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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922115/perilipin-5-fine-tunes-lipid-oxidation-to-metabolic-demand-and-protects-against-lipotoxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Claire Laurens, Virginie Bourlier, Aline Mairal, Katie Louche, Pierre-Marie Badin, Etienne Mouisel, Alexandra Montagner, André Marette, Angelo Tremblay, John S Weisnagel, Hervé Guillou, Dominique Langin, Denis R Joanisse, Cedric Moro
Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by controlling transient fatty acid (FA) storage and release from triacylglycerols stores, while preventing high levels of cellular toxic lipids. This crucial function in oxidative tissues is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a LD protein whose mechanistic and causal link with lipotoxicity and insulin resistance has raised controversies. We investigated here the physiological role of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle upon various metabolic challenges...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921437/-adaptation-of-adipose-tissue-to-weight-reduction-energy-restricted-diet-in-obese-individuals
#2
Vladimír Štich
Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and ultimately cardiovascular diseases. An important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders accompanying obesity is probably played by the alterations of adipose tissue characteristics: metabolic, endocrine and immune functions. The key component of obesity treatment, the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, leads not only to the reduction of weight (specifically fat mass), but also to correction of obesity accompanying metabolic disorders...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921032/the-collection-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-using-water-jet-assisted-lipoplasty-for-their-use-in-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgery-a-preliminary-study
#3
Valeria Purpura, Elena Bondioli, Davide Melandri, Pier C Parodi, Luca Valenti, Michele Riccio
The graft of autologous fat for the augmentation of soft tissue is a common practice frequently used in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. In addition, the presence of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) in adipose tissue stimulates the regeneration of tissue in which it is applied after the autologous fat grafting improving the final clinical results. Due to these characteristics, there is an increasing interest in the use of ASCs for the treatment of several clinical conditions. As a consequence, the use of clean room environment is required for the production of cell-based therapies...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920979/transcript-profiling-in-the-milk-of-dairy-ewes-fed-extruded-linseed
#4
Tommaso Giordani, Alberto Vangelisti, Giuseppe Conte, Andrea Serra, Lucia Natali, Annamaria Ranieri, Marcello Mele, Andrea Cavallini
The identification of genes regulating milk secretion by mammary glands is a key-step for exploiting changes in milk composition induced by different diet regimens. Linseed supplementation is a reliable feeding strategy to enhance polyunsaturated fatty acid content in milk fat from sheep, increasing milk quality and nutraceutical value. To investigate the molecular bases of diet induced differences in milk composition, we collected milk from dairy ewes at 90 day of lactation and after 3 weeks of diet supplementation with extruded linseed...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#5
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920727/genetic-targeting-of-arginase-ii-in-mouse-prevents-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Ji Huang, Angana Rajapakse, Yuyan Xiong, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920274/adipose-fatty-acid-binding-protein-promotes-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-macrophage-cell-death-through-enhancing-ceramide-production
#7
Yuwen Zhang, Enyu Rao, Jun Zeng, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Shujun Liu, Edward R Sauter, David A Bernlohr, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Macrophages play a critical role in obesity-associated chronic inflammation and disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of macrophages to elevated fatty acids (FAs) and their contribution to metabolic inflammation in obesity remain to be fully elucidated. In this article, we report a new mechanism by which dietary FAs, in particular, saturated FAs (sFAs), are able to directly trigger macrophage cell death. We demonstrated that excess sFAs, but not unsaturated FAs, induced the production of cytotoxic ceramides (Cers) in macrophage cell lines...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920142/shedding-light-on-fat-dependence-in-aml
#8
(no author information available yet)
Scientists have begun unraveling the molecular intricacies that drive the appetite of acute myeloid leukemia for fat. They found that these tumor cells have particularly low levels of PHD3, an enzyme that normally activates ACC2 to repress fatty-acid oxidation. This fuels the cells' metabolic reliance on fat-burning, but also renders them highly susceptible to inhibitors of fatty-acid oxidation.
December 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919855/uncoupling-protein-2-deficiency-reduces-proliferative-capacity-of-murine-pancreatic-stellate-cells
#9
Sarah Muller, Sandra Maria Klingbeil, Andreea Sandica, Robert Jaster
BACKGROUND: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) has been suggested to inhibit mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. Experimental acute pancreatitis is associated with increased UCP2 expression, whereas UCP2 deficiency retards regeneration of aged mice from acute pancreatitis. Here, we have addressed biological and molecular functions of UCP2 in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which are involved in pancreatic wound repair and fibrogenesis...
December 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918534/multiethnic-genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-ectopic-fat-depots-identifies-loci-associated-with-adipocyte-development-and-differentiation
#11
Audrey Y Chu, Xuan Deng, Virginia A Fisher, Alexander Drong, Yang Zhang, Mary F Feitosa, Ching-Ti Liu, Olivia Weeks, Audrey C Choh, Qing Duan, Thomas D Dyer, John D Eicher, Xiuqing Guo, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Tim Kacprowski, Jack W Kent, Leslie A Lange, Xinggang Liu, Kurt Lohman, Lingyi Lu, Anubha Mahajan, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ankita Parihar, Juan M Peralta, Albert V Smith, Yi Zhang, Georg Homuth, Ahmed H Kissebah, Joel Kullberg, René Laqua, Lenore J Launer, Matthias Nauck, Michael Olivier, Patricia A Peyser, James G Terry, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Lawrence F Bielak, John Blangero, Ingrid B Borecki, Donald W Bowden, John Jeffrey Carr, Stefan A Czerwinski, Jingzhong Ding, Nele Friedrich, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew D Johnson, Sharon L R Kardia, Carl D Langefeld, Lars Lind, Yongmei Liu, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Jerome I Rotter, Alan R Shuldiner, Bradford Towne, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, James G Wilson, Matthew Allison, Cecilia M Lindgren, Wolfram Goessling, L Adrienne Cupples, Matthew L Steinhauser, Caroline S Fox
Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918308/cardiac-myofibroblast-engulfment-of-dead-cells-facilitates-recovery-after-myocardial-infarction
#12
Michio Nakaya, Kenji Watari, Mitsuru Tajima, Takeo Nakaya, Shoichi Matsuda, Hiroki Ohara, Hiroaki Nishihara, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Akiko Hashimoto, Mitsuho Nishida, Akiomi Nagasaka, Yuma Horii, Hiroki Ono, Gentaro Iribe, Ryuji Inoue, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue, Akira Tanaka, Masahiko Kuroda, Shigekazu Nagata, Hitoshi Kurose
Myocardial infarction (MI) results in the generation of dead cells in the infarcted area. These cells are swiftly removed by phagocytes to minimize inflammation and limit expansion of the damaged area. However, the types of cells and molecules responsible for the engulfment of dead cells in the infarcted area remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that cardiac myofibroblasts, which execute tissue fibrosis by producing extracellular matrix proteins, efficiently engulf dead cells. Furthermore, we identified a population of cardiac myofibroblasts that appears in the heart after MI in humans and mice...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918097/sugars-and-fat-a-healthy-way-to-generate-functional-regulatory-t-cells
#13
Sarah Sharon Gabriel, Axel Kallies
Cellular metabolism has emerged as an important regulator of adaptive immunity. While the metabolic requirements of conventional T cells are increasingly understood, the role of cellular metabolism in Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells is less clear. Although it is well accepted that repression of Akt/mTOR, HIF-1α and aerobic glycolysis are important for the efficient generation of Treg cells in vitro, clear evidence how these pathways impact on Treg-cell development in vivo is limited. Furthermore, newer studies have shown that the same pathways that appear to suppress Treg-cell development are active in and required for functionally mature Treg cells...
December 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917316/quantitative-analysis-of-rat-adipose-tissue-cell-recovery-and-non-fat-cell-volume-in-primary-cell-cultures
#14
Floriana Rotondo, María Del Mar Romero, Ana Cecilia Ho-Palma, Xavier Remesar, José Antonio Fernández-López, Marià Alemany
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915273/altered-mirna-expression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-prostate-cancer-progression
#15
Taketoshi Nara, Shintaro Narita, Huang Mingguo, Toshiaki Yoshioka, Atsushi Koizumi, Kazuyuki Numakura, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Atsushi Maeno, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Shigeru Satoh, Tomonori Habuchi
Recent evidence suggests that a high-fat diet (HFD) plays an important role in prostate carcinogenesis; however, underlying mechanisms largely remain unknown. Here, we investigated microRNA (miRNA) expression changes in murine prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts using two different diets: HFD and control diet. We then assessed the roles and targets of altered miRNAs in HFD-induced PCa progression. We identified 38 up- and 21 downregulated miRNAs in xenografts under HFD conditions using the miRCURY LNA™ microRNA array...
December 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914980/cloning-and-characterization-of-adipogenin-and-its-overexpression-enhances-fat-accumulation-of-bovine-myosatellite-cells
#16
Yang Liu, Bijie Jiang, Changzhen Fu, Ruijie Hao
Adipogenin (ADIG) is an adipocyte-specific membrane protein highly expressed in adipose tissues and is increased during the adipocyte differentiation. However, the roles and mechanisms of ADIG on fat accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in ex vivo still largely unknown. In this study, we isolated bovine myosatellite cells based on adhesion characteristics to investigate whether ADIG overexpression could promote trans-differentiation and increase fat accumulation in myosatellite cells. Immunofluorescence labeling was then used for the phenotypic characteristics of myosatellite...
November 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#17
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
November 30, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914812/protective-effects-of-gomisin-n-against-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-activation
#18
Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Ji Ha Kim, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a phytochemical derived from Schisandra chinensis. It has been reported to exert a protective effect against hepatic steatosis by attenuating endoplasmic recticulum (ER) stress. However, the detailed mechanism by which GN inhibits hepatic steatosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether GN activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts therapeutic effects on liver X receptor (LXR)- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, in vivo protective effects of GN against hepatic steatosis were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912745/ganoderma-lucidum-beta-1-3-1-6-glucan-as-an-immunomodulator-in-inflammation-induced-by-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#19
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shu-Ying Ho, Fan-Hua Nan, Shiu-Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912736/citrus-junos-tanaka-peel-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-and-in-mice-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#20
Eun Ju Shin, Jae Ho Park, Mi Jeong Sung, Min-Yu Chung, Jin-Taek Hwang
BACKGROUND: Citrus junos Tanaka (yuja), a yellow-coloured citrus fruit has traditionally been consumed in Korea, Japan, and China and has been found effective in preventing certain diseases. However, the inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation has not been clearly elucidated thus far. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation was investigated in both cell culture and mouse models. We investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of yuja peel (YE) using HepG2 cells...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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