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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334068/the-dyslexia-susceptibility-protein-kiaa0319-inhibits-axon-growth-through-smad2-signaling
#1
Filipa Franquinho, Joana Nogueira-Rodrigues, Joana M Duarte, Sofia S Esteves, Christin Carter-Su, Anthony P Monaco, Zoltán Molnár, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Pedro Brites, Mónica M Sousa
KIAA0319 is a transmembrane protein associated with dyslexia with a presumed role in neuronal migration. Here we show that KIAA0319 expression is not restricted to the brain but also occurs in sensory and spinal cord neurons, increasing from early postnatal stages to adulthood and being downregulated by injury. This suggested that KIAA0319 participates in functions unrelated to neuronal migration. Supporting this hypothesis, overexpression of KIAA0319 repressed axon growth in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglia neurons; the intracellular domain of KIAA0319 was sufficient to elicit this effect...
February 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324146/beliefs-about-the-potential-impacts-of-exploiting-non-timber-forest-products-predict-voluntary-participation-in-monitoring
#2
Alice Dantas Brites, Carla Morsello
Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302705/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-phenotype-and-metabolic-potential-in-mice-and-men
#3
Kanta Chechi, Wouter David van Marken Lichtenbelt, Denis Richard
With the recent re-discovery of brown fat in adult humans, our outlook on adipose tissue biology has undergone a paradigm shift. While we attempt to identify, recruit and activate classic brown fat stores in humans, identification of beige/brite adipocytes has also raised the possibility of browning our white fat stores. Whether such transformation of human white fat depots can be achieved in order to enhance the whole-body oxidative potential remains to be seen. Evidence to-date, however, largely points towards a major oxidative role only for classic brown fat depots in rodents and in humans (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257939/cold-exposure-induces-the-acquisition-of-brown-adipocyte-gene-expression-profiles-in-cattle-inguinal-fat-normalized-with-a-new-set-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr
#4
K X Cao, D Hao, J Wang, W W Peng, Y J Yan, H X Cao, F Sun, H Chen
The last few years have seen great advances in our understanding of browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) where white adipocytes take on characteristics of brown adipocytes. At present, the economic significance of browning for animal husbandry is beginning to be realized with the emerging evidence that browning affects body weight not only in human and rodent but in farm animals. Quantitative RT-PCR provides a quick and sensitive way to preliminary determine browning of WAT. However, there have been no established condition specific reference genes for browning of cattle WAT...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257111/a-cubesat-payload-for-exoplanet-detection
#5
Marcella Iuzzolino, Domenico Accardo, Giancarlo Rufino, Ernesto Oliva, Andrea Tozzi, Pietro Schipani
The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images...
March 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253476/virological-suppression-in-children-and-adolescents-is-not-influenced-by-genotyping-but-depends-on-optimal-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Juliana Costa de Abreu, Sara Nunes Vaz, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the virological outcomes in children and adolescents infected with HIV-1 in Salvador, Bahia according to genotyping results. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the rates of virological suppression of children and adolescents submitted to HIV-1 genotyping test from January/2008 to December/2012. The participants were followed in the two referral centers for pediatric AIDS care, in Salvador, Brazil. Resistance mutations, drug sensitivity profiles, and viral subtypes were analyzed using the Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance Database...
February 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244038/flow-cytometric-isolation-and-differentiation-of-adipogenic-progenitor-cells-into-brown-and-brite-beige-adipocytes
#7
Jochen Steinbring, Antonia Graja, Anne-Marie Jank, Tim J Schulz
Aside from mature adipocytes, adipose tissue harbors several distinct cell populations including immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipogenic progenitor cells (AdPCs). AdPCs represent the reservoir of regenerative cells that replenishes adipocytes during normal cellular turnover and during times of increased demand for triglyceride-storage capacity. The worldwide increase in pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, has heightened public and scientific interest in adipose tissues and the cell biological processes of adipose tissue formation and function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223294/the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-dispensable-for-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#8
Jasper M A de Jong, René T F Wouters, Nathalie Boulet, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard, Natasa Petrovic
Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220393/common-and-distinct-regulation-of-human-and-mouse-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Christopher Cervantes, Feng Liu
Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation...
February 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175413/the-barrow-randomized-operating-room-traffic-brite-trial-an-observational-study-on-the-effect-of-operating-room-traffic-on-infection-rates
#10
Michael A Bohl, Justin C Clark, Mark E Oppenlander, Kristina Chapple, Alex Budde, Ting Lei, Andrew J Meeusen, Randall W Porter, Robert F Spetzler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125644/srf-and-mkl1-independently-inhibit-brown-adipogenesis
#11
Matthias Rosenwald, Vissarion Efthymiou, Lennart Opitz, Christian Wolfrum
Active brown adipose tissue is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals which affects energy homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this activation as well as the formation and activation of brite adipocytes have gained increasing interest in recent years as they might be utilized to regulate systemic metabolism. We show here that the transcriptional regulators SRF and MKL1 both act as repressors of brown adipogenesis. Loss-of-function of these transcription factors leads to a significant induction of brown adipocyte differentiation, increased levels of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes as well as increased respiratory function, while SRF induction exerts the opposite effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123139/remodeling-of-rat-stromal-vascular-cells-to-brite-beige-adipocytes-by-prolyl-hydroxyproline
#12
Jun A Minaguchi, Sakino Ogata, Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Hiromi Ueda, Kazushige Takehana
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) being cultured in a medium with (Pro-Hyp group) or without Pro-Hyp (control group). The results showed that there was no significant difference in proliferation rate of SVCs, lipid droplet (LD) diameter or intracellular concentration of triglycerides between two groups. However, the diameter range of LDs in the Pro-Hyp group tended to be smaller than that in the control group...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109720/ucp1-in-adipose-tissues-two-steps-to-full-browning
#13
Anastasia V Kalinovich, Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#14
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#15
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027567/elastographic-evaluation-of-indeterminate-breast-masses-on-ultrasound
#16
Luciana Graziano, Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt, Marcela Pecora Cohen, Camila Souza Guatelli, Miriam Rosalina Brites Poli, Juliana Alves Souza, Elvira Ferreira Marques
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of elastography for breast cancer identification in patients with indeterminate lesions on ultrasound. Methods This prospective, descriptive study included patients with indeterminate breast lesions in the ultrasound and with indication for percutaneous or surgical biopsy. The elastography was evaluated by qualitative analysis and by two methods for the semi quantitative analysis. Results We evaluated 125 female patients with 159 lesions, with a mean age of 47 years, and a range of 20-85 years...
February 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997982/influence-of-tooth-bleaching-on-dental-enamel-microhardness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Jaine Zanolla, Amanda Brites da Costa Marques, Deisi Carneiro da Costa, Albert Schiaveto de Souza, Margareth Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the effect of bleaching on dental tissues. The evaluation of the effect of home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide is important for assessing alterations in enamel microhardness that may affect dental health in terms of resistance to masticatory forces. This meta-analysis was performed in order to determine scientific evidence regarding the effects of home vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the microhardness of human dental enamel...
December 20, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#18
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986537/meaningful-respirometric-measurements-of-ucp1-mediated-thermogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Yongguo Li, Tobias Fromme, Martin Klingenspor
Regarding the enormous interest in brown and brite/beige adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, reliable quantification of thermogenesis in these adipocytes is a central issue. This requires an assay specific for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated thermogenesis in adherent intact cells. In a recent study we identified a major pitfall associated with established procedures generally applied for this purpose. Meaningful respirometry of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis imperatively requires activation of UCP1 and control over free fatty acid levels...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974179/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-with-roscovitine-induces-a-distinct-population-of-ucp1-adipocytes
#20
Hong Wang, Libin Liu, Jean Z Lin, Tamar R Aprahamian, Stephen R Farmer
Brown-like adipocytes exist in several adipose depots including white (WAT) as well as brown (BAT). Activation of these UCP1(+) cells is a potential therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Studies have shown that posttranslational modifications of PPARγ regulate select adipocyte programs. Deacetylation of K268 and K293 in the ligand-binding domain of PPARγ by Sirt1 induces browning of WAT. Phosphorylation of S273 of PPARγ by CDK5 or ERK stimulates a diabetogenic program of gene expression in WAT. Here, we report that roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, prevents S273 phosphorylation and promotes formation of UCP1(+) (brite) adipocytes in WAT...
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
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