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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#1
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317208/zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-promotes-browning-in-adipocytes
#2
Xin-Hua Xiao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Ya-Di Wang, Li Ran, Jing Yang, Huan-Li Zhang, Can-Xin Xu, Ge-Bo Wen, Jiang-Hua Liu
Recent studies have highlighted recruiting and activating brite adipocytes in WAT (so-called "browning") would be an attractive anti-obesity strategy. Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is reported to ameliorate glycolipid metabolism and lose body weight in obese mice. However whether the body reducing effect mediated by browning programme remains unclear. Here, we show that overexpression of ZAG in 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced expression of brown fat-specific markers (UCP-1, PRDM16 and CIDEA), mitochondrial biogenesis genes (PGC-1α, NRF-1/2 and mtTFA) and the key lipid metabolism lipases (ATGL, HSL, CPT1-A and p-acyl-CoA carboxylase)...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235702/in-vitro-evaluation-of-resilient-liner-after-brushing-with-conventional-and-experimental-ricinus-communis-based-dentifrices
#3
Maurício Malheiros Badaró, Talita Pereira Prates, Vanessa Maria Fagundes Leite-Fernandes, Viviane de Cássia Oliveira, Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos, Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of experimental (Ricinus communis) and commercial dentifrices used for denture cleaning on abrasiveness (gravimetric method; roughness), hardness, and color stability of a resilient relining material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty circular (15 × 3 mm) specimens were distributed into four groups: C (control; brushing with water); CO (brushing with Colgate - for natural teeth); CB (brushing with Corega Brite - for complete dentures); RC (brushing with experimental dentifrice)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229281/potential-of-real-time-pcr-threshold-cycle-ct-to-predict-presence-of-free-toxin-and-clinically-relevant-c-difficile-infection-cdi-in-patients-with-cancer
#4
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214199/dataset-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-measurement-for-amylose-determination-using-pls-algorithms
#5
P Sampaio, A Soares, A Castanho, A S Almeida, J Oliveira, C Brites
In the dataset presented in this article, 168 rice samples comprising sixteen rice varieties (including Indica and Japonica sub species) from a Portuguese Rice Breeding Program obtained from three different sites along four seasons, and 11 standard rice varieties from International Rice Research Institute were characterised. The amylose concentration was evaluated based on iodine method, and the near infrared (NIR) spectra were determined. To assess the advantage of Near infrared spectroscopy, different rice varieties and specific algorithms based on Matlab software such as Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Multiple Scatter Calibration (MSC) and Savitzky-Golay filter were used for NIR spectra pre-processing...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#6
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#7
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175213/a-new-therapeutic-proposal-for-inoperable-osteosarcoma-photodynamic-therapy
#8
Guilherme Chohfi de Miguel, Ana Margarida Abrantes, Mafalda Laranjo, Ana Yoshie Kitagawa Grizotto, Bruno Camporeze, José Aires Pereira, Gonçalo Brites, Arménio Serra, Marta Pineiro, António Rocha-Gonsalves, Maria Filomena Botelho, Denise Gonçalves Priolli
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma, a malignant tumor characterized by bone or osteoid formation, is the second most common primary bone neoplasm. Clinical symptoms include local and surrounding pain, unrelieved by rest or anesthesia. Osteosarcoma has a poor chemotherapeutic response with prognosis dependent on complete tumor excision. Therefore, for inoperable osteosarcoma new therapeutic strategies are needed. The present study aimed to develop murine models of cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma that facilitate simple clinical monitoring and real-time imaging to evaluate the outcome of photodynamic therapy based on a previously developed photosensitizer...
November 21, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160518/evaluation-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-tertiary-level-reference-hospital-in-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil
#9
Vinícius Victor Lorenzoni, Danielly da Costa Silva, Roberta Filipini Rampelotto, Patrícia Chaves Brites, Bárbara Villa, Rosmari Hörner
INTRODUCTION: The rapid global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a threat to the health system. METHODS: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 70 CRE isolated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil between August and December 2015, and determined their resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: The most prevalent microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (95.7%); it showed high-level resistance to carbapenems (>98%), with sensitivity to colistin (91...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151137/blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-neuroprotective-potential-of-blackberry-digested-polyphenols-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Inês Figueira, Lucélia Tavares, Carolina Jardim, Inês Costa, Ana P Terrasso, Andreia F Almeida, Coen Govers, Jurriaan J Mes, Rui Gardner, Jörg D Becker, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Augusto Filipe, Kwang S Kim, Dora Brites, Catarina Brito, M Alexandra Brito, Cláudia N Santos
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#11
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126910/impaired-oligodendrogenesis-and-myelination-by-elevated-s100b-levels-during-neurodevelopment
#12
Gisela Santos, Andreia Barateiro, Cláudio M Gomes, Dora Brites, Adelaide Fernandes
High levels of the inflammatory molecule S100B protein have been identified in sera from several perinatal inflammatory conditions involving myelin damage and associated with an adverse prognosis or the emergence of sequelea. S100B is essential for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and maturation, but it remains to be established if excessive levels of released S100B upon early brain injury are deleterious in the neurodevelopmental period. Here, we investigated this possibility by evaluating how elevated S100B affects oligodendrogenesis during this period...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116627/the-nature-and-evolution-of-genomic-diversity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#13
Daniela Brites, Sebastien Gagneux
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) consists of a clonal group of several mycobacterial lineages pathogenic to a range of different mammalian hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the origins and the evolutionary forces shaping the genomic diversity of the human-adapted MTBC. Advances in whole-genome sequencing have brought invaluable insights into the macro-evolution of the MTBC, and the biogeographical distribution of the different MTBC lineages, the phylogenetic relationships between these lineages...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116222/specific-detection-of-dengue-and-zika-virus-antibodies-using-envelope-proteins-with-mutations-in-the-conserved-fusion-loop
#14
Alexandra Rockstroh, Beyene Moges, Luisa Barzon, Alessandro Sinigaglia, Giorgio Palù, Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan Felix Drexler, Orlando C Ferreira, Sebastian Ulbert
Detection of antibodies is widely used for the diagnosis of infections with arthropod-borne flaviviruses including dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Due to the emergence of ZIKV in areas endemic for DENV, massive co-circulation is observed and methods to specifically diagnose these infections and differentiate them from each other are mandatory. However, serological assays for flaviviruses in general, and for DENV and ZIKV in particular, are compromised by the high degree of similarities in their proteins which can lead to cross-reacting antibodies and false-positive test results...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102386/understanding-the-biology-of-thermogenic-fat-is-browning-a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
July 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084047/infection-by-htlv-1-is-associated-with-high-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#16
Carlos Brites, Marcos Abrahão, Patrícia Bozza, Eduardo M Netto, André Lyra, Fabianna Bahia
OBJECTIVES: HIV, HCV, and HTLV-1 share the same routes of infection, making coinfection by these viruses a frequent finding in endemic areas. However, there is scarce information on the clinical / immunological consequences of triple infection. Coinfection by HTLV-1 is able to modulate cytokine´s production in HIV patients, but there is no data on the immune response of HIV-HCV-HTLV-1 infected patients METHODS:: we compared the plasma levels of 25 different cytokines in HIV-HCV patients, according to their serostatus to HTLV-1 infection...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074293/relationship-between-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-nitrite-and-genetic-polymorphisms-impact-on-erectile-dysfunction-therapy
#17
Ana Maria Milanez Azevedo, Guilhermo Brites-Anselmi, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Vanessa de Almeida Belo, Fernanda Borchers Coeli-Lacchini, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Molina, Murilo Ferreira de Andrade, Silvio Tucci, Emilio Hirsch, Jose Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Riccardo Lacchini
Sildenafil is the most used treatment of erectile dysfunction, however a large part of patients do not respond to therapy. This drug enhances nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and therefore factors that alter NO production may impact this drug responsiveness. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of all NO synthases, and is metabolized by Dimethylarginine Dimethilaminohydrolase (DDAH) 1 and 2. Here we aimed to assess the relationship between plasma levels of ADMA and nitrite (marker of nitric oxide production) with Sildenafil responsiveness...
December 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037678/optimization-of-rice-amylose-determination-by-nir-spectroscopy-using-pls-chemometrics-algorithms
#18
Pedro Sousa Sampaio, Andreia Soares, Ana Castanho, Ana Sofia Almeida, Jorge Oliveira, Carla Brites
Determining amylose content in rice with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, associated with a suitable multivariate regression method, is both feasible and relevant for the rice business to enable Process Analytical Technology applications for this critical factor, but it has not been fully exploited. Due to it being time-consuming and prone to experimental errors, it is urgent to develop a low-cost, nondestructive and 'on-line' method able to provide high accuracy and reproducibility. Different rice varieties and specific chemometrics tools, such as partial least squares (PLS), interval-PLS, synergy interval-PLS and moving windows-PLS, were applied to develop an optimal regression model for rice amylose determination...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031730/bidirectional-manipulation-of-gene-expression-in-adipocytes-using-crispra-and-sirna
#19
Morten Lundh, Kaja Pluciñska, Marie S Isidor, Patricia S S Petersen, Brice Emanuelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional investigation of novel gene/protein targets associated with adipocyte differentiation or function heavily relies on efficient and accessible tools to manipulate gene expression in adipocytes in vitro. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 have not only eased gene editing but also greatly facilitated modulation of gene expression without altering the genome. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a competent in vitro adipocyte model of controllable functionality as well as multiplexed gene manipulation in adipocytes, using the CRISPRa "SAM" system and siRNAs to simultaneously overexpress and silence selected genes in the same cell populations...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031720/brown-adipocytes-can-display-a-mammary-basal-myoepithelial-cell-phenotype-in%C3%A2-vivo
#20
Li Li, Baoguo Li, Min Li, Chaoqun Niu, Guanlin Wang, Ting Li, Elżbieta Król, Wanzhu Jin, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has suggested that white adipocytes may also show a mammary luminal secretory cell phenotype during lactation. The capacity of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to display a mammary cell phenotype and the levels at which they demonstrate such phenotypes in vivo is currently unknown. METHODS: To investigate the putative adipocyte origin of mammary gland cells, we performed genetic lineage-labeling experiments in BAT and the mammary glands...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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