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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431377/metabolic-regulation-and-the-anti-obesity-perspectives-of-human-brown-fat
#1
REVIEW
Camilla Scheele, Søren Nielsen
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat...
April 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427098/opa1-in-lipid-metabolism-function-of-opa1-in-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-of-adipocytes
#2
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Kjetil Taskén
OPA1 (Optic Atrophy 1) is a mitochondrial GTPase known to regulate fission of mitochondria. It was recently also shown to locate on lipid droplets in adipocytes where it functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that mediates adrenergic control of lipolysis by facilitating PKA phosphorylation of perilipin (Plin1). In brown adipocytes indirect evidence support the notion that OPA1 regulation of fission serves to increase thermogenesis, which thereby contributes to dissipation of energy. In white adipocytes, OPA1 located on lipid droplets serves as a gatekeeper to control lipolysis induced by adrenergic agonists...
April 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424085/the-within-host-population-dynamics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vary-with-treatment-efficacy
#3
Andrej Trauner, Qingyun Liu, Laura E Via, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Huimin Shi, Ying Chen, Ziling Wang, Ruixia Liang, Wei Zhang, Wang Wei, Jingcai Gao, Gang Sun, Daniela Brites, Kathleen England, Guolong Zhang, Sebastien Gagneux, Clifton E Barry, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy is one of the most effective tools for limiting the emergence of drug resistance in pathogens. Despite the widespread adoption of combination therapy across diseases, drug resistance rates continue to rise, leading to failing treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying treatment failure are well studied, but the processes governing successful combination therapy are poorly understood. We address this question by studying the population dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with different combinations of antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377149/evaluation-of-an-association-of-alpha-cypermethrin-and-flufenoxuron-for-tick-control-in-an-area-at-risk-of-brazilian-spotted-fever
#4
José Brites-Neto, Jardel Brasil, Jeferson de Andrade, Gabriele Luciana Saqui
Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is an endemic anthropozoonosis caused by Gram-negative bacteria (Rickettsia rickettsii) that is associated with the risk of human infection by ticks. In the city of Americana, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, there were 12 cases (67% lethal) between 2004 and 2015. This study evaluated the effectiveness of control over tick infestations in an area at risk of BSF, in a field trial on an association of alpha-cypermethrin (3%) and flufenoxuron (3%) (Tenopa(®)) conducted in Americana. The infestation levels of the target species (Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum) in the field trial were evaluated through acarological surveys (CO2 traps) on days 0, 22, 43 and 62 after treatment, both in the treatment area and in a control area...
March 27, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375193/uva1-for-diffuse-cutaneous-systemic-sclerosis-in-a-fitzpatrick-skin-type-vi-patient-outcomes-in-the-modified-rodnan-skin-score
#5
Bárbara Roque Ferreira, Ana Rita Gameiro, Maria Manuel Brites, Hugo Schönenberger Oliveira, José Pedro Reis
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous sclerosis can lead to important mobility impairment. Ultraviolet (UV) A1 phototherapy may improve skin sclerosis, although most of the studies have been with Caucasian patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 44-year-old patient, Fitzpatrick skin type VI, was being followed up with the diagnosis of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. He had significant mobility impairment, especially of the right hand and arm. In 2015 he started UVA1 phototherapy daily, Monday until Friday (Waldmann® 7001 UVA cabin equipped with 40 Philips TL/10R lamps - spectral irradiation between 340 and 400 nm)...
January 31, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369607/the-influence-of-hiv-on-the-evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Anastasia Koch, Daniela Brites, David Stucki, Joanna C Evans, Ronnett Seldon, Alexa Heekes, Nicola Mulder, Mark Nicol, Tolu Oni, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi, Julian Parkhill, Sebastien Gagneux, Darren P Martin, Robert J Wilkinson
HIV significantly affects the immunological environment during tuberculosis co-infection, and therefore may influence the selective landscape upon which M. tuberculosis evolves. To test this hypothesis whole genome sequences were determined for 169 South African M. tuberculosis strains from HIV-1 co-infected and uninfected individuals and analysed using two Bayesian codon-model based selection analysis approaches: FUBAR which was used to detect persistent positive and negative selection (selection respectively favouring and disfavouring nonsynonymous substitutions); and MEDS which was used to detect episodic directional selection specifically favouring nonsynonymous substitutions within HIV-1 infected individuals...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363087/geolocalization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-resistance-mutations-of-patients-failing-antiretroviral-therapy-in-salvador-brazil
#7
Antonio Walter de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Geographical distribution of HIV variants is an important way to understand the circulation and spread of such viral strains. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the spatial distribution of HIV-1 variants in patients failing antiretroviral therapy, in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of HIV resistance test reports of patients who underwent genotyping tests in a referral center in Salvador, Brazil, for the years 2008-2014...
March 28, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334068/the-dyslexia-susceptibility-protein-kiaa0319-inhibits-axon-growth-through-smad2-signaling
#8
Filipa Franquinho, Joana Nogueira-Rodrigues, Joana M Duarte, Sofia S Esteves, Christin Carter-Su, Anthony P Monaco, Zoltán Molnár, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Pedro Brites, Mónica M Sousa
KIAA0319 is a transmembrane protein associated with dyslexia with a presumed role in neuronal migration. Here we show that KIAA0319 expression is not restricted to the brain but also occurs in sensory and spinal cord neurons, increasing from early postnatal stages to adulthood and being downregulated by injury. This suggested that KIAA0319 participates in functions unrelated to neuronal migration. Supporting this hypothesis, overexpression of KIAA0319 repressed axon growth in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglia neurons; the intracellular domain of KIAA0319 was sufficient to elicit this effect...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324146/beliefs-about-the-potential-impacts-of-exploiting-non-timber-forest-products-predict-voluntary-participation-in-monitoring
#9
Alice Dantas Brites, Carla Morsello
Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302705/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-phenotype-and-metabolic-potential-in-mice-and-men
#10
Kanta Chechi, Wouter David van Marken Lichtenbelt, Denis Richard
With the recent re-discovery of brown fat in adult humans, our outlook on adipose tissue biology has undergone a paradigm shift. While we attempt to identify, recruit and activate classic brown fat stores in humans, identification of beige/brite adipocytes has also raised the possibility of browning our white fat stores. Whether such transformation of human white fat depots can be achieved in order to enhance the whole-body oxidative potential remains to be seen. Evidence to-date, however, largely points towards a major oxidative role only for classic brown fat depots in rodents and in humans (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257939/cold-exposure-induces-the-acquisition-of-brown-adipocyte-gene-expression-profiles-in-cattle-inguinal-fat-normalized-with-a-new-set-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr
#11
K X Cao, D Hao, J Wang, W W Peng, Y J Yan, H X Cao, F Sun, H Chen
The last few years have seen great advances in our understanding of browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) where white adipocytes take on characteristics of brown adipocytes. At present, the economic significance of browning for animal husbandry is beginning to be realized with the emerging evidence that browning affects body weight not only in human and rodent but in farm animals. Quantitative RT-PCR provides a quick and sensitive way to preliminary determine browning of WAT. However, there have been no established condition specific reference genes for browning of cattle WAT...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257111/a-cubesat-payload-for-exoplanet-detection
#12
Marcella Iuzzolino, Domenico Accardo, Giancarlo Rufino, Ernesto Oliva, Andrea Tozzi, Pietro Schipani
The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images...
March 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253476/virological-suppression-in-children-and-adolescents-is-not-influenced-by-genotyping-but-depends-on-optimal-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Juliana Costa de Abreu, Sara Nunes Vaz, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the virological outcomes in children and adolescents infected with HIV-1 in Salvador, Bahia according to genotyping results. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the rates of virological suppression of children and adolescents submitted to HIV-1 genotyping test from January/2008 to December/2012. The participants were followed in the two referral centers for pediatric AIDS care, in Salvador, Brazil. Resistance mutations, drug sensitivity profiles, and viral subtypes were analyzed using the Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance Database...
February 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244038/flow-cytometric-isolation-and-differentiation-of-adipogenic-progenitor-cells-into-brown-and-brite-beige-adipocytes
#14
Jochen Steinbring, Antonia Graja, Anne-Marie Jank, Tim J Schulz
Aside from mature adipocytes, adipose tissue harbors several distinct cell populations including immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipogenic progenitor cells (AdPCs). AdPCs represent the reservoir of regenerative cells that replenishes adipocytes during normal cellular turnover and during times of increased demand for triglyceride-storage capacity. The worldwide increase in pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, has heightened public and scientific interest in adipose tissues and the cell biological processes of adipose tissue formation and function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223294/the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-dispensable-for-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#15
Jasper M A de Jong, René T F Wouters, Nathalie Boulet, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard, Natasa Petrovic
Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220393/common-and-distinct-regulation-of-human-and-mouse-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Christopher Cervantes, Feng Liu
Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation...
February 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175413/the-barrow-randomized-operating-room-traffic-brite-trial-an-observational-study-on-the-effect-of-operating-room-traffic-on-infection-rates
#17
Michael A Bohl, Justin C Clark, Mark E Oppenlander, Kristina Chapple, Alex Budde, Ting Lei, Andrew J Meeusen, Randall W Porter, Robert F Spetzler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125644/srf-and-mkl1-independently-inhibit-brown-adipogenesis
#18
Matthias Rosenwald, Vissarion Efthymiou, Lennart Opitz, Christian Wolfrum
Active brown adipose tissue is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals which affects energy homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this activation as well as the formation and activation of brite adipocytes have gained increasing interest in recent years as they might be utilized to regulate systemic metabolism. We show here that the transcriptional regulators SRF and MKL1 both act as repressors of brown adipogenesis. Loss-of-function of these transcription factors leads to a significant induction of brown adipocyte differentiation, increased levels of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes as well as increased respiratory function, while SRF induction exerts the opposite effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123139/remodeling-of-rat-stromal-vascular-cells-to-brite-beige-adipocytes-by-prolyl-hydroxyproline
#19
Jun A Minaguchi, Sakino Ogata, Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Hiromi Ueda, Kazushige Takehana
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) being cultured in a medium with (Pro-Hyp group) or without Pro-Hyp (control group). The results showed that there was no significant difference in proliferation rate of SVCs, lipid droplet (LD) diameter or intracellular concentration of triglycerides between two groups. However, the diameter range of LDs in the Pro-Hyp group tended to be smaller than that in the control group...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109720/ucp1-in-adipose-tissues-two-steps-to-full-browning
#20
Anastasia V Kalinovich, Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues...
March 2017: Biochimie
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