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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353457/fasting-and-fast-food-diet-play-an-opposite-role-in-mice-brain-aging
#1
Paola Castrogiovanni, Giovanni Li Volti, Cristina Sanfilippo, Daniele Tibullo, Fabio Galvano, Michele Vecchio, Roberto Avola, Ignazio Barbagallo, Lucia Malaguarnera, Sergio Castorina, Giuseppe Musumeci, Rosa Imbesi, Michelino Di Rosa
Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways. We used the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in order to identify suitable microarray datasets comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting or HFD vs aged mouse brain transcriptome...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352865/antihyperlipidemic-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-polysaccharide-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-in-high-fat-emulsion-induced-hyperlipidaemic-mice
#2
Zhanwei Yang, Jin Wang, Jingen Li, Lei Xiong, Hui Chen, Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Kehui Ouyang, Wenjun Wang
The objective of this study was to analyse the structure of CPP-2, and to observe the pharmacological effects of CPP-2 on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. CPP-2, eluted as two main fractions comprised of two polysaccharides with Mw of 307 and 3.7kDa, was mainly consisted of rhamnose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.78:3.22:0.45. The results showed that treatment with CPP-2 could improve blood lipid levels (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C), liver lipid levels (TC and TG) and antioxidant status (SOD, T-AOC, GSH-PX, MDA and LPO)...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352520/ipragliflozin-improves-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-renal-tubules-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#3
Susumu Takagi, Jinpeng Li, Yuta Takagaki, Munehiro Kitada, Kyoko Nitta, Toshiyuki Takasu, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
OBJECTIVE: Complete mechanisms of reno-protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors have not been elucidated yet. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by membrane GTPases, such as Opa1 and Mfn2. Here, we investigated whether SGLT2 inhibition in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) improved mitochondrial morphology and restored mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were fed in control diet or HFD with or without ipragliflozin treatment...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352391/functional-recovery-by-application-of-human-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-on-cerebral-infarction-mice-model
#4
Tomoki Kakudo, Naotaka Kishimoto, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Yoshihiro Momota
Elderly people whose daily activities have declined due to a cerebrovascular disorder may suffer from dysphagia and may find oral hygiene difficult. Therefore, it is important to establish an effective therapy for the underlying cerebrovascular disorder. Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT) were obtained from mature adipocytes isolated from human buccal adipose pads in a ceiling culture. DFAT expressed the neural markers Nestin and SOX2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cells had properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells...
January 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#5
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351489/cooperative-function-of-pdx1-and-oc1-in-multipotent-pancreatic-progenitors-impacts-postnatal-islet-maturation-and-adaptability
#6
Peter A Kropp, Jennifer C Dunn, Bethany A Carboneau, Doris A Stoffers, Maureen Gannon
The transcription factors Pdx1 and Oc1 are co-expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors (MPCs), but their expression patterns diverge in hormone-expressing cells, with Oc1 expression being extinguished in the endocrine lineage and Pdx1 being maintained at high levels in β cells. We previously demonstrated that cooperative function of these two factors in MPCs is necessary for proper specification and differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells. In those studies, we observed a persistent decrease in expression of the β-cell maturity factor MafA...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351481/regulation-of-glucose-metabolism-in-non-diabetic-metabolically-obese-normal-weight-asians
#7
Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Amanda Chang, S Sasikala, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
Type 2 diabetes in Asia occurs largely in the absence of obesity. The metabolically-obese normal-weight (MONW) phenotype refers to lean subjects with metabolic dysfunction that is typically observed in people with obesity, and is associated with increased risk for diabetes. Previous studies evaluated MONW subjects who had greater BMI or total body fat than respective control groups, making interpretation of the results difficult. We evaluated insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), insulin secretion (mixed meal with oral minimal modeling), intra-abdominal, muscle, and liver fat contents (magnetic resonance), and fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in 18 MONW subjects and 18 metabolically-healthy controls matched for age (43{plus minus}3 and 40{plus minus}3 y; P=0...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351460/macrophage-dependent-impairment-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-autoreceptor-function-in-sympathetic-neurons-from-doca-salt-but-not-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertensive-rats
#8
Ryan Kwun-Yee Mui, Roxanne Fernandes, Hannah Garver, Nico van Rooijen, James J Galligan
DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal norepinephrine release in DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension occurs through impaired α2AR signaling, however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Mesenteric arteries are resistance arteries that receive sympathetic innervation from the superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMCG)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350783/malignant-mesothelioma-in-situ
#9
Andrew Churg, Harry Hwang, Lawrence Tan, Gefei Qing, Altaf Taher, Amy Tong, AnaMaria Bilawich, Sanja Dacic
The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphologic criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BAP1 and showed loss of CDKN2A ("p16″) by FISH...
January 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350562/enzymes-in-lipid-modification
#10
Uwe T Bornscheuer
This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350308/the-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-efatutazone-delays-invasive-progression-and-induces-differentiation-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#11
Virginie Ory, William B Kietzman, Jacob Boeckelman, Bhaskar V Kallakury, Anton Wellstein, Priscilla A Furth, Anna T Riegel
PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive lesion of the breast considered a precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. This study aimed to determine whether activated PPARγ acts as a tumor suppressor in human DCIS progression. METHODS: We utilized the high-affinity PPARγ agonist, efatutazone, to activate endogenous PPARγ in a well-defined model for the progression of basal (triple negative) DCIS, MCFDCIS cells, cultured under 2D and 3D conditions...
January 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350012/-application-of-debridement-and-bone-autografting-combined-with-proximal-femoral-anatomical-plates-for-benign-tumor-in-proximal-femur
#12
Ye Tian, Long-Gang Chen, Bin Shi, Nan Zhang, Qin Fu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical effects of debridement and bone autografting combined with proximal femoral anatomical plate in treating benign tumor in proximal femur. METHODS: From January 2010 to October 2014, 30 patients with benign tumor in proximal femur were treated with debridement, autogenic ilium, autogenic ilium and allogeneic bone implant, and anatomic plate fixation. Among them, there were 13 males and 17 females aged from 12 to 68 years old with an average of 42 years old...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350007/-the-metabolic-profilings-study-of-serum-and-spinal-cord-from-acute-spinal-cord-injury-rats-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#13
Hua-Hui Hu, Xiao-Long Huang, Ren-Fu Quan, Zong-Bao Yang, Jing-Jing Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the rat model of acute spinal cord injury, followed by aprimary study on this model with ¹H NMR based on metabonomics and to explore the metabonomics and biomarkers of spinal cord injury rat. METHODS: Twenty eight-week-old adult male SD rats of clean grade, with body weight of (200±10) g, were divided into sham operation group and model group in accordance with the law of random numbers, and every group had 10 rats. The rats of sham operation group were operated without damaging the spinal cord, and rats of model group were made an animal model of spinal cord incomplete injury according to the modified Allen's method...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349633/effects-of-tetradecylthioacetic-acid-tta-treatment-on-lipid-metabolism-in-salmon-hearts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#14
Regin Arge, Jens-Erik Dessen, Tone-Kari Østbye, Bente Ruyter, Magny S Thomassen, Kjell-Arne Rørvik
In intensive farming of Atlantic salmon, a large proportion of observed mortality is related to cardiovascular diseases and circulatory failure, indicating insufficient robustness and inadequate cardiac performance. This paper reports on the use of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) where the main objective was to enhance utilisation of fatty acids (FA), considered the main energy source of the heart. In this study, three experiments were conducted: (I) an in vivo study where salmon post-smolt were administrated dietary TTA in sea, (II) an in vitro study where isolated salmon heart cells were pre-stimulated with increasing doses of TTA and (III) an in vivo experiment where salmon post-smolt were subjected to injections with increasing doses of TTA...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349619/1h-15n-and-13c-chemical-shift-assignments-of-the-micelle-immersed-fat-c-terminal-fatc-domains-of-the-human-protein-kinases-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-atm-and-dna-dependent-protein-kinase-catalytic-subunit-dna-pkcs-fused-to-the-b1-domain-of-streptococcal
#15
Munirah S Abd Rahim, Lisa A M Sommer, Anja Wacker, Martin Schaad, Sonja A Dames
FAT C-terminal (FATC) is a circa 33 residue-long domain. It controls the kinase functionality in phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). Recent NMR- and CD-monitored interaction studies indicated that the FATC domains of all PIKKs can interact with membrane mimetics albeit with different preferences for membrane properties such as surface charge and curvature. Thus they may generally act as membrane anchoring unit. Here, we present the 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shift assignments of the DPC micelle immersed FATC domains of the human PIKKs ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM, residues 3024-3056) and DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs, residues 4096-4128), both fused to the 56 residue long B1 domain of Streptococcal protein G (GB1)...
January 18, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349576/prep1-deficiency-affects-olfactory-perception-and-feeding-behavior-by-impairing-bdnf-trkb-mediated-neurotrophic-signaling
#16
Serena Ricci, Davide Viggiano, Ilaria Cimmino, Giuseppe Perruolo, Serena Cabaro, Antonietta Liotti, Francesca Fiory, Rosa Spinelli, Angelina Di Carlo, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor which has an important role in hindbrain development. Prep1 expression is also kept in adult mouse brain and in particular within the olfactory bulbs. Moreover, many Prep1 neurons co-localize with Calbindin-positive periglomerular interneurons in olfactory glomerular layer. However, Prep1 function in this brain region is still unknown. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1 i/+ ) mice express low levels of protein and feature a 30% reduction of olfactory bulb area, compared to WT mice...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348564/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-under-serum-starvation-and-hypoxia-induces-adipocytic-transdifferentiation-in-human-leiomyoma-cells
#17
Hiroshi Harada, Yojiro Tsuda, Kei Yabuki, Eisuke Shiba, Kazuyoshi Uchihashi, Atsuji Matsuyama, Yoshihisa Fujino, Toru Hachisuga, Masanori Hisaoka
Fatty metamorphosis is an uncommon alteration in uterine leiomyoma (i.e., lipoleiomyoma), and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Because a conditional deletion of β-catenin, a major transducer of the canonical Wingless/integrated (WNT) pathway, in the developing mouse uterus can induce adipogenesis in the myometrium, it is hypothesized that inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin signaling may be also involved in the development of fat cells within uterine leiomyoma. In the current study, which was performed to address this point, intracytoplasmic lipid droplets were detectable in cultured human leiomyoma cells by treatment with a potent tankyrase inhibitor, XAV939, which antagonizes β-catenin, in a serum-starved culture medium without additional adipogenesis-inducing agents or supplements, and showed increasing accumulation in a time-dependent manner...
January 18, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#18
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348121/endothelial-cell-derived-von-willebrand-factor-but-not-platelet-derived-promotes-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#19
Prakash Doddapattar, Nirav Dhanesha, Mehul R Chorawala, Chandler Tinsman, Manish Jain, Manasa K Nayak, Janice M Staber, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: VWF (von Willebrand factor) is synthesized by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes and is known to contribute to atherosclerosis. In vitro studies suggest that platelet-derived VWF (Plt-VWF) is biochemically and functionally different from endothelial cell-derived VWF (EC-VWF). We determined the role of different pools of VWF in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using bone marrow transplantation, we generated chimeric Plt-VWF, EC-VWF, and Plt-VWF mice lacking a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 in platelets and plasma on apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) background...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348077/effects-of-cordyceps-sinensis-on-macrophage-function-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-and-its-anti-proliferative-effects-on-imr-32-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#20
Leandro Freire Dos Santos, Rosalia Rubel, Sandro Jose Ribeiro Bonatto, Adriana Aya Yamaguchi, Maria Fernanda Torres, Vanete Thomaz Soccol, Andre Luís Lopes da Silva, Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Macrophages have been considered an elusive yet emerging therapeutic target in tumor development since they are an important component in tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of C. sinensis on macrophage function (a component of tumor microenvironment which can alter the virulence of cancer) in high-fat diet fed rats. IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell cytotoxicity was also investigated. The following parameters were observed to evaluate macrophage function: superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, lysosomal volume and phagocytic capacity...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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