthymiou, Lennart Opitz, Christian Wolfrum
Active brown adipose tissue is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals which affects energy homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this activation as well as the formation and activation of brite adipocytes have gained increasing interest in recent years as they might be utilized to regulate systemic metabolism. We show here that the transcriptional regulators SRF and MKL1 both act as repressors of brown adipogenesis. Loss-of-function of these transcription factors leads to a significant induction of brown adipocyte differentiation, increased levels of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes as well as increased respiratory function, while SRF induction exerts the opposite effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123139/remodeling-of-rat-stromal-vascular-cells-to-brite-beige-adipocytes-by-prolyl-hydroxyproline
#5
Jun A Minaguchi, Sakino Ogata, Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Hiromi Ueda, Kazushige Takehana
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) being cultured in a medium with (Pro-Hyp group) or without Pro-Hyp (control group). The results showed that there was no significant difference in proliferation rate of SVCs, lipid droplet (LD) diameter or intracellular concentration of triglycerides between two groups. However, the diameter range of LDs in the Pro-Hyp group tended to be smaller than that in the control group...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109720/ucp1-in-adipose-tissues-two-steps-to-full-browning
#6
Anastasia V Kalinovich, Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#7
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#8
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027567/elastographic-evaluation-of-indeterminate-breast-masses-on-ultrasound
#9
Luciana Graziano, Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt, Marcela Pecora Cohen, Camila Souza Guatelli, Miriam Rosalina Brites Poli, Juliana Alves Souza, Elvira Ferreira Marques
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of elastography for breast cancer identification in patients with indeterminate lesions on ultrasound. Methods This prospective, descriptive study included patients with indeterminate breast lesions in the ultrasound and with indication for percutaneous or surgical biopsy. The elastography was evaluated by qualitative analysis and by two methods for the semi quantitative analysis. Results We evaluated 125 female patients with 159 lesions, with a mean age of 47 years, and a range of 20-85 years...
December 27, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997982/influence-of-tooth-bleaching-on-dental-enamel-microhardness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Jaine Zanolla, Amanda Brites da Costa Marques, Deisi Carneiro da Costa, Albert Schiaveto de Souza, Margareth Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the effect of bleaching on dental tissues. The evaluation of the effect of home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide is important for assessing alterations in enamel microhardness that may affect dental health in terms of resistance to masticatory forces. This meta-analysis was performed in order to determine scientific evidence regarding the effects of home vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the microhardness of human dental enamel...
December 20, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#11
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986537/meaningful-respirometric-measurements-of-ucp1-mediated-thermogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Yongguo Li, Tobias Fromme, Martin Klingenspor
Regarding the enormous interest in brown and brite/beige adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, reliable quantification of thermogenesis in these adipocytes is a central issue. This requires an assay specific for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated thermogenesis in adherent intact cells. In a recent study we identified a major pitfall associated with established procedures generally applied for this purpose. Meaningful respirometry of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis imperatively requires activation of UCP1 and control over free fatty acid levels...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974179/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-with-roscovitine-induces-a-distinct-population-of-ucp1-adipocytes
#13
Hong Wang, Libin Liu, Jean Z Lin, Tamar R Aprahamian, Stephen R Farmer
Brown-like adipocytes exist in several adipose depots including white (WAT) as well as brown (BAT). Activation of these UCP1(+) cells is a potential therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Studies have shown that posttranslational modifications of PPARγ regulate select adipocyte programs. Deacetylation of K268 and K293 in the ligand-binding domain of PPARγ by Sirt1 induces browning of WAT. Phosphorylation of S273 of PPARγ by CDK5 or ERK stimulates a diabetogenic program of gene expression in WAT. Here, we report that roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, prevents S273 phosphorylation and promotes formation of UCP1(+) (brite) adipocytes in WAT...
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932592/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#14
Janina A Vaitkus, Francesco S Celi
Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923808/ucp1-inhibition-in-cidea-overexpressing-mice-is-physiologically-counteracted-by-brown-adipose-tissue-hyperrecruitment
#15
Alexander W Fischer, Irina G Shabalina, Charlotte L Mattsson, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergard, Natasa Petrovic
Cidea is a gene highly expressed in thermogenesis-competent (UCP1-containing) adipose cells, both brown and brite/beige. Here we initially demonstrate a remarkable adipose-depot specific regulation of Cidea expression. In classical brown fat, Cidea mRNA is expressed continuously and invariably, irrespective of tissue recruitment. However, Cidea protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, being conspicuously induced in the thermogenically recruited state. In contrast, in brite fat, Cidea protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, and Cidea mRNA and protein levels are proportional to tissue "briteness"...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923458/micrornas-in-adipocyte-formation-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Marcel Scheideler
The worldwide epidemic of obesity demands novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. Fat cells are at the core of energy metabolism trying either to cope with a positive energy balance by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of energy storing white adipocytes or to counteract obesity by the induction of non-shivering thermogenesis in energy combusting brite/brown adipocytes. However, the comprehensive regulatory network of adipocyte formation remains to be elucidated. MicroRNAs are an emerging class of important regulatory determinants in many biological processes and diseases, including adipocyte formation and obesity...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902650/survival-estimates-and-mortality-risk-factors-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-vertically-infected-individuals-in-salvador-brazil
#17
Cynthia R S Lorenzo, Eduardo M Netto, Fátima R L Patrício, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: There are few data on long-term survival of Brazilian children with vertically acquired HIV infection. We assessed survival, mortality risk factors and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared children with early and late access to care. METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves with Log-rank tests to compare survival time and mortality rates of 245 HIV vertically infected children admitted for care during 2002-2014. RESULTS: Total follow-up sum was 1584...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899662/kegg-new-perspectives-on-genomes-pathways-diseases-and-drugs
#18
Minoru Kanehisa, Miho Furumichi, Mao Tanabe, Yoko Sato, Kanae Morishima
KEGG (http://www.kegg.jp/ or http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Assigning functional meanings to genes and genomes both at the molecular and higher levels is the primary objective of the KEGG database project. Molecular-level functions are stored in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, where each KO is defined as a functional ortholog of genes and proteins. Higher-level functions are represented by networks of molecular interactions, reactions and relations in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891610/resveratrol-supplementation-of-high-fat-diet-fed-pregnant-mice-promotes-brown-and-beige-adipocyte-development-and-prevents-obesity-in-male-offspring
#19
Tiande Zou, Daiwen Chen, Qiyuan Yang, Bo Wang, Mei-Jun Zhu, Peter W Nathanielsz, Min Du
KEY POINTS: Maternal high-fat diet impairs brown adipocyte function and correlates with obesity in offspring. Maternal resveratrol administration recovers metabolic activity of offspring brown adipose tissue. Maternal resveratrol promotes beige adipocyte development in offspring white adipose tissue. Maternal resveratrol intervention protects offspring against high-fat diet-induced obesity. ABSTRACT: Promoting beige/brite adipogenesis and thermogenic activity is considered as a promising therapeutic approach to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865158/increasing-camp-levels-of-preadipocytes-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-treatment-induces-the-formation-of-beige-phenotypes-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#20
Toshiya Matsukawa, Myra O Villareal, Hideko Motojima, Hiroko Isoda
Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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