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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335507/hydroxytyrosol-in-the-prevention-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-related-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Julien Peyrol, Catherine Riva, Marie Josèphe Amiot
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported to be the most bioactive component. This review aims to compile the results of clinical, animal and cell culture studies evaluating the effects of HT on the features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (body weight/adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance) and associated complications (oxidative stress and inflammation)...
March 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#2
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Bo Simona, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G>A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G>A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism.We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G>A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
March 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333384/transcriptional-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#3
Paula Mota de Sá, Allison J Richard, Hardy Hang, Jacqueline M Stephens
Adipocytes are the defining cell type of adipose tissue. Once considered a passive participant in energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as a dynamic organ that contributes to several important physiological processes, such as lipid metabolism, systemic energy homeostasis, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in its development and function is of great importance. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly orchestrated process which can vary between different fat depots as well as between the sexes...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333148/salusin-%C3%AE-contributes-to-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#4
Ming-Xia Zhao, Bing Zhou, Li Ling, Xiao-Qing Xiong, Feng Zhang, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Salusin-β accelerates inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, and increases oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells. Plasma salusin-β levels were increased in diabetic patients. This study was designed to determine whether salusin-β is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), and whether knockdown of salusin-β attenuates cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with DCM. H9c2 or neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with 33.3 mM of glucose to mimic the high glucose (HG) in diabetes...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#5
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331816/inhibition-of-fat-cell-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-pre-adipocytes-by-all-trans-retinoic-acid-integrative-analysis-of-transcriptomic-and-phenotypic-data
#6
Katharina Stoecker, Steffen Sass, Fabian J Theis, Hans Hauner, Michael W Pfaffl
The process of adipogenesis is controlled in a highly orchestrated manner, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. In developing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, this program can be interrupted by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To examine this inhibiting impact by ATRA, we generated large-scale transcriptomic data on the microRNA and mRNA level. Non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs represent a field in RNA turnover, which is very important for understanding the regulation of mRNA gene expression. High throughput mRNA and microRNA expression profiling was performed using mRNA hybridisation microarray technology and multiplexed expression assay for microRNA quantification...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330582/adipocyte-accumulation-in-the-bone-marrow-during-obesity-and-aging-impairs-stem-cell-based-hematopoietic-and-bone-regeneration
#7
Thomas H Ambrosi, Antonio Scialdone, Antonia Graja, Sabrina Gohlke, Anne-Marie Jank, Carla Bocian, Lena Woelk, Hua Fan, Darren W Logan, Annette Schürmann, Luis R Saraiva, Tim J Schulz
Aging and obesity induce ectopic adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow cavities. This process is thought to impair osteogenic and hematopoietic regeneration. Here we specify the cellular identities of the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages of the bone. While aging impairs the osteogenic lineage, high-fat diet feeding activates expansion of the adipogenic lineage, an effect that is significantly enhanced in aged animals. We further describe a mesenchymal sub-population with stem cell-like characteristics that gives rise to both lineages and, at the same time, acts as a principal component of the hematopoietic niche by promoting competitive repopulation following lethal irradiation...
March 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327528/anti-obesity-effect-of-bombus-ignitus-queen-glycosaminoglycans-in-rats-on-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Mi Young Ahn, Ban Ji Kim, Ha Jeong Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Sang Duck Jee, Jae Sam Hwang, Kun-Koo Park
The mechanism of functional insect glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on obesity caused a high fat diet has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, insect glycosaminoglycans derived from Isaria sinclairii, Bombus ignitus (a type of bumblebee) queen, and Gryllus bimaculatus were purified and investigated as a potential functional food. 14-week old male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. There were five groups that received daily intraperitoneal administration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control), GbG (GAG from Gryllus bimaculatus) 10 mg/kg, ISG (GAG from Isaria sinclairii) 10 mg/kg, IQG (GAG from Bombus ignites) 10 mg/kg, or Pravastatin (2 mg/kg)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327169/the-effect-of-lipoaspirates-vs-dissected-abdominal-fat-on-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#9
Faris Almarzouqi, Hans-Oliver Rennekampff, Jan-Philipp Stromps, Ziyad Alharbi, Norbert Pallua
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells are typically surrounded by stromal cells and embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM). The stromal compartment interacts with cancer cells to promote growth and metastasis. For decades, autologous fasciocutaneous flaps have been safely applied for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. In contrast, the safety of fat grafting (lipofilling) procedure has been under debate regarding the risk of cancer recurrence. METHODS: Harvested fat tissue (lipoaspirates) and dissected abdominal fat (DAF) were co-cultured with MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326744/nutritional-parameters-and-carbohydrate-and-fat-metabolism-after-prolonged-salsolinol-administration-in-rats-fed-normal-or-high-fat-diets
#10
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326537/gax-suppresses-chemerin-cmklr1-induced-preadipocyte-biofunctions-through-the-inhibition-of-akt-mtor-and-erk-signaling-pathways
#11
Yunqi Jiang, Ping Liu, Wenlin Jiao, Juan Meng, Jinbo Feng
Adipose tissue is closely associated with angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Chemerin is involved in inflammatory reaction and vascular dysfunction. However, the mechanisms of chemerin participating in vascular remodeling and whether Growth arrest-specific homeobox (Gax) can effectively intervene it remain obscured. Here, 3T3-F442A preadipocytes were cultured, injected into athymic mice to model fat pads, and treated respectively with Ad-chemerin, Ad-Gax, or specific inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. MTT, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and imunohisto(cyto)-chemistry analyses showed that chemerin enhanced the expression of FABP4 and VEGF, activated Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways, increased the cell percent of S phase, decreased the percent of G0-G1 phase and apoptotic cells, and augmented neovascular density in fat pads...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326002/anti-obesity-effect-of-solidago-virgaurea-var-gigantea-extract-through-regulation-of-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-pathways-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-c57bl-6n
#12
Zhiqiang Wang, Ju Hee Kim, Young Soo Jang, Chea Ha Kim, Jae-Yong Lee, Soon Sung Lim
Background: Obesity is associated with an increase in adipogenesis and is becoming a serious health problem in modern society. Objective: The effects of various Solidago virgaurea var. gigantean (SV) ethanolic aqueous extracts on anti-adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. In addition, the effect of SV 10% ethanolic extract (SV10E) on preventing obesity was studied in high-fat diet-induced obese mice (C57BL/6 N). Design: The effect of SV10E on preventing obesity was studied in mice (n = 6): normal-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 1% (10 g/kg) Garcinia cambogia extract of 60% (-)-hydroxycitric acid (positive control), HFD supplemented with 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326000/antioxidant-activities-of-aqueous-extracts-from-12-chinese-edible-flowers-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Feng Wang, Miao Miao, Hui Xia, Li-Gang Yang, Shao-Kang Wang, Gui-Ju Sun
The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scavenging superoxide anion radical capacity (SSARC)...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325574/decoy-receptor-3-analogous-supplement-protects-steatotic-rat-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Tzu-Hao Li, Chih-Wei Liu, Pei-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Huang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Han-Chieh Lin, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND: For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324023/long-chain-free-fatty-acid-receptor-gpr120-mediates-oil-induced-gip-secretion-through-cck-in-male-mice
#15
Akiko Sankoda, Norio Harada, Kanako Iwasaki, Shunsuke Yamane, Yuki Murata, Kimitaka Shibue, Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen, Kazuyo Suzuki, Takanari Harada, Yoshinori Kanemaru, Satoko Shimazu-Kuwahara, Akira Hirasawa, Nobuya Inagaki
Free fatty acid receptors GPR120 and GPR40 are involved in the secretion of gut hormones. GPR120 and GPR40 are expressed in enteroendocrine K-cells and their activation induces the secretion of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). However, the role of these receptors in fat-induced GIP secretion in vivo and the associated mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated corn oil-induced GIP secretion in GPR120-knockout (GPR120-/-) and GPR40-knockout (GPR40-/-) mice. Oil-induced GIP secretion was reduced by 50% and 80% in GPR120-/- and GPR40-/- mice compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice, respectively...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324015/paternally-inherited-dlk1-deletion-associated-with-familial-central-precocious-puberty
#16
Andrew Dauber, Marina Cunha-Silva, Delanie B Macedo, Vinicius N Brito, Ana Paula Abreu, Stephanie A Roberts, Luciana R Montenegro, Melissa Andrew, Andrew Kirby, Matthew T Weirauch, Guillaume Labilloy, Danielle S Bessa, Rona S Carroll, Dakota C Jacobs, Patrick E Chappell, Berenice B Mendonca, David Haig, Ursula B Kaiser, Ana Claudia Latronico
Context: Central precocious puberty (CPP) results from premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Few genetic causes of CPP have been identified with the most common being mutations in the paternally expressed imprinted gene MKRN3. Objective: To identify the genetic etiology of CPP in a large multigenerational family. Design: Linkage analysis followed by whole genome sequencing was performed in a family with 5 female members with nonsyndromic CPP...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323970/obesity-modulates-inflammation-and-lipid-metabolism-oocyte-gene-expression-a-single-cell-transcriptome-perspective
#17
Meghan L Ruebel, Matthew Cotter, Clark R Sims, Dean M Moutos, Thomas M Badger, Mario A Cleves, Kartik Shankar, Aline Andres
Context: It is hypothesized that obesity adversely affects the ovarian environment which can disrupt oocyte maturation and may further impact embryonic development. Objective: This study aimed to compare oocyte gene expression profiles and follicular fluid (FF) content from overweight/obese (OW) women and normal weight (NW) women who were undergoing fertility treatments. Design: Using single cell transcriptomic analyses, we investigated oocyte gene expression using RNA-seq...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#18
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323935/association-of-in-vivo-adipose-tissue-cellular-kinetics-with-markers-of-metabolic-health-in-humans
#19
Ursula A White, Mark D Fitch, Robbie A Beyl, Marc K Hellerstein, Eric Ravussin
Context: Adipose tissue expansion occurs by hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Impaired hyperplasia, or adipogenesis, has been associated with obesity-related diseases. The cellular mechanisms underlying in vivo adipose cell turnover are not elucidated. Objective: We previously reported differences in in vivo cellular kinetics between the subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) depots using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium in women with obesity. We have now examined how in vivo kinetics correlate with markers of metabolic health...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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