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Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Wei Huang, Jiyuan Wu, Huiqin Yang, Yin Xiong, Rui Jiang, Tianpen Cui, Duyun Ye
Abnormal features of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-derived neutrophils, promoted aberrant immune response, have inspired new studies of the induction of autoimmunity and the development of organ damage in SLE. In this study, we explore the effect of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) on the aberrant nitrification features in pristane-induced lupus. SLE patients and mice with pristane-induced lupus develop autoantibodies associated with MFG-E8 overproduction. However, the deletion of MFG-E8 leads to uncontrolled early pulmonary and peritoneal inflammation and tissue damage in mice with pristane-induced lupus...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Fédou Christine, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
We investigated to what extent a prediction of the 'ideal' hematocrit based on individual hemorheological profile with an equation of viscosity is relevant in trained athletes, and how the agreement between theoretical and actual values is modified by changes in training volume and performance. Elite soccer players (national level: 18-32 yr, weight 61-83 kg, body mass index 20.9-25.8 kg/m2) were seen twice at one year interval. Hemorheologic parameters were measured with the MT90 viscometer and the Myrenne aggregometer the theoretical bell-shaped curve of hematocrit/viscosity ratio as a function of hematocrit was reconstructed with Quemada's equation using actual plasma viscosity and red cell rigidity to predict hematocrit/viscosity at various hematocrit levels...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Kwang-Youn Kim, Hyun-Jun Jang, Yong Ryul Yang, Kwang-Il Park, JeongKon Seo, Il-Woo Shin, Tae-Il Jeon, Soon-Cheol Ahn, Pann-Ghill Suh, Timothy F Osborne, Young-Kyo Seo
Dysregulated autophagy is associated with steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however the mechanisms connecting them remain poorly understand. Here, we show that co-administration of lovastatin and ezetimibe (L/E) significantly reverses hepatic triglyceride accumulation concomitant with an increase in SREBP-2 driven autophagy in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We further show that the statin mediated increase in SREBP-2 directly activates expression of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing enzyme 8 (PNPLA8) gene, and PNPLA8 associates with autophagosomes and is associated with a decrease in cellular triglyceride...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Vani P Sanon, Yehuda Handelsman, Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
IN BRIEF Congenital lipodystrophy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a near-complete absence of fat cells, hypoleptinemia leading to a voracious appetite, and marked insulin resistance. This article focuses on the known cardiovascular manifestations of patients with congenital lipodystrophy, including cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and accelerated atherosclerosis arising from a markedly deranged metabolic milieu. Future research that targets leptin deficiency (metreleptin) and apoC3 mRNA (antisense oligonucleotide) could open a window for potential pharmacological treatment of this challenging disorder...
October 2016: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
L Chen, D L Wang, Z R Wei, B Wang, J P Qi, G F Sun
Objective: To investigate the effects of local transplantation of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on the formation of hyperplastic scar on rabbit ears. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from inguinal fat of six New Zealand rabbits and then sub-cultured. ADSCs of the third passage of each rabbit were used in the following experiments. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds with diameter of 6 mm on the ventral surface of every rabbit ear were made. Wound healing and local-tissue proliferation were observed, and complete epithelization time of wounds and formation time of hyperplastic scar were recorded...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Bobby A Tajudeen, Zachary D Taylor, James Garritano, Harrison Cheng, Aidan Pearigen, Adria J Sherman, Fernando Palma-Diaz, Pratik Mishra, Siddharth Bhargava, Julianna Pesce, Irene Kim, Christine Sebastian, Ali Razfar, Asael Papour, Oscar Stafsudd, Warren Grundfest, Maie St John
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are debilitating diseases for which a patient's prognosis depends heavily on complete tumor resection. Currently, the surgeon's fingers determine the location of tissue margins. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of a novel imaging modality, dynamic optical contrast imaging (DOCI), in the detection of HNSCC. This system generates contrast by illuminating the tissue with pulsed light and detecting variations in endogenous fluorophore lifetimes...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Carmela Nardelli, Ilaria Granata, Laura Iaffaldano, Valeria D'Argenio, Valentina Del Monaco, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Daniela Omodei, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Francesco Salvatore, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Clinical findings and data obtained in animal models indicate that nutrient uptake and exposure to environmental agents during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn gestational programming thereby resulting in obesity and/or obesity-related disorders in offspring. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) differentiate into adipocytes, and are thus a suitable model to investigate adipocyte functions in obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the miRNome of hA-MSCs and its contribution to obesity in pregnancy...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Daniel Zysset, Benjamin Weber, Silvia Rihs, Jennifer Brasseit, Stefan Freigang, Carsten Riether, Yara Banz, Adelheid Cerwenka, Cedric Simillion, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Adrian F Ochsenbein, Leslie Saurer, Christoph Mueller
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses, but its significance in non-infectious diseases remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that TREM-1 promotes cardiovascular disease by exacerbating atherosclerosis. TREM-1 is expressed in advanced human atheromas and is highly upregulated under dyslipidemic conditions on circulating and on lesion-infiltrating myeloid cells in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. TREM-1 strongly contributes to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced monocytosis and synergizes with HFCD serum-derived factors to promote pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and foam cell formation of human monocyte/macrophages...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Michiyo Deushi, Mizuko Osaka, Kaku Nakano, Kyoichi Osada, Kensuke Egashira, Masayuki Yoshida
Oxidized cholesterol (oxysterols) plays an important and multifaceted role in lipid metabolism. Here we examined whether dietary oxysterols accelerate hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation in nonhuman primates. We also examined the effect of the Niemann-Pick C1-like1 inhibitor, ezetimibe (Ez). Macaca fascicularis (5-year-old males) were fed either regular cholesterol + high-fat diet (control-HFD) or oxysterols + high-fat diet (ox-HFD; with 0.015% of oxysterols cholesterol) for 24 weeks. Compared with control-HFD, ox-HFD did not affect plasma lipid levels, but it did affect hepatic lipid levels [total cholesterol, 40...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Shaun S Tan, Zhi Yang Ng, Weiqing Zhan, Warren Rozen
Autologous fat grafting is commonly utilised to reconstruct soft tissue defects caused by ageing, trauma, chronic wounds and cancer resection. The benefits of fat grafting are minimal donor site morbidity and ease of availability through liposuction or lipectomy. Nonetheless, survival and longevity of fat grafts remain poor post-engraftment. Various methods to enhance fat graft survival are currently under investigation and its stem cell constituents are of particular interest. Cell-assisted lipotransfer refers to the addition of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) rich component of stromal vascular fraction to lipoaspirate, the results of which have proven promising...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
B S Wang, H Y Yang, Y Han
Objective: To determine the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the survival rate of flaps by transplanting ADSCs into the experimental flaps pre-operatively. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from fresh human fat and cultured in vitro. Their morphological characters were observed, and flowcytometry and differentiation test and evaluation were conducted. A total of 40 BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups randomly with each of 8 mice. 1 cm×4 cm random skin flap was designed on the mice back, ADSCs were injected in advance into subcutaneous tissues of 3 groups, the operation was performed on the 2(nd,) 5(th) and 7(th) day after the ADSCs injection, meanwhile skin flap operation was conducted in the immediate injection group and control group...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Aijuan Zheng, Wenhuan Chang, Guohua Liu, Ying Yue, Jianke Li, Shu Zhang, Huiyi Cai, Aijun Yang, Zhimin Chen
Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2016: PloS One
Gang Chen, Dongsheng Yu, Xue Nian, Junyi Liu, Ronald J Koenig, Bin Xu, Liang Sheng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease, manifests as an over-accumulation of hepatic fat. We have recently shown that mice with genetic knockout of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) (SRAKO) are resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity with a phenotype that includes improved glucose tolerance and attenuated hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanism was investigated in the present study. We found that hepatic levels of SRA and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a major hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase, were inversely regulated by fasting in mice, and the expression of liver ATGL was induced by SRAKO under normal and high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eun Hee Koh, Yong Chen, David A Bader, Mark P Hamilton, Bin He, Brian York, Shingo Kajimura, Sean E McGuire, Sean M Hartig
The acquisition of beige adipocyte features by white fat cells corresponds to protection against obesity-induced metabolic diseases in humans and animal models of type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, expression of the E2-SUMO ligase Ubiquitin Carrier Protein 9 (Ubc9) is positively correlated with markers of insulin resistance and corresponds with impaired browning of human white adipocytes. However, the molecular regulation of Ubc9 expression in adipocytes and other cells remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the mRNA and protein expression of Ubc9 are regulated by the microRNA miRNA-30a (miR-30a) in human subcutaneous adipocytes...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kenneth Chen, Bing Long Lee, Hong Hong Huang, Benjamin Yongcheng Tan, Lui Shiong Lee, Lay Guat Ng, Weber Lau, John Shyi Peng Yuen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic values of perinephric fat invasion and renal vein invasion in pT3a renal cell carcinoma, as stand-alone factors and in combination with tumor size and Fuhrman grade. METHODS: Survival data of pT1 and pT2 renal cell carcinomas were analyzed alongside pT3a tumors of similar size bands (pT1 vs pT3a <7 cm, pT2 vs pT3a >7 cm). Patients with adjuvant therapy, positive surgical margins, metastasis or pT3b-pT4 tumors were excluded...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Wei Z Wang
: Both adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) have been demonstrated to have regenerative properties with therapeutic potential for numerous diseases through local or topical applications. However, it is unclear whether ASC or SVF can be delivered systemically through an intra-arterial infusion. The purpose of this study was to examine the microcirculatory response in vivo on local intraarterial infusion of autogenic ASCs or SVF in a vascular pedicle isolated rat cremaster microcirculation model...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Samuel Kim, Richard L Edelson, Brandon Sumpio, Stephanie Kwei, Deepak Narayan
We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient's unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Alexandra Condé-Green, Vasanth S Kotamarti, Lauren S Sherman, Jonathan D Keith, Edward S Lee, Mark S Granick, Pranela Rameshwar
: Standard isolation of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) requires the use of collagenase and is considered more than "minimally manipulated" by current good manufacturing practice requirements. Alternatively, nonenzymatic isolation methods have surfaced using physical forces to separate cells from the adipose matrix. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the use of mechanical isolation protocols and compare the results. The implication for use as a standard procedure in practice is discussed...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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