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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#1
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126910/impaired-oligodendrogenesis-and-myelination-by-elevated-s100b-levels-during-neurodevelopment
#2
Gisela Santos, Andreia Barateiro, Cláudio M Gomes, Dora Brites, Adelaide Fernandes
High levels of the inflammatory molecule S100B protein have been identified in sera from several perinatal inflammatory conditions involving myelin damage and associated with an adverse prognosis or the emergence of sequelea. S100B is essential for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and maturation, but it remains to be established if excessive levels of released S100B upon early brain injury are deleterious in the neurodevelopmental period. Here, we investigated this possibility by evaluating how elevated S100B affects oligodendrogenesis during this period...
November 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116627/the-nature-and-evolution-of-genomic-diversity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#3
Daniela Brites, Sebastien Gagneux
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) consists of a clonal group of several mycobacterial lineages pathogenic to a range of different mammalian hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the origins and the evolutionary forces shaping the genomic diversity of the human-adapted MTBC. Advances in whole-genome sequencing have brought invaluable insights into the macro-evolution of the MTBC, and the biogeographical distribution of the different MTBC lineages, the phylogenetic relationships between these lineages...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116222/specific-detection-of-dengue-and-zika-virus-antibodies-using-envelope-proteins-with-mutations-in-the-conserved-fusion-loop
#4
Alexandra Rockstroh, Beyene Moges, Luisa Barzon, Alessandro Sinigaglia, Giorgio Palù, Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan Felix Drexler, Orlando C Ferreira, Sebastian Ulbert
Detection of antibodies is widely used for the diagnosis of infections with arthropod-borne flaviviruses including dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Due to the emergence of ZIKV in areas endemic for DENV, massive co-circulation is observed and methods to specifically diagnose these infections and differentiate them from each other are mandatory. However, serological assays for flaviviruses in general, and for DENV and ZIKV in particular, are compromised by the high degree of similarities in their proteins which can lead to cross-reacting antibodies and false-positive test results...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102386/understanding-the-biology-of-thermogenic-fat-is-browning-a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084047/infection-by-htlv-1-is-associated-with-high-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#6
Carlos Brites, Marcos Abrahão, Patrícia Bozza, Eduardo M Netto, André Lyra, Fabianna Bahia
OBJECTIVES: HIV, HCV, and HTLV-1 share the same routes of infection, making coinfection by these viruses a frequent finding in endemic areas. However, there is scarce information on the clinical / immunological consequences of triple infection. Coinfection by HTLV-1 is able to modulate cytokine´s production in HIV patients, but there is no data on the immune response of HIV-HCV-HTLV-1 infected patients METHODS:: we compared the plasma levels of 25 different cytokines in HIV-HCV patients, according to their serostatus to HTLV-1 infection...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074293/relationship-between-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-nitrite-and-genetic-polymorphisms-impact-on-erectile-dysfunction-therapy
#7
Ana Maria Milanez Azevedo, Guilhermo Brites-Anselmi, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Vanessa de Almeida Belo, Fernanda Borchers Coeli-Lacchini, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Molina, Murilo Ferreira de Andrade, Silvio Tucci, Emilio Hirsch, Jose Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Riccardo Lacchini
Sildenafil is the most used treatment of erectile dysfunction, however a large part of patients do not respond to therapy. This drug enhances nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and therefore factors that alter NO production may impact this drug responsiveness. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of all NO synthases, and is metabolized by Dimethylarginine Dimethilaminohydrolase (DDAH) 1 and 2. Here we aimed to assess the relationship between plasma levels of ADMA and nitrite (marker of nitric oxide production) with Sildenafil responsiveness...
October 23, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037678/optimization-of-rice-amylose-determination-by-nir-spectroscopy-using-pls-chemometrics-algorithms
#8
Pedro Sousa Sampaio, Andreia Soares, Ana Castanho, Ana Sofia Almeida, Jorge Oliveira, Carla Brites
Determining amylose content in rice with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, associated with a suitable multivariate regression method, is both feasible and relevant for the rice business to enable Process Analytical Technology applications for this critical factor, but it has not been fully exploited. Due to it being time-consuming and prone to experimental errors, it is urgent to develop a low-cost, nondestructive and 'on-line' method able to provide high accuracy and reproducibility. Different rice varieties and specific chemometrics tools, such as partial least squares (PLS), interval-PLS, synergy interval-PLS and moving windows-PLS, were applied to develop an optimal regression model for rice amylose determination...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031730/bidirectional-manipulation-of-gene-expression-in-adipocytes-using-crispra-and-sirna
#9
Morten Lundh, Kaja Pluciñska, Marie S Isidor, Patricia S S Petersen, Brice Emanuelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional investigation of novel gene/protein targets associated with adipocyte differentiation or function heavily relies on efficient and accessible tools to manipulate gene expression in adipocytes in vitro. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 have not only eased gene editing but also greatly facilitated modulation of gene expression without altering the genome. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a competent in vitro adipocyte model of controllable functionality as well as multiplexed gene manipulation in adipocytes, using the CRISPRa "SAM" system and siRNAs to simultaneously overexpress and silence selected genes in the same cell populations...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031720/brown-adipocytes-can-display-a-mammary-basal-myoepithelial-cell-phenotype-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Li Li, Baoguo Li, Min Li, Chaoqun Niu, Guanlin Wang, Ting Li, Elżbieta Król, Wanzhu Jin, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has suggested that white adipocytes may also show a mammary luminal secretory cell phenotype during lactation. The capacity of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to display a mammary cell phenotype and the levels at which they demonstrate such phenotypes in vivo is currently unknown. METHODS: To investigate the putative adipocyte origin of mammary gland cells, we performed genetic lineage-labeling experiments in BAT and the mammary glands...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020159/distinguishing-secondary-dengue-virus-infection-from-zika-virus-infection-with-previous-dengue-by-a-combination-of-three-simple-serological-tests
#11
Wen-Yang Tsai, Han Ha Youn, Carlos Brites, Jih-Jin Tsai, Jasmine Tyson, Celia Pedroso, Jan Felix Drexler, Mars Stone, Graham Simmons, Michael P Busch, Marion Lanteri, Susan L Stramer, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Wei-Kung Wang
Background: The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated microcephaly present an urgent need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests, particularly for pregnant women in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic regions. Recent reports of enhanced ZIKV replication by dengue-immune sera have raised concerns about the role of previous DENV infection on the risk and severity of microcephaly and other ZIKV complications. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on ZIKV and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) were established to test acute, convalescent-phase and post-convalescent-phase serum/plasma samples from reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction-confirmed-cases including 20 primary ZIKV, 25 ZIKV with previous dengue, 58 secondary DENV, and 16 primary DENV1 infections...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019320/distinct-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-for-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-induced-beige-adipocyte-formation
#12
Yuwei Jiang, Daniel C Berry, Jonathan M Graff
Beige/brite adipocytes are induced within white adipose tissues (WAT) and, when activated, consume glucose and fatty acids to produce heat. Classically, two stimuli have been used to trigger a beiging response: cold temperatures and β3-adrenergic receptor (Adrb3) agonists. These two beiging triggers have been used interchangeably but whether these two stimuli may induce beiging differently at cellular and molecular levels remains unclear. Here, we found that cold-induced beige adipocyte formation requires Adrb1, not Adrb3, activation...
October 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#13
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981551/predictors-of-hpv-incidence-and-clearance-in-a-cohort-of-brazilian-hiv-infected-women
#14
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eduardo Netto, Eveline Xavier-Souza, Isabella Nóbrega, Karina Adami, Maiara Timbó, Karen Abbehusen, Sheyla Fernandes, Camila Duran, Tatiana Haguihara, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary for the development of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. HPV infection among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) occurs more frequently, presents a higher rate of persistent infections and an earlier progression to cancer. We aimed to evaluate HR-HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance, and its association with HIV viral suppression, immunological response and other risk factors among WLHA followed at an STD/HIV reference center...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977326/immediate-and-follow-up-effects-of-a-posture-education-program-for-elementary-school-students
#15
Natália Brites Dos Santos, Juliana Adami Sedrez, Cláudia Tarragô Candotti, Adriane Vieira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short- and medium-term effects of the posture education program (PEP) for students of elementary school regarding theoretical knowledge and posture during activities of daily living (ADLs). METHODS: The sample consisted of 38 students (aged 8-12 years) in the third grade of elementary school in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil). The children were evaluated in three moments: prior to attending the PEP (pretest); after attending the PEP (post-test); and five months after the conclusion of the PEP, immediately after a learning review of four lessons (five months follow-up)...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970184/the-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-promotes-the-induction-of-brite-adipocytes-increasing-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-mediated-mitochondrial-function-and-glucose-uptake
#16
Jon Merlin, Masaaki Sato, Cameron Nowell, Mohsen Pakzad, Richard Fahey, Jie Gao, Nodi Dehvari, Roger J Summers, Tore Bengtsson, Bronwyn A Evans, Dana S Hutchinson
Recruitment and activation of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a potential avenue for manipulating whole-body energy expenditure. Despite numerous studies illustrating the differences in gene and protein markers between brown, brite and white adipocytes, there is very little information on the adrenergic regulation and function of these brite adipocytes. We have compared the functional (cyclic AMP accumulation, oxygen consumption rates, mitochondrial function, glucose uptake, extracellular acidification rates, calcium influx) profiles of mouse adipocytes cultured from three contrasting depots, namely interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal or epididymal white adipose tissues, following chronic treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone...
September 29, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949928/second-messenger-signaling-mechanisms-of-the-brown-adipocyte-thermogenic-program-an-integrative-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Fubiao Shi, Sheila Collins
β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat...
September 26, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936395/antioxidative-activity-of-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-mechanistic-insights-into-potential-clinical-benefit
#18
REVIEW
Fernando Brites, Maximiliano Martin, Isabelle Guillas, Anatol Kontush
Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by macrophages represents a key step in the development of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the foam cell formation. Chemical modification of LDL is however necessary to induce this process. Proatherogenic LDL modifications include aggregation, enzymatic digestion and oxidation. LDL oxidation by one-electron (free radicals) and two-electron oxidants dramatically increases LDL affinity to macrophage scavenger receptors, leading to rapid LDL uptake and fatty streak formation...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912710/key-aging-associated-alterations-in-primary-microglia-response-to-beta-amyloid-stimulation
#19
Cláudia Caldeira, Carolina Cunha, Ana R Vaz, Ana S Falcão, Andreia Barateiro, Elsa Seixas, Adelaide Fernandes, Dora Brites
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904352/polyphenols-journey-through-blood-brain-barrier-towards-neuronal-protection
#20
I Figueira, G Garcia, R C Pimpão, A P Terrasso, I Costa, A F Almeida, L Tavares, T F Pais, P Pinto, M R Ventura, A Filipe, G J McDougall, D Stewart, K S Kim, I Palmela, D Brites, M A Brito, C Brito, C N Santos
Age-related complications such as neurodegenerative disorders are increasing and remain cureless. The possibility of altering the progression or the development of these multifactorial diseases through diet is an emerging and attractive approach with increasing experimental support. We examined the potential of known bioavailable phenolic sulfates, arising from colonic metabolism of berries, to influence hallmarks of neurodegenerative processes. In silico predictions and in vitro transport studies across blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells, at circulating concentrations, provided evidence for differential transport, likely related to chemical structure...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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